Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 25
Filter
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732070

ABSTRACT

Almost two years have passed since the outbreak reported for the first time in Wuhan of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 coronavirus, rapidly evolved into a pandemic. This infectious disease has stressed global health care systems. The mortality rate is higher, particularly in elderly population and in patients with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, chronic renal disease, and malignancy. Among them, subjects with diabetes have a high risk of developing severe form of COVID-19 and show increased mortality. How diabetes contributes to COVID-19 severity remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that it may be correlated with the effects of hyperglycemia on systemic inflammatory responses and immune system dysfunction. Vitamin D (VD) is a modulator of immune-response. Data from literature showed that vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients increases COVID-19 severity, likely because of its negative impact on immune and inflammatory responses. Therefore, the use of vitamin D might play a role in some aspects of the infection, particularly the inflammatory state and the immune system function of patients. Moreover, a piece of evidence highlighted a link among vitamin D deficiency, obesity and diabetes, all factors associated with COVID-19 severity. Given this background, we performed an overview of the systematic reviews to assess the association between vitamin D supplementation and inflammatory markers in patients with diabetes; furthermore, vitamin D's possible role in COVID-19 patients was assessed as well. Three databases, namely MEDLINE, PubMed Central and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, were reviewed to retrieve the pertinent data. The aim of this review is to provide insight into the recent advances about the molecular basis of the relationship between vitamin D, immune response, inflammation, diabetes and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Immune System/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Obesity/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Meta-Analysis as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systematic Reviews as Topic , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/immunology
2.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 213: 105957, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561628

ABSTRACT

This review examines the beneficial effects of ultraviolet radiation on systemic autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes, where the epidemiological evidence for the vitamin D-independent effects of sunlight is most apparent. Ultraviolet radiation, in addition to its role in the synthesis of vitamin D, stimulates anti-inflammatory pathways, alters the composition of dendritic cells, T cells, and T regulatory cells, and induces nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase metabolic pathways, which may directly or indirectly mitigate disease progression and susceptibility. Recent work has also explored how the immune-modulating functions of ultraviolet radiation affect type II diabetes, cancer, and the current global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. These diseases are particularly important amidst global changes in lifestyle that result in unhealthy eating, increased sedentary habits, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Compelling epidemiological data shows increased ultraviolet radiation associated with reduced rates of certain cancers, such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and ultraviolet radiation exposure correlated with susceptibility and mortality rates of COVID-19. Therefore, understanding the effects of ultraviolet radiation on both vitamin D-dependent and -independent pathways is necessary to understand how they influence the course of many human diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Multiple Sclerosis/prevention & control , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Sunlight , Vitamin D/metabolism , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/radiation effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Disease Progression , Disease Susceptibility , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/genetics , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/immunology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Sedentary Behavior , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/radiation effects , Vitamin D/immunology
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438686

ABSTRACT

Food supplements (FS) are a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals, or other ingredients with nutritional or other physiological effects. Due to their easy availability, widespread advertising, and sometimes low price, increased consumption of this group of preparations has been observed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and intake of FS during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland, with particular reference to FS containing zinc and vitamin D. It was noted that both of the above ingredients were used significantly more often by people with higher education (59.0%), with a medical background or related working in the medical field (54.5%), and/or exercising at home (60.1%). Preparations containing vitamin D were used by 22.8% of the respondents in the first wave, 37.6% in the second wave, and 32.9% in the third wave. To sum up, we showed the highest consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements, and preparations containing zinc and vitamin D were taken significantly more often by people with higher medical and related education. This indicates a high awareness of health aspects and the need for preventive measures in these groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Health Behavior , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/immunology , Zinc/immunology
4.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(12): 4351-4362, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375667

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is an immunomodulatory hormone with an established role in calcium and phosphate metabolism and skeletal mineralization. Evidence showing its immunological benefits by regulating essential components of the innate and adaptive immune system is prevalent. Vitamin D deficiency is reported worldwide and is thereby found to be associated with various immune-related diseases. Rheumatoid Arthritis and COVID-19 are two such diseases, sharing a similar hyperinflammatory response. Various studies have found an association of lower Vitamin D levels to be associated with both these diseases. However, contrasting data is also reported. We review here the available scientific data on risk factor association and supplementation benefits of Vitamin D in Rheumatoid Arthritis and COVID-19, intending to critically evaluate the literature.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diet therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/physiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/etiology , Humans , Risk Factors , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367848

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a new, highly pathogenic virus that has recently elicited a global pandemic called the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 is characterized by significant immune dysfunction, which is caused by strong but unregulated innate immunity with depressed adaptive immunity. Reduced and delayed responses to interferons (IFN-I/IFN-III) can increase the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and extensive immune cell infiltration into the airways, leading to pulmonary disease. The development of effective treatments for severe COVID-19 patients relies on our knowledge of the pathophysiological components of this imbalanced innate immune response. Strategies to address innate response factors will be essential. Significant efforts are currently underway to develop vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines, such as inactivated DNA, mRNA, and protein subunit vaccines, have already been applied in clinical use. Various vaccines display different levels of effectiveness, and it is important to continue to optimize and update their composition in order to increase their effectiveness. However, due to the continuous emergence of variant viruses, improving the immunity of the general public may also increase the effectiveness of the vaccines. Many observational studies have demonstrated that serum levels of vitamin D are inversely correlated with the incidence or severity of COVID-19. Extensive evidence has shown that vitamin D supplementation could be vital in mitigating the progression of COVID-19 to reduce its severity. Vitamin D defends against SARS-CoV-2 through a complex mechanism through interactions between the modulation of innate and adaptive immune reactions, ACE2 expression, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). However, it remains unclear whether Vit-D also plays an important role in the effectiveness of different COVID-19 vaccines. Based on analysis of the molecular mechanism involved, we speculated that vit-D, via various immune signaling pathways, plays a complementary role in the development of vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/blood , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Pandemics/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vitamin D/immunology
6.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(2): 231-241, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266069

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Global emergence of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has clearly shown variable severity, mortality, and frequency between and within populations worldwide. These striking differences have made many biological variables attractive for future investigations. One of these variables, vitamin D, has been implicated in COVID-19 with rapidly growing scientific evidence. AREAS COVERED: The review intended to systematically explore the sources, and immunomodulatory role of vitamin D in COVID-19. Search engines and data sources including Google Scholar, PubMed, NCBI, Scopus, and Web of Science were used for data collection. The search terms used were Vitamin D, COVID-19, immune system, and antiviral mechanism. Overall, 232 sources of information were collected and 188 were included in this review. EXPERT OPINION: Interaction of vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) triggers the cellular events to modulate the immune system by regulation of many genes. Vitamin D operates as a double-edged sword against COVID-19. First, in macrophages, it promotes the production of antimicrobial and antiviral proteins like ß-defensin 2 and cathelicidin, and these proteins inhibit the replication of viral particles and promote the clearance of virus from the cells by autophagy. Second, it suppresses cytokine storm and inflammatory processes in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Autophagy , COVID-19 , Cytokines/immunology , Vitamin D , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Receptors, Calcitriol , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamins
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231496

ABSTRACT

In addition to its canonical functions, vitamin D has been proposed to be an important mediator of the immune system. Despite ample sunshine, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent (>80%) in the Middle East, resulting in a high rate of supplementation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the specific regimen prescribed and the potential factors affecting an individual's response to vitamin D supplementation are not well characterized. Our objective is to describe the changes in the blood transcriptome and explore the potential mechanisms associated with vitamin D3 supplementation in one hundred vitamin D-deficient women who were given a weekly oral dose (50,000 IU) of vitamin D3 for three months. A high-throughput targeted PCR, composed of 264 genes representing the important blood transcriptomic fingerprints of health and disease states, was performed on pre and post-supplementation blood samples to profile the molecular response to vitamin D3. We identified 54 differentially expressed genes that were strongly modulated by vitamin D3 supplementation. Network analyses showed significant changes in the immune-related pathways such as TLR4/CD14 and IFN receptors, and catabolic processes related to NF-kB, which were subsequently confirmed by gene ontology enrichment analyses. We proposed a model for vitamin D3 response based on the expression changes of molecules involved in the receptor-mediated intra-cellular signaling pathways and the ensuing predicted effects on cytokine production. Overall, vitamin D3 has a strong effect on the immune system, G-coupled protein receptor signaling, and the ubiquitin system. We highlighted the major molecular changes and biological processes induced by vitamin D3, which will help to further investigate the effectiveness of vitamin D3 supplementation among individuals in the Middle East as well as other regions.


Subject(s)
Cholecalciferol/genetics , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Vitamin D/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/immunology , Dietary Supplements , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Nutrition Therapy , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/genetics , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/pathology , Young Adult
8.
Immunotherapy ; 13(9): 753-765, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206250

ABSTRACT

A dysregulated immune response characterized by the hyperproduction of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (a.k.a. 'cytokine storm') plays a central role in the pathophysiology of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this Perspective article we discuss the evidence for synergistic anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties exerted by vitamin D and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, the latter being a class of antihyperglycemic agents used for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes, which have also been reported as immunomodulators. Then, we provide the rationale for investigation of vitamin D and DPP-4 inhibitor combination therapy (VIDPP-4i) as an immunomodulation strategy to ratchet down the virulence of SARS-CoV-2, prevent disease progression and modulate the cytokine storm in COVID-19.


Lay abstract The so-called 'cytokine storm' that drives the hyperproduction of pro-inflammatory mediators, plays a central role in the pathophysiology of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Vitamin D has increasingly been shown to play anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties beyond its role in the regulation of bone homeostasis. Similarly, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) ­ a class of antihyperglycemic agents used for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes ­ have been reported as immunomodulators regardless of their glucose-lowering properties. We, therefore, discuss the role of vitamin D and DPP-4 inhibitor combination therapy (VIDPP-4i) as a potential immunomodulation strategy to prevent the development and/or halt the progression of the COVID-19-induced cytokine storm, particularly in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/immunology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vitamin D/immunology
9.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 74(4): 583-595, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to present the current state of knowledge on the influence of vitamin D levels on the severity of the course of COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The latest available literature was reviewed until October 30, 2020 from the PubMed database. RESULTS: The literature reports that vitamin D has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. It reduces the expression of cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and INF-γ, regulates the activity of T helper lymphocytes, and other elements of the immune system at the molecular level. The deficiency of this vitamin promotes the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, contributing to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. The severity of the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on comorbidities, the development and course of which may also be affected by vitamin D levels (coagulopathies, pulmonary, cardiological, metabolic diseases). Most of the analyzed research studies from different countries indicated a relationship between insufficient vitamin D levels and a more severe course of COVID-19 and an increase in mortality due to it, especially among the elderly. Researchers agree that further analyzes are necessary concerning both the influence of the vitamin D blood serum levels on the morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 as well as the use of its supplementation in the struggle against SARS-CoV-2 virus. There are reports of possible beneficial interactions of vitamin D with other substances, such as quercetin, estradiol, some microelements, and other vitamins. CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining an adequate level of vitamin D has a positive effect on the functioning of the immune system. At the moment, there is insufficient evidence to establish a clear relationship between vitamin D levels and the severity of COVID-19. It is necessary to conduct further research on a larger study group. The literature does not mention the use of vitamin D as a medication for COVID-19. People at risk of vitamin D deficiency should consider vitamin D supplementation at the current time of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107686, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188660

ABSTRACT

The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is having a disastrous impact on global health. Recently, several studies examined the potential of vitamin D to reduce the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection by modulating the immune system. Indeed, vitamin D has been found to boost the innate immune system and stimulate the adaptive immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we provide a comprehensive update of the immunological mechanisms underlying the positive effects of vitamin D in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as a thorough survey of the recent epidemiological studies and clinical trials that tested vitamin D as a potential therapeutic agent against COVID-19 infection. We believe that a better understanding of the histopathology and immunopathology of the disease as well as the mechanism of vitamin D effects on COVID-19 severity will ultimately pave the way for a more effective prevention and control of this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D/metabolism
11.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 44(12): 2601-2607, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169067

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status within the last 6 months prior to COVID-19 infection and parameters of immune function and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Fifty-six patients, who were admitted to the emergency clinic and diagnosed with COVID-19 infection, were included in the study. Data on clinical characteristics, inflammatory parameters and vitamin D status were recorded for each patient. All the participants had data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D status within the last 6 months prior to COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: The patients were stratified as those with vitamin D status less than 20 ng/mL and higher than 20 ng/mL. A group with vitamin D status less than 20 ng/mL had lower lymphocyte counts and lower haemoglobin levels that was statistically significant (respectively; p = 0.021, p = 0.035). Higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were seen in the vitamin D-deficient group (p = 0.013). It was observed that vitamin D status of the patients who required oxygen therapy were lower than those who did not require oxygen therapy, not statistically significant (p = 0.05). Patients who did not use vitamin D supplementation within 6 months prior to COVID-19 infection had more likely to be diagnosed with pneumonia (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Cases with lower vitamin D status had increased inflammatory markers and worse clinical outcomes than patients with higher vitamin D status. This study suggests that vitamin D status can be used as a prognostic factor in COVID-19 patients, and vitamin D supplementation can be recommended to improve the clinical outcomes in COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Nutritional Status , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Dietary Supplements , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
13.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(10): 1245-1258, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142581

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge loss of human lives and extensive socio-economic damages. The immuno-pathology of this disease is neither clearly understood nor there are effective drugs for severe cases of COVID-19. Repurposing of available drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 is imperative.Areas Covered: This review has gathered the evidence from PubMed, Google Scholar, WHO, and other reliable websites on COVID-19 and summarized the existing knowledge of the immuno-pathology of COVID-19. We elucidated how vitamin D through its diverse actions on immune effector cells, epithelial cells, or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system could have a modulatory role on the pathogenic mechanisms of COVID-19. The epidemiological evidence associating vitamin D deficiency with the severity and incidence of COVID-19 is also presented. However, the evidence of clinical benefit to patients of COVID-19 from randomized controlled trials with vitamin D has not come as yet.Expert opinion: It is now established that fatality of COVID-19 is primarily determined by hyperactivation of the host's innate immune system in response to SARS-CoV-2 invasion, and thus the research on the immuno-modulatory and other roles of vitamin D against viral infections should be pursued vigorously. This would be also useful for future pandemics caused by other novel viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Replication , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
14.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 56(3): 177-182, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108648

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) produces severe respiratory symptoms such as bilateral pneumonia associated to a high morbidity and mortality, especially in patients of advanced age. Vitamin D deficiency has been reported in several chronic conditions associated with increased inflammation and dysregulation of the immune system. Vitamin D in modulates immune function too. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed by most immune cells, including B and T lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and the signalling of vitamin D and VDR together has an anti-inflammatory effect. Some studies have reported that vitamin D treatment could be useful for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 because vitamin D plays an important role as a modulator of immunocompetence. Over the last few months, some studies have hypothesized the possible beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in patients with COVID-19 in order to improve the immune balance and prevent the hyperinflammatory cytokine storm. Some preliminary studies have already shown promising results with vitamin D supplementation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D should be administered daily until adequate levels are achieved due to vitamin D behaves as a negative acute phase reactant (APR). Despite the lack of evidence on specific doses of vitamin D to treat COVID-19 in older adults, authors consider it is necessary to standardize the use in clinical practice. These recommendations advice supplement vitamin D in a protocoled fashion based on expert opinions, level of evidence 5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Dietary Supplements , Geriatrics , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Humans , Receptors, Calcitriol/metabolism , Societies, Medical , Spain , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamins/immunology
15.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(4): 444-445, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036474

ABSTRACT

Responsive immunity plays an important role fighting against infections. Worldwide, Vitamin D deficiency is a major concern not only for musculoskeletal health but also affecting the immunity status in population. Amidst COVID-19 pandemic, it is imperative to establish the role of vitamin D in destruction of pathogens. Vitamin D awareness program at school level might be an effective health governance policy to educate populations for the importance of vitamin D in overall health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immune System , Vitamin D/immunology , Humans
16.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(1): 92-100, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979792

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) continues to spread worldwide, it has become evident that the morbidity and mortality rates clearly vary across nations. Although several factors may account for this disparity, striking differences within and between populations indicate that ethnicity might impact COVID­19 clinical outcomes, reflecting the 'color of disease'. Therefore, the role of key biological variables that could interplay with viral spreading and severity indices has attracted increasing attention, particularly among non­Caucasian populations. Although the links between vitamin D status and the incidence and severity of COVID-19 remain elusive, several lines of emerging evidence suggest that vitamin D signaling, targeting several immune­mediated pathways, may offer potential benefits at different stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given that the vitamin D status is modulated by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including skin type (pigmentation), melanin polymers may also play a role in variable COVID­19 outcomes among diverse population settings. Moreover, apart from the well­known limiting effects of melanin on the endogenous production of vitamin D, the potential crosstalk between the pigmentary and immune system may also require special attention concerning the current pandemic. The present review article aimed to shed light on a range of mostly overlooked host factors, such as vitamin D status and melanin pigments, that may influence the course and outcome of COVID­19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Melanins/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Signal Transduction , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamins/blood
17.
Virus Res ; 292: 198235, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967583

ABSTRACT

The first incidence of COVID-19 was reported in the Wuhan city of Hubei province in China in late December 2019. Because of failure in timely closing of borders of the affected region, COVID-19 spread across like a wildfire through air travel initiating a pandemic. It is a serious lower respiratory track viral infection caused by highly contagious, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronavirus including COVID-19 causing SARS-CoV-2 causes zoonotic diseases and thought to be originated from bats. Since its first incidence, the virus has spread all across the world, causing serious human casualties, economic losses, and disrupting global supply chains. As with SARS-CoV, COVID-19 causing SARS-CoV-2 follows a similar path of airborne infection, but is less lethal and more infectious than SARS and MERS. This review focusses on the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, especially on the dysfunctional immune responses following a cytokine storm in severely affected persons. The mode of entry of SARS-CoV-2 is via the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptors present on the epithelial lining of lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and mucus membranes. Older persons with weaker immune system and associated co-morbidities are more vulnerable to have dysfunctional immune responses, as most of them concomitantly have severe hypovitaminosis D. Consequently, causing severe damage to key organs of the body including lungs and the cardiovascular system. Since, vast majority of persons enters to the intensive care units and died, had severe vitamin D deficiency, thus, this area must be investigated seriously. In addition, this article assesses the role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of COVID-19. Vitamin D is a key regulator of the renin-angiotensin system that is exploited by SARS-CoV-2 for entry into the host cells. Further, vitamin D modulates multiple mechanisms of the immune system to contain the virus that includes dampening the entry and replication of SARS-CoV-2, reduces concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increases levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, enhances the production of natural antimicrobial peptide and activates defensive cells such as macrophages that could destroy SARS-CoV-2. Thus, this article provides the urgency of needed evidences through large population based randomized controlled trials and ecological studies to evaluate the potential role of vitamin D in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Vitamin D/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Disease Management , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Factors , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Zoonoses/immunology
19.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(10): 2141-2158, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We present evidence for a possible role of Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency in unregulated cytokine production and inflammation leading to complications in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: The time-adjusted case mortality ratio (T-CMR) was estimated as the ratio of deceased patients on day N to the confirmed cases on day N-8. The adaptive average of T-CMR (A-CMR) was calculated as a metric of COVID-19 associated mortality. A model based on positivity change (PC) and an estimated prevalence of COVID-19 was used to determine countries with similar screening strategies. A possible association of A-CMR with the mean concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in elderly individuals in countries with similar screening strategy was investigated. We considered high C-reactive protein (CRP) in severe COVID-19 patients (CRP ≥ 1 mg/dL) as a surrogate of a cytokine storm. We considered high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) in healthy subjects as hs-CRP ≥ 0.2 mg/dL. RESULTS: A link between 25(OH)D and A-CMR in countries with similar screening strategy is evidence for VitD's possible role in reducing unregulated cytokine production and inflammation among patients with severe COVID-19. We observed an odds ratio (OR) of 1.8 with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) (1.2 to 2.6) and an OR of 1.9 with 95% CI (1.4 to 2.7) for hs-CRP in VitD deficient elderly from low-income families and high-income families, respectively. COVID-19 patient-level data show an OR of 3.4 with 95% CI (2.15 to 5.4) for high CRP in severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: We conclude that future studies on VitD's role in reducing cytokine storm and COVID-19 mortality are warranted.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
20.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(10): 2115-2131, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a novel human-infecting coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, had emerged. The WHO has classified the epidemic as a "public health emergency of international concern". A dramatic situation has unfolded with thousands of deaths, occurring mainly in the aged and very ill people. Epidemiological studies suggest that immune system function is impaired in elderly individuals and these subjects often present a deficiency in fat-soluble and hydrosoluble vitamins. METHODS: We searched for reviews describing the characteristics of autoimmune diseases and the available therapeutic protocols for their treatment. We set them as a paradigm with the purpose to uncover common pathogenetic mechanisms between these pathological conditions and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we searched for studies describing the possible efficacy of vitamins A, D, E, and C in improving the immune system function. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection induces strong immune system dysfunction characterized by the development of an intense proinflammatory response in the host, and the development of a life-threatening condition defined as cytokine release syndrome (CRS). This leads to acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), mainly in aged people. High mortality and lethality rates have been observed in elderly subjects with CoV-2-related infection. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamins may shift the proinflammatory Th17-mediated immune response arising in autoimmune diseases towards a T-cell regulatory phenotype. This review discusses the possible activity of vitamins A, D, E, and C in restoring normal antiviral immune system function and the potential therapeutic role of these micronutrients as part of a therapeutic strategy against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytokines/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vitamins/immunology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Aged , Ascorbic Acid/immunology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Th17 Cells/drug effects , Th17 Cells/immunology , Vitamin A/immunology , Vitamin A/pharmacology , Vitamin A/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin E/immunology , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Vitamin E/therapeutic use , Vitamins/pharmacology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL