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1.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(5): 276-292, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A 2017 meta-analysis of data from 25 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) revealed a protective effect of this intervention. We aimed to examine the link between vitamin D supplementation and prevention of ARIs in an updated meta-analysis. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry for studies listed from database inception to May 1, 2020. Double-blind RCTs of vitamin D3, vitamin D2, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) supplementation for any duration, with a placebo or low-dose vitamin D control, were eligible if they had been approved by a research ethics committee, and if ARI incidence was collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome. Studies reporting results of long-term follow-up of primary RCTs were excluded. Aggregated study-level data, stratified by baseline 25(OH)D concentration and age, were obtained from study authors. Using the proportion of participants in each trial who had one or more ARIs, we did a random-effects meta-analysis to obtain pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs to estimate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of having one or more ARIs (primary outcome) compared with placebo. Subgroup analyses were done to estimate whether the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of ARI varied according to baseline 25(OH)D concentration (<25 nmol/L vs 25·0-49·9 nmol/L vs 50·0-74·9 nmol/L vs >75·0 nmol/L), vitamin D dose (daily equivalent of <400 international units [IU] vs 400-1000 IU vs 1001-2000 IU vs >2000 IU), dosing frequency (daily vs weekly vs once per month to once every 3 months), trial duration (≤12 months vs >12 months), age at enrolment (<1·00 years vs 1·00-15·99 years vs 16·00-64·99 years vs ≥65·00 years), and presence versus absence of airway disease (ie, asthma only, COPD only, or unrestricted). Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. The study was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020190633. FINDINGS: We identified 1528 articles, of which 46 RCTs (75 541 participants) were eligible. Data for the primary outcome were obtained for 48 488 (98·1%) of 49 419 participants (aged 0-95 years) in 43 studies. A significantly lower proportion of participants in the vitamin D supplementation group had one or more ARIs (14 332 [61·3%] of 23 364 participants) than in the placebo group (14 217 [62·3%] of 22 802 participants), with an OR of 0·92 (95% CI 0·86-0·99; 37 studies; I2=35·6%, pheterogeneity=0·018). No significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of having one or more ARIs was observed for any of the subgroups defined by baseline 25(OH)D concentration. However, protective effects of supplementation were observed in trials in which vitamin D was given in a daily dosing regimen (OR 0·78 [95% CI 0·65-0·94]; 19 studies; I2=53·5%, pheterogeneity=0·003), at daily dose equivalents of 400-1000 IU (0·70 [0·55-0·89]; ten studies; I2=31·2%, pheterogeneity=0·16), for a duration of 12 months or less (0·82 [0·72-0·93]; 29 studies; I2=38·1%, pheterogeneity=0·021), and to participants aged 1·00-15·99 years at enrolment (0·71 [0·57-0·90]; 15 studies; I2=46·0%, pheterogeneity=0·027). No significant interaction between allocation to the vitamin D supplementation group versus the placebo group and dose, dose frequency, study duration, or age was observed. In addition, no significant difference in the proportion of participants who had at least one serious adverse event in the vitamin supplementation group compared with the placebo group was observed (0·97 [0·86-1·07]; 36 studies; I2=0·0%, pheterogeneity=0·99). Risk of bias within individual studies was assessed as being low for all but three trials. INTERPRETATION: Despite evidence of significant heterogeneity across trials, vitamin D supplementation was safe and overall reduced the risk of ARI compared with placebo, although the risk reduction was small. Protection was associated with administration of daily doses of 400-1000 IU for up to 12 months, and age at enrolment of 1·00-15·99 years. The relevance of these findings to COVID-19 is not known and requires further investigation. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/diet therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438686

ABSTRACT

Food supplements (FS) are a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals, or other ingredients with nutritional or other physiological effects. Due to their easy availability, widespread advertising, and sometimes low price, increased consumption of this group of preparations has been observed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and intake of FS during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland, with particular reference to FS containing zinc and vitamin D. It was noted that both of the above ingredients were used significantly more often by people with higher education (59.0%), with a medical background or related working in the medical field (54.5%), and/or exercising at home (60.1%). Preparations containing vitamin D were used by 22.8% of the respondents in the first wave, 37.6% in the second wave, and 32.9% in the third wave. To sum up, we showed the highest consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements, and preparations containing zinc and vitamin D were taken significantly more often by people with higher medical and related education. This indicates a high awareness of health aspects and the need for preventive measures in these groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Health Behavior , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/immunology , Zinc/immunology
4.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 213: 105964, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the vitamin D status of pregnant women with COVID-19, and the association between vitamin D level and severity of COVID-19. METHODS: In this case control study, 159 women with a single pregnancy and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and randomly selected 332 healthy pregnant women with similar gestational ages were included. COVID-19 patients were classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol <20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L), and 25-OH D vitamin <10 ng/mL was defined as severe vitamin D deficiency, also 25-OH D vitamin level between 20-29 ng/mL (525-725 nmol/L) was defined as vitamin D insufficiency. RESULTS: Vitamin D levels of the pregnant women in the COVID-19 group (12.46) were lower than the control group (18.76). 25-OH D vitamin levels of those in the mild COVID-19 category (13.69) were significantly higher than those in the moderate/severe category (9.06). In terms of taking vitamin D supplementation, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. However, it was observed that all of those who had severe COVID-19 were the patients who did not take vitamin D supplementation. CONCLUSION: The vitamin D levels are low in pregnant women with COVID-19. Also, there is a significant difference regarding to vitamin D level and COVID-19 severity in pregnant women. Maintenance of adequate vitamin D level can be useful as an approach for the prevention of an aggressive course of the inflammation induced by this novel coronavirus in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diet therapy , Dietary Supplements , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calcifediol/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/pathology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367848

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a new, highly pathogenic virus that has recently elicited a global pandemic called the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 is characterized by significant immune dysfunction, which is caused by strong but unregulated innate immunity with depressed adaptive immunity. Reduced and delayed responses to interferons (IFN-I/IFN-III) can increase the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and extensive immune cell infiltration into the airways, leading to pulmonary disease. The development of effective treatments for severe COVID-19 patients relies on our knowledge of the pathophysiological components of this imbalanced innate immune response. Strategies to address innate response factors will be essential. Significant efforts are currently underway to develop vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines, such as inactivated DNA, mRNA, and protein subunit vaccines, have already been applied in clinical use. Various vaccines display different levels of effectiveness, and it is important to continue to optimize and update their composition in order to increase their effectiveness. However, due to the continuous emergence of variant viruses, improving the immunity of the general public may also increase the effectiveness of the vaccines. Many observational studies have demonstrated that serum levels of vitamin D are inversely correlated with the incidence or severity of COVID-19. Extensive evidence has shown that vitamin D supplementation could be vital in mitigating the progression of COVID-19 to reduce its severity. Vitamin D defends against SARS-CoV-2 through a complex mechanism through interactions between the modulation of innate and adaptive immune reactions, ACE2 expression, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). However, it remains unclear whether Vit-D also plays an important role in the effectiveness of different COVID-19 vaccines. Based on analysis of the molecular mechanism involved, we speculated that vit-D, via various immune signaling pathways, plays a complementary role in the development of vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/blood , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Pandemics/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vitamin D/immunology
7.
Elife ; 102021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328261

ABSTRACT

Background: Until coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) drugs specifically developed to treat COVID-19 become more widely accessible, it is crucial to identify whether existing medications have a protective effect against severe disease. Toward this objective, we conducted a large population study in Clalit Health Services (CHS), the largest healthcare provider in Israel, insuring over 4.7 million members. Methods: Two case-control matched cohorts were assembled to assess which medications, acquired in the last month, decreased the risk of COVID-19 hospitalization. Case patients were adults aged 18 to 95 hospitalized for COVID-19. In the first cohort, five control patients, from the general population, were matched to each case (n=6202); in the second cohort, two non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 positive control patients were matched to each case (n=6919). The outcome measures for a medication were: odds ratio (OR) for hospitalization, 95% confidence interval (CI), and the p-value, using Fisher's exact test. False discovery rate was used to adjust for multiple testing. Results: Medications associated with most significantly reduced odds for COVID-19 hospitalization include: ubiquinone (OR=0.185, 95% CI [0.058 to 0.458], p<0.001), ezetimibe (OR=0.488, 95% CI [0.377 to 0.622], p<0.001), rosuvastatin (OR=0.673, 95% CI [0.596 to 0.758], p<0.001), flecainide (OR=0.301, 95% CI [0.118 to 0.641], p<0.001), and vitamin D (OR=0.869, 95% CI [0.792 to 0.954], p<0.003). Remarkably, acquisition of artificial tears, eye care wipes, and several ophthalmological products were also associated with decreased risk for hospitalization. Conclusions: Ubiquinone, ezetimibe, and rosuvastatin, all related to the cholesterol synthesis pathway were associated with reduced hospitalization risk. These findings point to a promising protective effect which should be further investigated in controlled, prospective studies. Funding: This research was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, NCI.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Ezetimibe/administration & dosage , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Rosuvastatin Calcium/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Ubiquinone/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Young Adult
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26427, 2021 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly spread to other countries, causing numerous deaths and challenges for organizations and health professionals. Diet and nutrition invariably influence the competence of the immune system and determine the risk and severity of infections. Studies have already been published on the relationships through which vitamins C and D can mitigate the severity of infections such as COVID-19. In this context, this protocol describes a systematic review intended to analyze if vitamin C and D supplementation can reduce the severity of Covid-19. METHODS: This protocol was developed based on the recommendations of PRISMA-P. In order to accomplish the systematic review, we will carry out searches in the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, and ScienceDirect databases in the quest for control case studies that analyze the supplementation and evolution of patients with COVID-19. There will be no limitations related to language or publication time. The searches will be carried out by 2 independent researchers who will select the articles, and then the duplicate studies will be removed, while the suitable ones will be selected using the Rayyan QCRI application. In order to assess the risk of bias, we will use the instrument proposed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Moreover, we will carry out metaanalyses and subgroup analyses according to the conditions of the included data. RESULTS: This review will assess the association between vitamin C and D supplementation and the reduction in the severity of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The findings of this systematic review will summarize the latest evidence for the association between vitamin C and D supplementation and COVID-19 through a systematic review and meta-analysis. RECORD OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEW: CRD42021255763.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dietary Supplements , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Severity of Illness Index , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Humans , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1017-1031, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286160

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) is the culprit of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), which has infected approximately 173 million people and killed more than 3.73 million. At risk groups including diabetic and obese patients are more vulnerable to COVID-19-related complications and poor outcomes. Substantial evidence points to hypovitaminosis D as a risk factor for severe disease, the need for ICU, and mortality. 1,25(OH)D, a key regulator of calcium homeostasis, is believed to have various immune-regulatory roles including; promoting anti-inflammatory cytokines, down regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, dampening entry and replication of SARS-COV-2, and the production of antimicrobial peptides. In addition, there are strong connections which suggest that dysregulated 1,25(OH)D levels play a mechanistic and pathophysiologic role in several disease processes that are shared with COVID-19 including: diabetes, obesity, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), cytokine storm, and even hypercoagulable states. With evidence continuing to grow for the case that low vitamin D status is a risk factor for COVID-19 disease and poor outcomes, there is a need now to address the public health efforts set in place to minimize infection, such as lock down orders, which may have inadvertently increased hypovitaminosis D in the general population and those already at risk (elderly, obese, and disabled). Moreover, there is a need to address the implications of this evidence and how we may apply the use of cheaply available supplementation, which has yet to overcome the near global concern of hypovitaminosis D. In our review, we exhaustively scope these shared pathophysiologic connections between COVID-19 and hypovitaminosis D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Thrombophilia/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/metabolism , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology
10.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin-D is an immune-modulator which might be linked to disease severity by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Meta-analysis of RCTs and quasi-experimental studies, evaluating the role of vitamin-D supplementation in COVID patients was done. RESULTS: Total 5 studies (3 RCTs and 2 Quasi-experimental) including n = 467 patients were included. Vitamin D didn't reduce mortality (RR 0.55, 95%CI 0.22 to 1.39, p = 0.21), ICU admission rates (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.01-4.26, p = 0.3) and need for invasive ventilation (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.01-7.89, p = 0.42). CONCLUSION: No significant difference with vitamin-D supplementation on major health related outcomes in COVID-19. Well-designed RCTs are required addressing this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Nutrition Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Prognosis
11.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(3): 622-630, 2021 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264738

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Compared with adults, children with SARS-CoV-2 infection may have fewer and less severe symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly reported in children, sometimes as the only manifestation of the disease, and most often manifest as anorexia, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, or abdominal pain. Although most children have asymptomatic or mild disease, 10 % of those infected may experience serious or critical disease, or even death. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a rare but serious condition recently reported in children with COVID-19. Studies indicate that children with obesity are at higher risk of developing severe COVID-19, and inflammation associated with obesity could be one of the factors that worsens COVID-19 symptoms due to an increased inflammatory response involving molecules such as interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and monocyte chemoattractant protein. On the other hand, evidence has been reported of a higher protein expression of ACE2 in the visceral adipose tissue of obese and malnourished humans, and this could be associated with complications and severity of COVID-19. Therefore, regulation of the intake of macronutrients or micronutrients could be used as a strategy to reduce the consequences of COVID-19. Diet in general and bioactive compounds could play an important role in the prevention of the inflammatory cascade. The micronutrients with the most evidence suggesting a role in immune support are vitamins C and D, zinc, and polyphenols.


La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) está causada por el virus "síndrome respiratorio agudo severo-coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2). En comparación con los adultos, los niños con infección por SARS-CoV-2 pueden tener menos síntomas y estos pueden ser menos graves. Los síntomas gastrointestinales se informan comúnmente en los niños, a veces como única manifestación de la enfermedad. Los más comunes son anorexia, diarrea, náuseas y vómitos, y dolor abdominal. Aunque la mayoría de los niños tienen un cuadro leve o asintomático, el 10 % de los infectados pueden experimentar un cuadro grave o crítico, e incluso la muerte. El síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico es una afección poco común, pero grave, que se documentó recientemente en niños con COVID-19. Los estudios indican que los niños con obesidad tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar COVID-19 grave, y la inflamación asociada con la obesidad podría ser uno de los factores que empeoran los síntomas de la COVID-19 debido a una respuesta inflamatoria aumentada en donde se ven involucradas moléculas como la interleucina 6, el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa y la proteína quimioatrayente de monocitos. Por otro lado, se ha encontrado evidencia de una mayor expresión proteica de ACE2 en el tejido adiposo visceral de los seres humanos obesos y desnutridos, y esto podría estar asociado a las complicaciones y la severidad de la COVID-19. Por tanto, la regulación de la ingesta de macronutrientes o micronutrientes podría utilizarse como estrategia para reducir las consecuencias de la enfermedad. La dieta en general y los compuestos bioactivos podrían desempeñar un papel importante en la prevención de la cascada inflamatoria. Los micronutrientes con mayor evidencia indicativa de que desempeñan un papel en el apoyo inmunológico son las vitaminas C y D, el zinc y los polifenoles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anorexia/etiology , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Child , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Male , Nausea/etiology , Overweight/complications , Oxidative Stress , Pediatric Obesity/metabolism , Polyphenols/administration & dosage , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Thinness/complications , Thinness/metabolism , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vomiting/etiology , Zinc/administration & dosage , Zinc/deficiency
13.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2111-2116, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247160

ABSTRACT

This review describes the evidence for the potential benefit of vitamin D supplementation in people with respiratory diseases who may have a higher susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and its consequences. Clinical evidence indicates that vitamin D may reduce the risk of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections and offers benefit particularly in people with vitamin D deficiency. Some evidence exists for a higher incidence of active tuberculosis (TB) in patients who are deficient in vitamin D. An association between low levels of 25(OH)D (the active form of vitamin D) and COVID-19 severity of illness and mortality has also been reported. In addition, low 25(OH)D levels are associated with poor outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The cytokine storm experienced in severe COVID-19 infections results from excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Due to its immunomodulatory effects, adequate vitamin D levels may cause a decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokines during COVID-19 infections. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 82.2% of hospitalized COVID-19 cases and 47.2% of population-based controls (p < 0.0001). The available evidence warrants an evaluation of vitamin D supplementation in susceptible populations with respiratory diseases, such as TB, and particularly in those who are deficient in vitamin D. This may mitigate against serious complications of COVID-19 infections or reduce the impact of ARDS in those who have been infected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dietary Supplements , Tuberculosis/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disease Susceptibility/blood , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tuberculosis/blood , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10641, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238017

ABSTRACT

COVID 19 is known to cause immune dysregulation and vitamin D is a known immunomodulator. This study aims to objectively investigate the impact of Pulse D therapy in reducing the inflammatory markers of COVID-19. Consented COVID-19 patients with hypovitaminosis D were evaluated for inflammatory markers (N/L ratio, CRP, LDH, IL6, Ferritin) along with vitamin D on 0th day and 9th/11th day as per their respective BMI category. Subjects were randomised into VD and NVD groups. VD group received Pulse D therapy (targeted daily supplementation of 60,000 IUs of vitamin D for 8 or 10 days depending upon their BMI) in addition to the standard treatment. NVD group received standard treatment alone. Differences in the variables between the two groups were analysed for statistical significance. Eighty seven out of one hundred and thirty subjects have completed the study (VD:44, NVD:43). Vitamin D level has increased from 16 ± 6 ng/ml to 89 ± 32 ng/ml after Pulse D therapy in VD group and highly significant (p < 0.01) reduction of all the measured inflammatory markers was noted. Reduction of markers in NVD group was insignificant (p > 0.05). The difference in the reduction of markers between the groups (NVD vs VD) was highly significant (p < 0.01). Therapeutic improvement in vitamin D to 80-100 ng/ml has significantly reduced the inflammatory markers associated with COVID-19 without any side effects. Hence, adjunctive Pulse D therapy can be added safely to the existing treatment protocols of COVID-19 for improved outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/blood , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
15.
Br J Nutr ; 124(7): 736-741, 2020 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221093

ABSTRACT

The WHO has announced the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak to be a global pandemic. The distribution of community outbreaks shows seasonal patterns along certain latitude, temperature and humidity, that is, similar to the behaviour of seasonal viral respiratory tract infections. COVID-19 displays significant spread in northern mid-latitude countries with an average temperature of 5­11°C and low humidity. Vitamin D deficiency has also been described as pandemic, especially in Europe. Regardless of age, ethnicity and latitude, recent data showed that 40 % of Europeans are vitamin D deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels <50 nmol/l), and 13 % are severely deficient (25(OH)D < 30 nmol/l). A quadratic relationship was found between the prevalences of vitamin D deficiency in most commonly affected countries by COVID-19 and the latitudes. Vitamin D deficiency is more common in the subtropical and mid-latitude countries than the tropical and high-latitude countries. The most commonly affected countries with severe vitamin D deficiency are from the subtropical (Saudi Arabia 46 %; Qatar 46 %; Iran 33·4 %; Chile 26·4 %) and mid-latitude (France 27·3 %; Portugal 21·2 %; Austria 19·3 %) regions. Severe vitamin D deficiency was found to be nearly 0 % in some high-latitude countries (e.g. Norway, Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Netherlands). Accordingly, we would like to call attention to the possible association between severe vitamin D deficiency and mortality pertaining to COVID-19. Given its rare side effects and relatively wide safety, prophylactic vitamin D supplementation and/or food fortification might reasonably serve as a very convenient adjuvant therapy for these two worldwide public health problems alike.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Age Factors , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy
16.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has diverse and extensive effects on the immune system, including activating innate immunity and reducing the overactive adaptive immune response. A systematic review was performed to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the association between vitamin D level and risk of COVID-19, adverse outcomes and possible benefits of supplementation in aged 60 years or over. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed© and Scopus© for all publications from inception published before 15 March 2021. Studies reporting data from aged patients on vitamin D use and COVID-19 were included. Basic science articles, editorials and correspondence were excluded. Publication year, study design and setting, characteristics of the study population were extracted. This study is registered with PROSPERO, under the number CRD42020223993. RESULTS: In total, 707 studies were identified, of which 11 observational studies were included in the final review. Four studies compared vitamin D-supplemented COVID-19 patients to non-supplemented patients, and seven compared patients with vitamin D deficiency to patients without deficiency. In all four studies, patients with vitamin D supplementation had better rates of primary clinical outcomes (death, the severity of the disease, oxygen therapy requirement…). In studies comparing patients with vitamin D deficiency and patients without vitamin D deficiency, those without vitamin D deficiency had better primary clinical outcomes (death rate, the severity of the disease, oxygen therapy requirement, invasive mechanical ventilation need…). CONCLUSION: This systematic review seems to support an association between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of COVID-19 in aged people. In addition, vitamin D deficiency appears to expose these subjects to a greater risk of adverse outcomes. Because of its simplicity of administration, and the rarity of side effects, including vitamin D in preventive strategies for certain viral diseases, it appears to be an attractive option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage
17.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178371

ABSTRACT

More than one year has passed since the first cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 coronavirus were reported in Wuhan (China), rapidly evolving into a global pandemic. This infectious disease has become a major public health challenge in the world. Unfortunately, to date, no specific antivirals have been proven to be effective against COVID-19, and although a few vaccines are available, the mortality rate is not decreasing but is still increasing. One therapeutic strategy has been focused on infection prevention and control measures. In this regard, the use of nutraceutical supports may play a role against some aspect of the infection, particularly the inflammatory state and the immune system function of patients, thus representing a strategy to control the worst outcomes of this pandemic. For this reason, we performed an overview including meta-analyses and systematic reviews to assess the association among melatonin, vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc supplementation and inflammatory markers using three databases, namely, MEDLINE, PubMed Central and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. According to the evidence available, an intake of 50,000 IU/month of vitamin D showed efficacy in CRP. An amount of 1 to 2 g per day of vitamin C demonstrated efficacy both in CRP and endothelial function, and a dosage of melatonin ranging from 5 to 25 mg /day showed good evidence of efficacy in CRP, TNF and IL6. A dose of 50 mg/day of elemental zinc supplementation showed positive results in CRP. Based on the data reported in this review, the public health system could consider whether it is possible to supplement the current limited preventive measures through targeted nutraceutical large-scale administration.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Meta-Analysis as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 648546, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150693

ABSTRACT

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare but devastating complication of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). The development of prognostic biomarkers and more importantly the implementation of new treatment modalities would have a significant impact in clinical practice regarding the outcome of MIS-C. Vitamin D could be a potential candidate. In this mini review we analyze the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D in viral infections and specifically in COVID-19. We also examine the current literature regarding the association of vitamin D with MIS-C and Kawasaki disease. The vitamin D was evaluated not only as a biomarker but also as a nutritional supplement. We concluded that vitamin D levels could be valuable in predicting severe forms of MIS-C and correction of abnormal levels in severe MIS-C may influences its evolution. 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] supplementation raising serum [25(OH)D] concentrations potentially have a favorable effect in reducing the severity of MIS-C in certain circumstances. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Vitamin D/blood
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(4): 2131-2145, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116634

ABSTRACT

The world is currently facing the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to a lack of specific treatment and prophylaxis, protective health measures that can reduce infection severity and COVID-19 mortality are urgently required. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency can be linked to an increased risk of viral infection, including COVID-19. Therefore, in this review, we looked at various possible roles of vitamin D in reducing the risk of COVID-19 infection and severity. We describe in this article that individuals at high risk of vitamin D deficiency should consider taking vitamin D supplements to keep optimal concentrations. Moreover, we discuss different possible mechanisms by which vitamin D can efficiently reduce the risk of infections through modulation of innate and adaptive immunity against various types of infections. It is advisable to perform further studies addressing the observed influence of vitamin D levels to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Bystander Effect , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
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