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2.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 213: 105964, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the vitamin D status of pregnant women with COVID-19, and the association between vitamin D level and severity of COVID-19. METHODS: In this case control study, 159 women with a single pregnancy and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and randomly selected 332 healthy pregnant women with similar gestational ages were included. COVID-19 patients were classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol <20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L), and 25-OH D vitamin <10 ng/mL was defined as severe vitamin D deficiency, also 25-OH D vitamin level between 20-29 ng/mL (525-725 nmol/L) was defined as vitamin D insufficiency. RESULTS: Vitamin D levels of the pregnant women in the COVID-19 group (12.46) were lower than the control group (18.76). 25-OH D vitamin levels of those in the mild COVID-19 category (13.69) were significantly higher than those in the moderate/severe category (9.06). In terms of taking vitamin D supplementation, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. However, it was observed that all of those who had severe COVID-19 were the patients who did not take vitamin D supplementation. CONCLUSION: The vitamin D levels are low in pregnant women with COVID-19. Also, there is a significant difference regarding to vitamin D level and COVID-19 severity in pregnant women. Maintenance of adequate vitamin D level can be useful as an approach for the prevention of an aggressive course of the inflammation induced by this novel coronavirus in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diet therapy , Dietary Supplements , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calcifediol/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/pathology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
3.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374479

ABSTRACT

We evaluated associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and severity of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in hospitalized patients. We assessed serum 25(OH)D level in 133 patients aged 21-93 years. Twenty-five (19%) patients had severe disease, 108 patients (81%) had moderate disease, and 18 (14%) patients died. 25(OH)D level ranged from 3.0 to 97.0 ng/mL (median, 13.5 [25%; 75%, 9.6; 23.3] ng/mL). Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in 90 patients, including 37 with severe deficiency. In patients with severe course of disease, 25(OH)D level was lower (median, 9.7 [25%; 75%, 6.0; 14.9] ng/mL), and vitamin D deficiency was more common than in patients with moderate course (median, 14.6 [25%; 75%, 10.6; 24.4] ng/mL, p = 0.003). In patients who died, 25(OH)D was 9.6 [25%; 75%, 6.0; 11.5] ng/mL, compared with 14.8 [25%; 75%, 10.1; 24.3] ng/mL in discharged patients (p = 0.001). Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome. The threshold for 25(OH)D level associated with increased risk of severe course was 11.7 ng/mL. Approximately the same 25(OH)D level, 10.9 ng/mL, was associated with increased risk of mortality. Thus, most COVID-19 patients have vitamin D deficiency; severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/mortality , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
4.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 213: 105958, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this extension phase of the quasi-experimental GERIA-COVID study was to determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation taken prior to or during COVID-19 was associated with better 3-month survival in geriatric patients hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: Intervention group was defined as all participants supplemented with vitamin D3 prior to or during COVID-19 (n = 67). Supplements were either bolus vitamin D3 (ie, 50,000 IU per month, or 80,000 IU or 100,000 IU or 200,000 IU every 2-3 months), or daily supplementation with 800 IU. Comparator group involved those without vitamin D supplements (n = 28). Outcome was 3-month mortality. Covariables were age, sex, functional abilities, history of malignancies, cardiomyopathy, undernutrition, number of acute health issues, antibiotics use, systemic corticosteroids use, and 25(OH)D concentration. RESULTS: 76.1 % (n = 51) of participants survived at 3 months in Intervention group, compared to only 53.6 % (n = 15) in Comparator group (P = 0.03). The fully-adjusted hazard ratio for 3-month mortality was HR = 0.23 [95 %CI: 0.09;0.58](P = 0.002) in Intervention group compared to Comparator group. Intervention group had also longer survival time (log-rank P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D3 supplementation was associated with better 3-month survival in older COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , Cardiomyopathies/diet therapy , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Malnutrition/diet therapy , Neoplasms/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiomyopathies/blood , Cardiomyopathies/mortality , Cardiomyopathies/virology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Health Services for the Aged , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/blood , Malnutrition/mortality , Malnutrition/virology , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/virology , Proportional Hazards Models , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients, low serum vitamin D (VD) levels have been associated with severe acute respiratory failure and poor prognosis. In regular hemodialysis (HD) patients, there is VD deficiency and markedly reduced calcitriol levels, which may predispose them to worse outcomes of COVID-19 infection. Some hemodialysis patients receive treatment with drugs for secondary hyperparathyroidism, which have well known pleiotropic effects beyond mineral metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of VD status and the administration of active vitamin D medications, used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism, on survival in a cohort of COVID-19 positive HD patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective observational study was conducted from 12 March to 21 May 2020 in 288 HD patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV2. Patients were from 52 different centers in Spain. RESULTS: The percent of HD patients with COVID-19 was 6.1% (288 out of 4743). Mortality rate was 28.4% (81/285). Three patients were lost to follow-up. Serum 25(OH)D (calcidiol) level was 17.1 [10.6-27.5] ng/mL and was not significantly associated to mortality (OR 0.99 (0.97-1.01), p = 0.4). Patients receiving active vitamin D medications (16/94 (17%) vs. 65/191(34%), p = 0.003), including calcimimetics (4/49 (8.2%) vs. 77/236 (32.6%), p = 0.001), paricalcitol or calcimimetics (19/117 (16.2%) vs. 62/168 (36.9%); p < 0.001), and also those on both paricalcitol and calcimimetics, to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPTH) (1/26 (3.8%) vs. 80/259 (30.9%), p < 0.001) showed a lower mortality rate than patients receiving no treatment with either drug. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed this increased survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the use of paricalcitol, calcimimetics or the combination of both, seem to be associated with the improvement of survival in HD patients with COVID-19. No correlation was found between serum VD levels and prognosis or outcomes in HD patients with COVID-19. Prospective studies and clinical trials are needed to support these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Calcitriol/administration & dosage , Ergocalciferols/administration & dosage , Renal Dialysis/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Calcifediol/blood , Calcium/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/blood , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/drug therapy , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
6.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 212: 105928, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Currently, there are no definitive data on the relationship between low levels of vitamin D in the blood and a more severe disease course, in terms of the need for hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and mortality, in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to study the association between levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and adverse clinical outcomes linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We further aimed to observe the incidence of low, below-average, and normal levels of 25(OH)D in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 12, 2020, and May 20, 2020, and assess whether these values differed between these patients and a normal population. Finally, we determined whether the need for transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) and the mortality rate were related to low levels of 25(OH)D. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Quironsalud Hospitals in Madrid, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed 1549 patients (mean age, 70 years; range, 21-104 years); 835 were male (53.9 %; mean age, 73.02 years), and 714 were female (46.1 %; mean age, 68.05 years). Subsequently, infected patients admitted to the ICU (n = 112) and those with a fatal outcome (n = 324) were analyzed. PROCEDURES: Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by electrochemiluminescence. RESULTS: More hospitalized patients (66 %, n = 1017) had low baseline levels of 25(OH)D (<20 ng/mL) than normal individuals (45 %) (p < 0.001). An analysis by age group revealed that COVID-19 patients between the ages of 20 and 80 years old had significantly lower vitamin D levels than those of the normal population (p < 0.001). Patients admitted to the ICU tended to have lower levels of 25(OH)D than other inpatients (p < 0.001); if we stratified patients by 25(OH)D levels, we observed that the rate of ICU admission was higher among patients with vitamin D deficiency (p < 0.001), indicating that higher vitamin D levels are associated with a lower risk of ICU admission due to COVID-19. ICU admission was related to sex (higher rates in men, p < 0.001) and age (p < 0.001). When using a logistic regression model, we found that vitamin D levels continued to show a statistically significant relationship with ICU admission rates, even when adjusting for sex and age. Therefore, the relationship found between vitamin D levels and the risk of ICU admission was independent of patient age and sex in both groups. Deceased patients (n = 324 tended to have lower levels of 25 (OH)D that normal population of the same age (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency in patients with COVID-19 is correlated with an increased risk of hospital admission and the need for critical care. We found no clear relationship between vitamin D levels and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology , Young Adult
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2359-2364, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The outbreak of COVID-19 has created a global public health crisis. Little is known about the predisposing factors of this infection. The aim of this study was to explore an association between the serum vitamin D level, obesity, and underlying health conditions, as well as the vulnerability to COVID-19 in the Iranian population. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 201 patients with coronavirus infection and 201 controls. Cases and controls were matched for age and gender. The study was carried out for 2 months (February 2020-April 2020) at Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran, Iran. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Information containing age, gender, clinical symptoms, body mass index, computed tomography scan findings, and underlying health conditions related to each participant were elicited from health records. RESULTS: A significant negative correlation (p = .02) was observed between the serum vitamin D level and developing coronavirus infection. Also, the results showed that the COVID-19 cases were more likely to be overweight than the controls (p = .023). Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and respiratory infections were found in 20.89%, 9.65%, and 6.96% of cases, respectively. These underlying health conditions were not significantly different between cases and controls (p = .81). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are two main predisposing factors associated with the vulnerability to coronavirus infection in the Iranian population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Obesity/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 733-740, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As an immune modulator, vitamin D has been implicated in the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outcome. We aim to systematically explore the association of vitamin D serum levels with COVID-19 severity and prognosis. METHODS: The standardized mean difference (SMD) or odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to estimate pooled results from six studies. The prognostic performance of vitamin D serum levels for predicting adverse outcomes with detection of the best cutoff threshold was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Decision tree analysis by combining vitamin D levels and clinical features was applied to predict severity in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Mean vitamin D serum level of 376 patients, was 21.9 nmol/L (95% CI = 15.36-28.45). Significant heterogeneity was found (I2 = 99.1%, p < .001). Patients with poor prognosis (N = 150) had significantly lower serum levels of vitamin D compared with those with good prognosis (N = 161), representing an adjusted standardized mean difference of -0.58 (95% Cl = -0.83 to -0.34, p < .001). CONCLUSION: Serum vitamin D levels could be implicated in the COVID-19 prognosis. Diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency could be a helpful adjunct in assessing patients' potential of developing severe COVID-19. Appropriate preventative and/or therapeutic intervention may improve COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D/blood , Age Factors , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
9.
Nutrition ; 84: 111106, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionally affected a variety of patients with underlying risk factors such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and black race. Vitamin D deficiency, which can result in a compromised immune response, has been also linked to increased risk and increased morbidities associated with COVID-19. In the absence of large-scale longitudinal studies to determine the strength of association between vitamin deficiency and COVID-19, cross-sectional studies of large patient cohorts can be used. METHODS: We used the i2b2 patient's registry platform at the University of Florida Health Center to generate a count of patients using the international classification of diseases (ICD)-10 diagnosis codes for the period of October 1, 2015, through June 30, 2020. Logistic regression of the aggregates was used for the analysis. RESULTS: Patients with vitamin D deficiency were 4.6 times more likely to be positive for COVID-19 (indicated by the ICD-10 diagnostic code COVID19) than patients with no deficiency (P < 0.001). The association decreased slightly after adjusting for sex (odds ratio [OR] = 4.58; P < 0.001) and malabsorption (OR = 4.46; P < 0.001), respectively. The association decreased significantly but remained robust (P < 0.001) after adjusting for race (OR = 3.76; P < 0.001), periodontal disease status (OR = 3.64; P < 0.001), diabetes (OR = 3.28; P < 0.001), and obesity (OR = 2.27; P < 0.001), respectively. In addition, patients with vitamin D deficiency were 5 times more likely to be infected with COVID-19 than patients with no deficiency after adjusting for age groups (OR = 5.155; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with increased risk for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Registries , Risk Factors , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Young Adult
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 624559, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145597

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a respiratory and systemic disorder caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or novel Coronavirus (nCoV). To date, there is no proven curative treatment for this virus; as a result, prevention remains to be the best strategy to combat coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been proposed to play a role in coronavirus infection (COVID-19). However, there is no conclusive evidence on its impact on COVID-19 infection. Therefore, the present review aimed to summarize the available evidence regarding the association between Vitamin D levels and the risk of COVID-19 infection. Methods: A systematic literature search of databases (PUBMED/MEDLINE, Cochrane/Wiley library, Scopus, and SciELO) were conducted from May 15, 2020, to December 20, 2020. Studies that assessed the effect of vitamin D level on COVID-19/SARS-2 infection were considered for the review. The qualities of the included studies were evaluated using the JBI tools. Meta-analysis with a random-effects model was conducted and odds ratio with their 95%CI were reported. This systematic review and meta-analysis are reported according to the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guideline. Results: The electronic and supplementary searches for this review yielded 318 records from which, only 14 of them met the inclusion criteria. The qualitative synthesis indicated that vitamin D deficient individuals were at higher risk of COVID-19 infection as compared to vitamin D sufficient patients. The pooled analysis showed that individuals with Vitamin-D deficiency were 80% more likely to acquire COVID-19 infection as compared to those who have sufficient Vitamin D levels (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.72, 1.88). Begg's test also revealed that there was no significant publication bias between the studies (P = 0.764). The subgroup analysis revealed that the risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection was relatively higher in the case-control study design (OR = 1.81). Conclusions: In conclusion, low serum 25 (OH) Vitamin-D level was significantly associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 infection. The limited currently available data suggest that sufficient Vitamin D level in serum is associated with a significantly decreased risk of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology , Humans , Neuroprotection/drug effects , Risk Factors , Vitamin D Deficiency/metabolism
12.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(6): 2421-2427, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092035

ABSTRACT

Aggressive inflammatory response leading to hypercoagulability has been found to be associated with disease severity in COVID-19 patients and portends bad treatment outcome. A state of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), along with pulmonary embolism and/or deep vein thrombosis, has been observed in critically ill ICU patients. Autopsy reports of COVID-19 patients demonstrated microthrombi in lungs and in other organs, as well as marked inflammatory changes, characteristic clinicopathological features that exacerbate disease severity. Vitamin D supplementation was recommended by many clinicians across the globe to improve clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients, mainly because of its immunomodulatory roles on immune cells. Furthermore, vitamin D and its associated molecules are also known to directly or indirectly regulate various thrombotic pathways. We propose that vitamin D supplementation not only attenuates the risk of Acute Respiratory Disease Syndrome (ARDS) but it also may have a role in reducing coagulation abnormalities in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The overarching goal of this review is to discuss the effects of vitamin D on coagulation pathways and other intertwined processes leading to thrombosis. Many clinical trials are currently investigating the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the risk of COVID-19 infection. However, randomized placebo control clinical trials are also necessary to ascertain the effect of vitamin D supplementation on reducing the risk of coagulopathy in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/physiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Urachal Cyst/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
13.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 40(4): 327-332, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087590

ABSTRACT

Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the general population and diabetic patients, and supplementation with vitamin D is widely used to help lower oxidative stress and inflammation. The cytokine storm in SARS-CoV2 infection has been linked with both diabetes and Vitamin D deficiency. This study examined the hypothesis that supplementation with vitamin D, in combination with l-cysteine (LC), is better at reducing oxidative stress and thereby, more effective, at inhibiting the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in U937 monocytes exposed to high glucose concentrations. Methods: U937 monocytes were pretreated with 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (VD, 10 nM) or LC (250 µM) or VD + LC for 24 h and then exposed to control or high glucose (HG, 25 mM) for another 24 h. Results: There were significantly greater reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in monocytes treated with HG than those in controls. Combined supplementation with VD and LC showed a more significant reduction in ROS (46%) in comparison with treatment with LC (19%) or VD (26%) alone in monocytes exposed to HG. Similarly, VD supplementation, together with LC, caused a more significant inhibition in the secretion of IL-8 (36% versus 16%) and MCP-1 (46% versus 26%) in comparison with that of VD (10 nM) alone in high-glucose treated monocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that combined supplementation with vitamin D and LC has the potential to be more effective than either VD or LC alone in lowering the risk of oxidative stress and inflammation associated with type 2 diabetes or COVID-19 infection. Further, this combined vitamin D with LC/N-acetylcysteine may be a potent alternative therapy for SARS-CoV2 infected subjects. This approach can prevent cellular damage due to cytokine storm in comorbid systemic inflammatory conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cysteine/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glucose/administration & dosage , Humans , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/virology , U937 Cells , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
14.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 40(2): 104-110, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a multifactorial condition. An increasing body of evidence argues for a direct implication of vitamin D deficiency, low serum calcium on poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between these two factors and COVID-19 in-hospital mortality. MATERIALS: This is a prospective study, including 120 severe cases of COVID-19, admitted at the department of Reanimation-Anesthesia. Vitamin D was assessed by an immuno-fluoroassay method. Total serum calcium by a colorimetric method, then, corrected for serum albumin levels. The association with in-hospital mortality was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, proportional Cox regression analyses and the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D and hypocalcemia were very common, occurring in 75% and 35.8% of patients. When analyzing survival, both were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in a dose-effect manner (pLog-Rank = 0.009 and 0.001 respectively). A cutoff value of 39 nmol/l for vitamin D and 2.05 mmol/l for corrected calcemia could predict poor prognosis with a sensitivity of 76% and 84%, and a specificity of 69% and 60% respectively. Hazard ratios were (HR = 6.9, 95% CI [2.0-24.1], p = 0.002 and HR = 6.2, 95% CI [2.1-18.3], p = 0.001) respectively. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the high frequency of hypocalcemia and hypovitaminosis D in severe COVID-19 patients and provides further evidence of their potential link to poor short-term prognosis. It is, therefore, possible that the correction of hypocalcemia, as well as supplementation with vitamin D, may improve the vital prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Calcium/blood , Hypocalcemia/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/mortality , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Algeria/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypocalcemia/blood , Hypocalcemia/virology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Reference Values , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
16.
FEBS J ; 287(17): 3693-3702, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960855

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide pandemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of plasma 25(OH)D levels with the likelihood of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and hospitalization. The study population included the 14 000 members of Leumit Health Services, who were tested for COVID-19 infection from February 1st to April 30th , 2020, and who had at least one previous blood test for the plasma 25(OH)D level. 'Suboptimal' or 'low' plasma 25(OH)D level was defined as plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or 25(OH)D, concentration below the level of 30 ng/mL. Of 7807 individuals, 782 (10.02%) were COVID-19-positive, and 7025 (89.98%) COVID-19-negative. The mean plasma vitamin D level was significantly lower among those who tested positive than negative for COVID-19 [19.00 ng/mL (95% confidence interval (CI) 18.41-19.59) vs. 20.55 (95% CI: 20.32-20.78)]. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between the low plasma 25(OH)D level and increased likelihood of COVID-19 infection [crude odds ratio (OR) of 1.58 (95% CI: 1.24-2.01, P < 0.001)], and of hospitalization due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus [crude OR of 2.09 (95% CI: 1.01-4.30, P < 0.05)]. In multivariate analyses that controlled for demographic variables, and psychiatric and somatic disorders, the adjusted OR of COVID-19 infection [1.45 (95% CI: 1.08-1.95, P < 0.001)] and of hospitalization due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus [1.95 (95% CI: 0.98-4.845, P = 0.061)] were preserved. In the multivariate analyses, age over 50 years, male gender and low-medium socioeconomic status were also positively associated with the risk of COVID-19 infection; age over 50 years was positively associated with the likelihood of hospitalization due to COVID-19. We concluded that low plasma 25(OH)D levels appear to be an independent risk factor for COVID-19 infection and hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Social Class , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
17.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921213

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency co-exists in patients with COVID-19. At this time, dark skin color, increased age, the presence of pre-existing illnesses and vitamin D deficiency are features of severe COVID disease. Of these, only vitamin D deficiency is modifiable. Through its interactions with a multitude of cells, vitamin D may have several ways to reduce the risk of acute respiratory tract infections and COVID-19: reducing the survival and replication of viruses, reducing risk of inflammatory cytokine production, increasing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 concentrations, and maintaining endothelial integrity. Fourteen observational studies offer evidence that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are inversely correlated with the incidence or severity of COVID-19. The evidence to date generally satisfies Hill's criteria for causality in a biological system, namely, strength of association, consistency, temporality, biological gradient, plausibility (e.g., mechanisms), and coherence, although experimental verification is lacking. Thus, the evidence seems strong enough that people and physicians can use or recommend vitamin D supplements to prevent or treat COVID-19 in light of their safety and wide therapeutic window. In view of public health policy, however, results of large-scale vitamin D randomized controlled trials are required and are currently in progress.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
18.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(2): 189-196, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-848507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because of the lack of sufficient data, we aimed to investigate the role of serum 25(OH) vitamin D level on COVID severity and related mortality. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study. Data, including sociodemographic features, clinical characteristics, and laboratory data, and 25(OH) vitamin D levels were recorded for each study participant. Patients were stratified into different vitamin D groups; Normal (Serum 25(OH) vitamin D level >30 ng/mL), Vitamin D insufficiency (21-29 ng/mL), and deficiency (<20 ng/mL). The severity of COVID was classified according to the Chinese Clinical Guideline for classification of COVID-19 severity. Mortality data were determined for participants. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Overall, 149 COVID-19 patients (females 45.6%, mean age 63.5 ± 15.3 (range 24-90 years) years) were included. Forty-seven patients (31.5%) had moderate COVID-19, whereas 102 patients (68.5%) had severe-critical COVID-19. The mean 25(OH) vitamin D level was 15.2 ± 10.3 ng/mL. Thirty-four (22.8%) and 103 (69.1%) patients had vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, respectively. Mean serum 25(OH) vitamin D level was significantly lower in patients with severe-critical COVID-19 compared with moderate COVID-19 (10.1 ± 6.2 vs. 26.3 ± 8.4 ng/mL, respectively, p<0.001). Vitamin D insufficiency was present in 93.1% of the patients with severe-critical COVID-19. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only lymphocyte count, white blood cell count, serum albumin and, 25(OH) vitamin D level were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: Serum 25(OH) vitamin D was independently associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Turkey/epidemiology , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology , Young Adult
19.
Nutr Rev ; 79(2): 227-234, 2021 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797305

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to > 10 000 000 individuals in a short time. With no pharmacological agents successfully implemented to control the outbreak, the use of less invasive nonpharmacological agents, such as vitamin D, are increasingly being studied. This purpose of this article is to determine the current knowledge about the risk of COVID-19 development for populations at risk for vitamin D deficiency, including individuals living with overweight and obesity, those of older age, and racial or ethnic minorities. Despite the documented impact of vitamin D on viral disease prevention, many subgroups at risk for contracting COVID-19 are also known to have increased rates of vitamin D deficiency. Because vitamin D is most commonly obtained from sunlight, when interpreted alongside the stay-at-home orders, the importance of identifying safe approaches to obtain sufficient vitamin D is apparent. Furthermore, elucidating the cause-and-effect relationship between vitamin D and COVID-19, including optimal dosing for COVID-19 outcomes, is also warranted for immediate investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Obesity/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology , Vitamin D/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Risk Factors , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood
20.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769379

ABSTRACT

Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses an enormous challenge to health care systems throughout the world. Without causal treatment, identification of modifiable prognostic factors may help to improve outcomes. To explore possible associations of vitamin D (VitD) status with disease severity and survival, we studied 185 patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and treated at our center. VitD status at first presentation was assessed retrospectively using accredited laboratory methods. VitD deficiency was defined as serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D level < 12 ng/mL (<30 nM). Primary endpoint was severe course of disease (i.e., need for invasive mechanical ventilation and/or death, IMV/D). Within a median observation period of 66 days (range 2-92), 23 patients required IMV. A total of 28 patients had IMV/D, including 16 deaths. Ninety-three (50%) patients required hospitalization (inpatient subgroup). A total of 41 (22%) patients were VitD deficient. When adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities, VitD deficiency was associated with higher risk of IMV/D and death (HR 6.12, 95% CI 2.79-13.42, p < 0.001 and HR 14.73, 95% CI 4.16-52.19, p < 0.001, respectively). Similar correlations were observed in the inpatient subgroup. Our study demonstrates an association between VitD deficiency and severity/mortality of COVID-19, highlighting the need for interventional studies on VitD supplementation in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/mortality , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
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