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1.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(5): 394-402, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547558

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is spreading like wildfire with no specific recommended treatment in sight. While some risk factors such as the presence of comorbidities, old age, and ethnicity have been recognized, not a lot is known about who the virus will strike first or impact more. In this hopeless scenario, exploration of time-tested facts about viral infections, in general, seems to be a sound basis to prop further research upon. The fact that immunity and its various determinants (e.g., micronutrients, sleep, and hygiene) have a crucial role to play in the defense against invading organisms, may be a good starting point for commencing research into these as yet undisclosed territories. Herein, the excellent immunomodulatory, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory roles of Vitamin D necessitate thorough investigation, particularly in COVID-19 perspective. This article reviews mechanisms and evidence suggesting the role Vitamin D plays in people infected by the newly identified COVID-19 virus. For this review, we searched the databases of Medline, PubMed, and Embase. We studied several meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials evaluating the role of Vitamin D in influenza and other contagious viral infections. We also reviewed the circumstantial and anecdotal evidence connecting Vitamin D with COVID-19 emerging recently. Consequently, it seems logical to conclude that the immune-enhancing, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and lung-protective role of Vitamin D can be potentially lifesaving. Hence, Vitamin D deserves exhaustive exploration through rigorously designed and controlled scientific trials. Using Vitamin D as prophylaxis and/or chemotherapeutic treatment of COVID-19 infection is an approach worth considering. In this regard, mass assessment and subsequent supplementation can be tried, especially considering the mechanistic evidence in respiratory infections, low potential for toxicity, and widespread prevalence of the deficiency of Vitamin D affecting many people worldwide.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunity/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamins/adverse effects
2.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 214: 105965, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454329

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency is a negative endocrine renin-angiotensin system (RAS) modulator and PCOS women are often vitamin D deficient, leading to RAS overactivation in PCOS. A cross-sectional study was performed in 99 PCOS and 68 control women who presented sequentially. Circulating plasma levels of RAS proteins (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), renin and angiotensinogen) were measured by Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer (SOMA)-scan and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured by tandem mass spectroscopy. The RAS system was found to be overactivated in the PCOS women compared to non-PCOS control women with increased renin and decreased angiotensinogen (p < 0.05); 25-hydroxyvitamin D was also significantly lower in the PCOS group (p < 0.0001). In PCOS women, plasma renin was increased in vitamin D deficient and insufficient groups compared with the vitamin D sufficient group (p < 0.005), but did not differ across non-PCOS control subgroups. In non-PCOS controls, plasma ACE2 decreased from vitamin D insufficiency to deficiency (p < 0.05). Angiotensinogen was not different across the vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency and deficiency strata for either PCOS or non-PCOS controls. These data show that RAS activation through increased plasma renin levels was seen in vitamin D insufficient and deficient PCOS subjects compared to non-PCOS control women. In addition, decreased plasma ACE2 levels were seen in vitamin D deficiency in non-PCOS controls, which may predispose these vitamin D deficient subjects to increased cardiovascular risk and susceptibility to infectious agents such as COVID-19 where this is a risk factor.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Angiotensinogen/blood , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/blood , Renin/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Adult , Blood Pressure , Female , Humans , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamins/blood , Young Adult
3.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 30(4): 387-396, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297432

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the emerging studies analyzing the association between vitamin D and risk of COVID-19 infection and severity, as well as the early interventional studies investigating the protective effect of vitamin D supplementation against COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies investigating the association between vitamin D levels and risk of COVID-19 infection and risk of severe disease and mortality among those infected have yielded mixed results. Thus far, the majority of studies investigating the association between vitamin D and COVID-19 have been observational and rely on vitamin D levels obtained at the time of admission, limiting causal inference. Currently, clinical trials assessing the effects of vitamin D supplementation in individuals with COVID-19 infection are extremely limited. Randomized, interventional trials may offer more clarity on the protective effects of vitamin D against COVID-19 infection and outcomes. SUMMARY: Decreased levels of vitamin D may amplify the inflammatory effects of COVID-19 infection, yet, data regarding the mortality benefits of vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19-infected individuals are still limited. Current observational data provides the impetus for future studies to including randomized controlled trials to determine whether vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19-infected individuals with kidney disease can improve mortality outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Kidney/physiopathology , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
4.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1017-1031, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286160

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) is the culprit of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), which has infected approximately 173 million people and killed more than 3.73 million. At risk groups including diabetic and obese patients are more vulnerable to COVID-19-related complications and poor outcomes. Substantial evidence points to hypovitaminosis D as a risk factor for severe disease, the need for ICU, and mortality. 1,25(OH)D, a key regulator of calcium homeostasis, is believed to have various immune-regulatory roles including; promoting anti-inflammatory cytokines, down regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, dampening entry and replication of SARS-COV-2, and the production of antimicrobial peptides. In addition, there are strong connections which suggest that dysregulated 1,25(OH)D levels play a mechanistic and pathophysiologic role in several disease processes that are shared with COVID-19 including: diabetes, obesity, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), cytokine storm, and even hypercoagulable states. With evidence continuing to grow for the case that low vitamin D status is a risk factor for COVID-19 disease and poor outcomes, there is a need now to address the public health efforts set in place to minimize infection, such as lock down orders, which may have inadvertently increased hypovitaminosis D in the general population and those already at risk (elderly, obese, and disabled). Moreover, there is a need to address the implications of this evidence and how we may apply the use of cheaply available supplementation, which has yet to overcome the near global concern of hypovitaminosis D. In our review, we exhaustively scope these shared pathophysiologic connections between COVID-19 and hypovitaminosis D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Thrombophilia/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/metabolism , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology
5.
Metabolism ; 119: 154753, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease severity and mortality rates due to COVID-19 infection are greater in the elderly and chronically ill patients, populations at high risk for vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D plays an important role in immune function and inflammation. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the impact of vitamin D status and supplementation on COVID-19 related mortality and health outcomes. METHODS: We searched four databases until December 18th 2020, and trial registries until January 20th 2021. Two reviewers screened the studies, collected data, assessed the risk of bias, and graded the evidence for each outcome across studies, independently and in duplicate. Pre-specified outcomes of interest were mortality, ICU admission, invasive and non-invasive ventilation, hospitalization, time of hospital stay, disease severity and SARS-CoV-2 positivity. We only included data from peer-reviewed articles in our primary analyses. RESULTS: We identified 31 peer-reviewed observational studies. In our primary analysis, there was a positive trend between serum 25(OH)D level <20 ng/ml and an increased risk of mortality, ICU admission, invasive ventilation, non-invasive ventilation or SARS-CoV-2 positivity. However, these associations were not statistically significant. Mean 25(OH)D levels was 5.9 ng/ml (95% CI [-9.5, -2.3]) significantly lower in COVID-19 positive, compared to negative patients. The certainty of the evidence was very low. We identified 32 clinical trial protocols, but only three have published results to-date. The trials administer vitamin D doses of 357 to 60,000 IU/day, from one week to 12 months. Eight megatrials investigate the efficacy of vitamin D in outpatient populations. A pilot trial revealed a significant decrease in ICU admission with calcifediol, compared to placebo (OR = 0.003), but the certainty of the evidence was unclear. Another small trial showed that supplementation with cholecalciferol, 60,000 IU/day, decreased fibrinogen levels, but did not have an effect on D-dimer, procalcitonin and CRP levels, compared to placebo. The third trial did not find any effect of vitamin D supplementation on COVID-19 related health outcomes. CONCLUSION: While the available evidence to-date, from largely poor-quality observational studies, may be viewed as showing a trend for an association between low serum 25(OH)D levels and COVID-19 related health outcomes, this relationship was not found to be statistically significant. Calcifediol supplementation may have a protective effect on COVID-19 related ICU admissions. The current use of high doses of vitamin D in COVID-19 patients is not based on solid evidence. It awaits results from ongoing trials to determine the efficacy, desirable doses, and safety, of vitamin D supplementation to prevent and treat COVID-19 related health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/physiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Nutritional Status , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
6.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 46(2): 152-161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a hormone regulating not only calcium and phosphate homeostasis but also, at the same time, exerting many other extraskeletal functions via genomic effects (gene transcription) and probably by non-genomic effects as well. Availability is ensured by dietary intake of its precursors and by de novo production via sunlight. Yet, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are very common across the globe and are connected to many pathophysiological states, for example, diabetes mellitus, allergies, autoimmune diseases, pregnancy complications, and recently have also been associated with worse COVID-19 clinical outcomes. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize current knowledge about vitamin D metabolism in general, its role in diabetes mellitus (mainly type 2) and diabetic complications (mainly diabetic kidney disease), and potential therapeutic perspectives including vitamin D signalling as a druggable target. Key Messages: Vitamin D is not only a vitamin but also a hormone involved in many physiological processes. Its insufficiency or deficiency can lead to many pathological states.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/metabolism , Vitamin D/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/physiopathology , Humans , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamins/metabolism , Vitamins/therapeutic use
7.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100144

ABSTRACT

Background and aim: Vitamin D deficiency is frequently reported in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study was to correlate the 25OH-Vitamin D serum concentrations with clinical parameters of lung involvement, in elderly patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Sixty-five consecutive COVID-19 patients (mean age 76 ± 13 years) and sixty-five sex- and age-matched control subjects (CNT) were analyzed. The following clinical parameters, including comorbidities, were collected at admission: type of pulmonary involvement, respiratory parameters (PaO2, SO2, PaCO2, PaO2/FiO2), laboratory parameters (including 25OH-vitamin D, D-dimer, C-reactive protein). Results: Significantly lower vitamin D serum levels were found in COVID-19 patients than in CNT (median 7.9 vs 16.3 ng/mL, p = 0.001). Interestingly, a statistically significant positive correlation was observed between vitamin D serum levels and PaO2 (p = 0.03), SO2 (p = 0.05), PaO2/FiO2 (p = 0.02), while a statistically significant negative correlation was found between vitamin D serum levels and D-dimer (p = 0.04), C-reactive protein (p = 0.04) and percentage of O2 in a venturi mask (p = 0.04). A negative correlation was also observed between vitamin D serum levels and severity of radiologic pulmonary involvement, evaluated by computed tomography: in particular, vitamin D was found significantly lower in COVID-19 patients with either multiple lung consolidations (p = 0.0001) or diffuse/severe interstitial lung involvement than in those with mild involvement (p = 0.05). Finally, significantly lower vitamin D serum levels were found in the elderly COVID-19 patients who died during hospitalization, compared to those who survived (median 3.0 vs 8.4 ng/mL, p = 0.046). Conclusions: This study confirms that 25OH-vitamin D serum deficiency is associated with more severe lung involvement, longer disease duration and risk of death, in elderly COVID-19 patients. The detection of low vitamin D levels also in younger COVID-19 patients with less comorbidities further suggests vitamin D deficiency as crucial risk factor at any age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnostic imaging , Vitamin D Deficiency/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology
8.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(4): 809-819, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037460

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D, a key nutrient/prohormone classically associated with skeletal health, is also an important immunomodulator, with pleotropic effects on innate and adaptive immune cells. Outcomes of several chronic, autoimmune, and infectious diseases are linked to vitamin D. Emergent correlations of vitamin D insufficiency with coronavirus-induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, alongside empirical and clinical evidence of immunoregulation by vitamin D in other pulmonary diseases, have prompted proposals of vitamin D supplementation to curb the COVID-19 public health toll. In this review paper, we engage an immunological lens to discuss potential mechanisms by which vitamin D signals might regulate respiratory disease severity in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infections, vis a vis other pulmonary infections. It is proposed that vitamin D signals temper lung inflammatory cascades during SARS-CoV2 infection, and insufficiency of vitamin D causes increased inflammatory cytokine storm, thus leading to exacerbated respiratory disease. Additionally, analogous to studies of reduced cancer incidence, the dosage of vitamin D compounds administered to patients near the upper limit of safety may serve to maximize immune health benefits and mitigate inflammation and disease severity in SARS-CoV2 infections. We further deliberate on the importance of statistically powered clinical correlative and interventional studies, and the need for in-depth basic research into vitamin D-dependent host determinants of respiratory disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
9.
Am J Hum Biol ; 32(5): e23397, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995842

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Due to increasing problems with obesity and vitamin D deficiency among children, studies that tackle both problems together are needed. METHODS: Data were collected from 182 randomly selected children aged 6-13 years in primary schools in central Poland. Measures included anthropometric dimensions, body composition, questionnaires completed by participants' parents, and saliva samples. The level of 25(OH)D was assessed from the saliva samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The children were divided into two groups: pre-pubertal (girls below 10 years and boys below 11 years) and pubertal individuals (girls above 10 years and boys above 11 years). RESULTS: The 25(OH)D concentrations were higher in late spring (June) among pre-pubertal children than in the autumn (November-December) among pubertal children. The level of 25(OH)D was positively correlated with body cell mass (BCM,%) among all children (pubertal: R = 0.20, P = .044; pre-pubertal: R = 0.23, P = .041) and inversely associated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among pubertal children of both sexes (R = -0.25; P = .031). The stepwise regression analysis revealed that investigation in spring (June) and breastfeeding was associated with increased muscle mass (MM, %) (beta = 0.253, P = .003 and beta = 0.225, P = .005, respectively) and total body water (TBW, %) (beta = 0.276, P = .004 and beta = 0.246, P = .011, respectively) and was associated with decreased body mass index (BMI; beta = -0.222, P = .024 and beta = -0.269, P = .009, respectively) and fat mass (%) (beta = -0.288, P = .003 and beta = -0.266, P = .005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Season of salivary sampling and breastfeeding status were more strongly associated with body components, BMI and WHR, than 25(OH)D concentrations.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Poland , Saliva/chemistry , Vitamin D/metabolism
10.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(3): 339-344, 2020 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-875134

ABSTRACT

There is emerging evidence to suggest that vitamin D deficiency is associated with adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Conversely, vitamin D supplementation protects against an initial alveolar diffuse damage of COVID-19 becoming progressively worse. The mechanisms by which vitamin D deficiency exacerbates COVID-19 pneumonia remain poorly understood. In this review we describe the rationale of the putative role of endothelial dysfunction in this event. Herein, we will briefly review (1) anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects of vitamin D, (2) vitamin D receptor and vitamin D receptor ligand, (3) protective role of vitamin D against endothelial dysfunction, (4) risk of vitamin D deficiency, (5) vitamin D deficiency in association with endothelial dysfunction, (6) the characteristics of vitamin D relevant to COVID-19, (7) the role of vitamin D on innate and adaptive response, (8) biomarkers of endothelial cell activation contributing to cytokine storm, and (9) the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and homeostasis. Finally, we hypothesize that endothelial dysfunction relevant to vitamin D deficiency results from decreased binding of the vitamin D receptor with its ligand on the vascular endothelium and that it may be immune-mediated via increased interferon 1 α. A possible sequence of events may be described as (1) angiotensin II converting enzyme-related initial endothelial injury followed by vitamin D receptor-related endothelial dysfunction, (2) endothelial lesions deteriorating to endothelialitis, coagulopathy and thrombosis, and (3) vascular damage exacerbating pulmonary pathology and making patients with vitamin D deficiency vulnerable to death.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Vasodilation/physiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 1033-1035, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Data show that vitamin D deficiency may play a role in patients with diabetes mellitus and COVID-19 infection. In this article, we review evidence of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 infection in context of diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A literature search was carried out by using the key term 'COVID 19' combined with 'Diabetes', 'Vitamin D', 'Extra skeletal effects', 'immunity', 'infection', 'India' from Pub Med (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD and Google Scholar from December 2019 to May 2020. A manual search of the references was also carried out. RESULTS: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased morbidity and mortality in COVID -19 infections but convincing data on diabetic subgroup of patients in particular is still awaited. CONCLUSION: Robust studies are required to ascertain if Vitamin D supplementation could be beneficial in patients with diabetes and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(4): 597-600, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-280479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The outbreak of the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causes a respiratory disease and individuals with pre-existing cardiometabolic disorders display worse prognosis through the infection course. The aim of this minireview is to present epidemiological data related to metabolic comorbidities in association with the SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This is a narrative mini-review with Pubmed search until April 23, 2020 using the keywords COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, treatment of coronavirus and following terms: diabetes mellitus, obesity, arterial hypertension, ACE-inhibitors, cytokine storm, immune response and vitamin D. RESULTS: Studies indicate that obese individuals are more likely to develop infections, and that adipose tissue serves as a pathogen reservoir. In diabetic individuals higher rate of inflammatory processes is seen due to constant glucose recognition by C type lectin receptors. Hypertensive individuals, usually grouped with other conditions, are treated with drugs to reduce blood pressure mostly through ACEi and ARB, that leads to increased ACE2 expression, used by SARS-CoV-2 for human's cell entry. Until now, the studies have shown that individuals with those conditions and affected by COVID-19 present an uncontrolled release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an unbalanced immune response, leading to the cytokine storm phenomenon. Vitamin D is highlighted as a potential therapeutic target, because in addition to acting on the immune system, it plays an important role in the control of cardiometabolic diseases. CONCLUSION: Currently, since there is no proven and effective antiviral therapy for SARS-CoV-2, the efforts should focus on controlling inflammatory response and reduce the risks of associated complications.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Hypertension/immunology , Obesity/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology
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