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1.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(1): e348-e360, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592846

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: A high prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in COVID-19 patients has been reported and hypothesized to increase COVID-19 severity likely because of its negative impact on immune and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, clear associations between hypovitaminosis D and fat body mass excess and diabetes, factors associated with COVID-19 severity, have been widely recognized. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in COVID-19 patients the relationship between VD levels and inflammatory response, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose (GLU), and disease severity. METHODS: Patients admitted to San Raffaele-Hospital for COVID-19 were enrolled in this study, excluding those with comorbidities and therapies influencing VD metabolism. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels, plasma GLU levels, BMI, and inflammatory parameters were evaluated at admission. RESULTS: A total of 88 patients were included. Median VD level was 16.3 ng/mL and VD deficiency was found in 68.2% of patients. VD deficiency was found more frequently in male patients and in those affected by severe COVID-19. Regression analyses showed a positive correlation between VD and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and negative correlations between VD and plasma GLU, BMI, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, and interleukin 6. Patients with both hypovitaminosis D and diabetes mellitus, as well those with hypovitaminosis D and overweight, were more frequently affected by a severe disease with worse inflammatory response and respiratory parameters, compared to those without or just one of these conditions. CONCLUSION: We showed, for the first-time, a strict association of VD levels with blood GLU and BMI in COVID-19 patients. VD deficiency might be a novel common pathophysiological mechanism involved in the detrimental effect of hyperglycemia and adiposity on disease severity.


Subject(s)
Adiposity/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
2.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(5): 394-402, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547558

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is spreading like wildfire with no specific recommended treatment in sight. While some risk factors such as the presence of comorbidities, old age, and ethnicity have been recognized, not a lot is known about who the virus will strike first or impact more. In this hopeless scenario, exploration of time-tested facts about viral infections, in general, seems to be a sound basis to prop further research upon. The fact that immunity and its various determinants (e.g., micronutrients, sleep, and hygiene) have a crucial role to play in the defense against invading organisms, may be a good starting point for commencing research into these as yet undisclosed territories. Herein, the excellent immunomodulatory, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory roles of Vitamin D necessitate thorough investigation, particularly in COVID-19 perspective. This article reviews mechanisms and evidence suggesting the role Vitamin D plays in people infected by the newly identified COVID-19 virus. For this review, we searched the databases of Medline, PubMed, and Embase. We studied several meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials evaluating the role of Vitamin D in influenza and other contagious viral infections. We also reviewed the circumstantial and anecdotal evidence connecting Vitamin D with COVID-19 emerging recently. Consequently, it seems logical to conclude that the immune-enhancing, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and lung-protective role of Vitamin D can be potentially lifesaving. Hence, Vitamin D deserves exhaustive exploration through rigorously designed and controlled scientific trials. Using Vitamin D as prophylaxis and/or chemotherapeutic treatment of COVID-19 infection is an approach worth considering. In this regard, mass assessment and subsequent supplementation can be tried, especially considering the mechanistic evidence in respiratory infections, low potential for toxicity, and widespread prevalence of the deficiency of Vitamin D affecting many people worldwide.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunity/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamins/adverse effects
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409707

ABSTRACT

Global data correlate severe vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, further suggesting the presence of a hypercoagulable state in severe COVID-19 patients, which could promote thrombosis in the lungs and in other organs. The feedback loop between COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and vitamin D also involves platelets (PLTs), since vitamin D deficiency stimulates PLT activation and aggregation and increases fibrinolysis and thrombosis. Vitamin D and PLTs share and play specific roles not only in coagulation and thrombosis but also during inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and immune response. Additionally, another 'fil rouge' between vitamin D and PLTs is represented by their role in mineral metabolism and bone health, since vitamin D deficiency, low PLT count, and altered PLT-related parameters are linked to abnormal bone remodeling in certain pathological conditions, such as osteoporosis (OP). Hence, it is possible to speculate that severe COVID-19 patients are characterized by the presence of several predisposing factors to bone fragility and OP that may be monitored to avoid potential complications. Here, we hypothesize different pervasive actions of vitamin D and PLT association in COVID-19, also allowing for potential preliminary information on bone health status during COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Osteoporosis/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D/metabolism , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Bone Remodeling/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Feedback, Physiological , Humans , Osteoporosis/blood , Platelet Activation/immunology , Platelet Count , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/blood , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
4.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2111-2116, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247160

ABSTRACT

This review describes the evidence for the potential benefit of vitamin D supplementation in people with respiratory diseases who may have a higher susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and its consequences. Clinical evidence indicates that vitamin D may reduce the risk of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections and offers benefit particularly in people with vitamin D deficiency. Some evidence exists for a higher incidence of active tuberculosis (TB) in patients who are deficient in vitamin D. An association between low levels of 25(OH)D (the active form of vitamin D) and COVID-19 severity of illness and mortality has also been reported. In addition, low 25(OH)D levels are associated with poor outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The cytokine storm experienced in severe COVID-19 infections results from excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Due to its immunomodulatory effects, adequate vitamin D levels may cause a decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokines during COVID-19 infections. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 82.2% of hospitalized COVID-19 cases and 47.2% of population-based controls (p < 0.0001). The available evidence warrants an evaluation of vitamin D supplementation in susceptible populations with respiratory diseases, such as TB, and particularly in those who are deficient in vitamin D. This may mitigate against serious complications of COVID-19 infections or reduce the impact of ARDS in those who have been infected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dietary Supplements , Tuberculosis/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disease Susceptibility/blood , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tuberculosis/blood , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231496

ABSTRACT

In addition to its canonical functions, vitamin D has been proposed to be an important mediator of the immune system. Despite ample sunshine, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent (>80%) in the Middle East, resulting in a high rate of supplementation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the specific regimen prescribed and the potential factors affecting an individual's response to vitamin D supplementation are not well characterized. Our objective is to describe the changes in the blood transcriptome and explore the potential mechanisms associated with vitamin D3 supplementation in one hundred vitamin D-deficient women who were given a weekly oral dose (50,000 IU) of vitamin D3 for three months. A high-throughput targeted PCR, composed of 264 genes representing the important blood transcriptomic fingerprints of health and disease states, was performed on pre and post-supplementation blood samples to profile the molecular response to vitamin D3. We identified 54 differentially expressed genes that were strongly modulated by vitamin D3 supplementation. Network analyses showed significant changes in the immune-related pathways such as TLR4/CD14 and IFN receptors, and catabolic processes related to NF-kB, which were subsequently confirmed by gene ontology enrichment analyses. We proposed a model for vitamin D3 response based on the expression changes of molecules involved in the receptor-mediated intra-cellular signaling pathways and the ensuing predicted effects on cytokine production. Overall, vitamin D3 has a strong effect on the immune system, G-coupled protein receptor signaling, and the ubiquitin system. We highlighted the major molecular changes and biological processes induced by vitamin D3, which will help to further investigate the effectiveness of vitamin D3 supplementation among individuals in the Middle East as well as other regions.


Subject(s)
Cholecalciferol/genetics , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Vitamin D/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/immunology , Dietary Supplements , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Nutrition Therapy , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/genetics , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/pathology , Young Adult
7.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 44(12): 2601-2607, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169067

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status within the last 6 months prior to COVID-19 infection and parameters of immune function and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Fifty-six patients, who were admitted to the emergency clinic and diagnosed with COVID-19 infection, were included in the study. Data on clinical characteristics, inflammatory parameters and vitamin D status were recorded for each patient. All the participants had data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D status within the last 6 months prior to COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: The patients were stratified as those with vitamin D status less than 20 ng/mL and higher than 20 ng/mL. A group with vitamin D status less than 20 ng/mL had lower lymphocyte counts and lower haemoglobin levels that was statistically significant (respectively; p = 0.021, p = 0.035). Higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were seen in the vitamin D-deficient group (p = 0.013). It was observed that vitamin D status of the patients who required oxygen therapy were lower than those who did not require oxygen therapy, not statistically significant (p = 0.05). Patients who did not use vitamin D supplementation within 6 months prior to COVID-19 infection had more likely to be diagnosed with pneumonia (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Cases with lower vitamin D status had increased inflammatory markers and worse clinical outcomes than patients with higher vitamin D status. This study suggests that vitamin D status can be used as a prognostic factor in COVID-19 patients, and vitamin D supplementation can be recommended to improve the clinical outcomes in COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Nutritional Status , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Dietary Supplements , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
8.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(12): 2191-2202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Covid-19 infection, leukopenia, inflammation, and elevated liver enzymes are found in most patients. Also, vitamin D deficiency attenuates the immune system and predisposes a person to being more susceptible to infection. In this context, we aimed to evaluate vitamin D, electrolytes, complete blood count, liver enzymes, urea, creatinine, albumin, CRP and ESR levels in patients with Covid-19. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 118 patients with Covid-19 who were hospitalized from 2020/2/19 to 2020/4/3 in ICU. Serum levels of electrolytes, liver enzymes, blood factors, urea, creatinine, CRP and ESR, as well as anthropometric parameters and serum vitamin D concentration, were measured. RESULTS: A total of 118 patients (80 male and 38 female) were enrolled in the study (65.05±15.75 years). Only 5.08% of patients had no risk factors and 55.9% had ≥ 2 risk factors. Diabetes (44.1%) and obesity (23.7%) were more common among patients. Laboratory findings showed that 80.50% of patients had hyponatremia, but other electrolytes including K, Mg, Ca and P were normal in the majority of participants as well as CBC, Cr, Urea, Alb, ALT and ALKP. The AST concentration increased in most patients (66.94%). All patients had high levels of inflammatory factors such as CRP and ESR. The mean of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels in participants (25.95 ± 14.56 ng/mL) was lower than its levels in the general population. However, it was not statistically significant (P= 0.88). A significant negative correlation was found between vitamin D and ALT (P= 0.02, -0.21) as well as vitamin D and CRP (P= 0.05, -0.17). CONCLUSION: Due to the regulatory role of vitamin D in the immune system and low levels of vitamin D in Covid-19 infected patients, the evaluation of vitamin D levels and prescribed supplements, if necessary, is suggested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrolytes/blood , Enzymes/blood , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(4): 2131-2145, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116634

ABSTRACT

The world is currently facing the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to a lack of specific treatment and prophylaxis, protective health measures that can reduce infection severity and COVID-19 mortality are urgently required. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency can be linked to an increased risk of viral infection, including COVID-19. Therefore, in this review, we looked at various possible roles of vitamin D in reducing the risk of COVID-19 infection and severity. We describe in this article that individuals at high risk of vitamin D deficiency should consider taking vitamin D supplements to keep optimal concentrations. Moreover, we discuss different possible mechanisms by which vitamin D can efficiently reduce the risk of infections through modulation of innate and adaptive immunity against various types of infections. It is advisable to perform further studies addressing the observed influence of vitamin D levels to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Bystander Effect , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
10.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 40(4): 327-332, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087590

ABSTRACT

Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the general population and diabetic patients, and supplementation with vitamin D is widely used to help lower oxidative stress and inflammation. The cytokine storm in SARS-CoV2 infection has been linked with both diabetes and Vitamin D deficiency. This study examined the hypothesis that supplementation with vitamin D, in combination with l-cysteine (LC), is better at reducing oxidative stress and thereby, more effective, at inhibiting the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in U937 monocytes exposed to high glucose concentrations. Methods: U937 monocytes were pretreated with 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (VD, 10 nM) or LC (250 µM) or VD + LC for 24 h and then exposed to control or high glucose (HG, 25 mM) for another 24 h. Results: There were significantly greater reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in monocytes treated with HG than those in controls. Combined supplementation with VD and LC showed a more significant reduction in ROS (46%) in comparison with treatment with LC (19%) or VD (26%) alone in monocytes exposed to HG. Similarly, VD supplementation, together with LC, caused a more significant inhibition in the secretion of IL-8 (36% versus 16%) and MCP-1 (46% versus 26%) in comparison with that of VD (10 nM) alone in high-glucose treated monocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that combined supplementation with vitamin D and LC has the potential to be more effective than either VD or LC alone in lowering the risk of oxidative stress and inflammation associated with type 2 diabetes or COVID-19 infection. Further, this combined vitamin D with LC/N-acetylcysteine may be a potent alternative therapy for SARS-CoV2 infected subjects. This approach can prevent cellular damage due to cytokine storm in comorbid systemic inflammatory conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cysteine/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glucose/administration & dosage , Humans , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/virology , U937 Cells , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(3): 756-761, 2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065506

ABSTRACT

AIMS: In the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple suggestions have been delivered through websites and social media referring to natural substances and various kinds of supplements with thaumaturgical properties in preventing and/or fighting the coronavirus infection. Indeed, there is no clinical trial evidence that a dietary or pharmacological supplementation of any particular substance will increase the effectiveness of the immune defences. There are however three nutritional issues that deserve special attention under the present circumstances, namely vitamin D deficiency, excess salt intake and inappropriate alcohol consumption. Here is a short review of the current knowledge about the possible role of these factors in the immunity defence system and their potential impact on the modulation of the immune response to SARS-COV2 infection. DATA SYNTHESIS: For all of these factors there is convincing evidence of an impact on the immune defence structure and function. In the absence of RCT demonstration that increased ingestion of any given substance may confer protection against the new enemy, special attention to correction of these three nutritional criticisms is certainly warranted at the time of COVID pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the inappropriate intake of salt and alcohol and the risk of inadequate vitamin D status should be object of screening, in particular in subjects at high mortality risk from SARS-COV 2 infection, such as institutionalised elderly subjects and all those affected by predisposing conditions.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Nutritional Status , Sodium, Dietary/adverse effects , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/methods , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immunity , Pandemics , Public Health , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage
12.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(4): 809-819, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037460

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D, a key nutrient/prohormone classically associated with skeletal health, is also an important immunomodulator, with pleotropic effects on innate and adaptive immune cells. Outcomes of several chronic, autoimmune, and infectious diseases are linked to vitamin D. Emergent correlations of vitamin D insufficiency with coronavirus-induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, alongside empirical and clinical evidence of immunoregulation by vitamin D in other pulmonary diseases, have prompted proposals of vitamin D supplementation to curb the COVID-19 public health toll. In this review paper, we engage an immunological lens to discuss potential mechanisms by which vitamin D signals might regulate respiratory disease severity in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infections, vis a vis other pulmonary infections. It is proposed that vitamin D signals temper lung inflammatory cascades during SARS-CoV2 infection, and insufficiency of vitamin D causes increased inflammatory cytokine storm, thus leading to exacerbated respiratory disease. Additionally, analogous to studies of reduced cancer incidence, the dosage of vitamin D compounds administered to patients near the upper limit of safety may serve to maximize immune health benefits and mitigate inflammation and disease severity in SARS-CoV2 infections. We further deliberate on the importance of statistically powered clinical correlative and interventional studies, and the need for in-depth basic research into vitamin D-dependent host determinants of respiratory disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
13.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(4): 875-886, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014691

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in-hospital mortality and need for invasive mechanical ventilation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective, observational, cohort study was conducted at 2 tertiary academic medical centers in Boston and New York. Eligible participants were hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between February 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020. Demographic and clinical characteristics, comorbidities, medications, and disease-related outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: The final analysis included 144 patients with confirmed COVID-19 (median age, 66 years; 64 [44.4%] male). Overall mortality was 18%, whereas patients with 25(OH)D levels of 30 ng/mL (to convert to nmol/L, multiply by 2.496) and higher had lower rates of mortality compared with those with 25(OH)D levels below 30 ng/mL (9.2% vs 25.3%; P=.02). In the adjusted multivariable analyses, 25(OH)D as a continuous variable was independently significantly associated with lower in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90 to 0.98; P=.007) and need for invasive mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93 to 0.99; P=.01). Similar data were obtained when 25(OH)D was studied as a continuous variable after logarithm transformation and as a dichotomous (<30 ng/mL vs ≥30 ng/mL) or ordinal variable (quintiles) in the multivariable analyses. CONCLUSION: Among patients admitted with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with in-hospital mortality and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Further observational studies are needed to confirm these findings, and randomized clinical trials must be conducted to assess the role of vitamin D administration in improving the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy
14.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(1): 92-100, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979792

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) continues to spread worldwide, it has become evident that the morbidity and mortality rates clearly vary across nations. Although several factors may account for this disparity, striking differences within and between populations indicate that ethnicity might impact COVID­19 clinical outcomes, reflecting the 'color of disease'. Therefore, the role of key biological variables that could interplay with viral spreading and severity indices has attracted increasing attention, particularly among non­Caucasian populations. Although the links between vitamin D status and the incidence and severity of COVID-19 remain elusive, several lines of emerging evidence suggest that vitamin D signaling, targeting several immune­mediated pathways, may offer potential benefits at different stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given that the vitamin D status is modulated by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including skin type (pigmentation), melanin polymers may also play a role in variable COVID­19 outcomes among diverse population settings. Moreover, apart from the well­known limiting effects of melanin on the endogenous production of vitamin D, the potential crosstalk between the pigmentary and immune system may also require special attention concerning the current pandemic. The present review article aimed to shed light on a range of mostly overlooked host factors, such as vitamin D status and melanin pigments, that may influence the course and outcome of COVID­19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Melanins/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Signal Transduction , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamins/blood
17.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-828212

ABSTRACT

The last couple of decades have seen an explosion in our interest and understanding of the role of vitamin D in the regulation of immunity. At the molecular level, the hormonal form of vitamin D signals through the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), a ligand-regulated transcription factor. The VDR and vitamin D metabolic enzymes are expressed throughout the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. The advent of genome-wide approaches to gene expression profiling have led to the identification of numerous VDR-regulated genes implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. The molecular data infer that vitamin D signaling should boost innate immunity against pathogens of bacterial or viral origin. Vitamin D signaling also suppresses inflammatory immune responses that underlie autoimmunity and regulate allergic responses. These findings have been bolstered by clinical studies linking vitamin D deficiency to increased rates of infections, autoimmunity, and allergies. Our goals here are to provide an overview of the molecular basis for immune system regulation and to survey the clinical data from pediatric populations, using randomized placebo-controlled trials and meta-analyses where possible, linking vitamin D deficiency to increased rates of infections, autoimmune conditions, and allergies, and addressing the impact of supplementation on these conditions.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Autoimmunity , Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/immunology , Dietary Supplements , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Factors , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/physiology , Age Factors , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/etiology , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Infant , Male , Receptors, Calcitriol/metabolism , Receptors, Calcitriol/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
18.
Exp Dermatol ; 29(9): 885-890, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707175

ABSTRACT

The negative outcomes of COVID-19 diseases respiratory distress (ARDS) and the damage to other organs are secondary to a "cytokine storm" and to the attendant oxidative stress. Active hydroxyl forms of vitamin D are anti-inflammatory, induce antioxidative responses, and stimulate innate immunity against infectious agents. These properties are shared by calcitriol and the CYP11A1-generated non-calcemic hydroxyderivatives. They inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, downregulate NF-κΒ, show inverse agonism on RORγ and counteract oxidative stress through the activation of NRF-2. Therefore, a direct delivery of hydroxyderivatives of vitamin D deserves consideration in the treatment of COVID-19 or ARDS of different aetiology. We also recommend treatment of COVID-19 patients with high-dose vitamin D since populations most vulnerable to this disease are likely vitamin D deficient and patients are already under supervision in the clinics. We hypothesize that different routes of delivery (oral and parenteral) will have different impact on the final outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/drug effects , Skin/immunology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Models, Biological , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
19.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 44(4): 765-771, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704709

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hypovitaminosis D is a highly spread condition correlated with increased risk of respiratory tract infections. Nowadays, the world is in the grip of the Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID 19) pandemic. In these patients, cytokine storm is associated with disease severity. In consideration of the role of vitamin D in the immune system, aim of this study was to analyse vitamin D levels in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and to assess any correlations with disease severity and prognosis. METHODS: In this retrospective, observational study, we analysed demographic, clinical and laboratory data of 42 patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19, treated in Respiratory Intermediate Care Unit (RICU) of the Policlinic of Bari from March, 11 to April 30, 2020. RESULTS: Eighty one percent of patients had hypovitaminosis D. Based on vitamin D levels, the population was stratified into four groups: no hypovitaminosis D, insufficiency, moderate deficiency, and severe deficiency. No differences regarding demographic and clinical characteristics were found. A survival analysis highlighted that, after 10 days of hospitalization, severe vitamin D deficiency patients had a 50% mortality probability, while those with vitamin D ≥ 10 ng/mL had a 5% mortality risk (p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was found in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure, treated in a RICU. Patients with severe vitamin D deficiency had a significantly higher mortality risk. Severe vitamin D deficiency may be a marker of poor prognosis in these patients, suggesting that adjunctive treatment might improve disease outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(15): 8187-8193, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696399

ABSTRACT

The ongoing worldwide pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), raised the urgency to address knowledge gaps and to establish evidence for improving management and control of this viral infection. Throughout a keen analysis of the World Health Organization (WHO) most updated data, a gender-specific difference in the occurrence of infection was determined, which seems to correlate with patient's vitamin D status. Therefore, our purpose is to provide insights into the nutritional importance of vitamin D for its immunomodulatory effect, in order to help counteracting the COVID-19 pandemic. Novel interesting findings suggest that vitamin D, by inducing progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF), might regulate the immune response and also modulate cytokine IL-6, which appears to be increased in COVID-19 infections. Therefore, in addition to the standard recommendations to prevent the infection, supplementation of vitamin D might be considered an approach to help counteracting this global epidemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pregnancy Proteins/immunology , Suppressor Factors, Immunologic/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Geography , Humans , Inflammation , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
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