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1.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785850

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly become a global pandemic. Reports from different parts of the world indicate that a significant proportion of people who have recovered from COVID-19 are suffering from various health problems collectively referred to as "long COVID-19". Common symptoms include fatigue, shortness of breath, cough, joint pain, chest pain, muscle aches, headaches, and so on. Vitamin D is an immunomodulatory hormone with proven efficacy against various upper respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D can inhibit hyperinflammatory reactions and accelerate the healing process in the affected areas, especially in lung tissue. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 cases, with a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D found in patients with COVID-19 and acute respiratory failure. Thus, there are promising reasons to promote research into the effects of vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19 patients. However, no studies to date have found that vitamin D affects post-COVID-19 symptoms or biomarkers. Based on this scenario, this review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the potential role of vitamin D in long COVID-19 and of the current literature on this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
3.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported inconsistent findings regarding the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of acute respiratory infections (ARIs). This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of ARIs using a meta-analysis of RCTs. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant articles in June 2021. Two of the authors independently assessed the eligibility of the trials. RESULTS: Out of 390 articles retrieved from the databases, we included 18 RCTs, which involved 3648 participants, with 1838 in an intervention group and 1810 in a control group in the final analysis. In the meta-analysis of all the trials, vitamin D supplements had a beneficial effect in the treatment of ARIs (relative risk (RR) = 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.13; I2 = 66.9%). Publication bias was observed in the funnel plot. In the subgroup meta-analysis of high-quality RCTs, no significant efficacy of vitamin D supplements was found (RR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.98-1.06; I2 = 24.0%). Although statistically significant changes of 7% in the treatment effects were observed, they are not considered as clinically substantial ones. CONCLUSIONS: The current meta-analysis suggests that vitamin D supplements are not clinically effective in the treatment of ARIs.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Vitamin D , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
4.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 73(1): 5-12, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761652

ABSTRACT

Background: Background. SARS-CoV-2 virus is one of the largest RNA viruses, included in the coronavirus group, showing tropism to airway epithelial cells. SARS-CoV-2 causes an acute respiratory infectious disease, Covid-19. According to WHO reports, mortality due to Covid-19 is higher in the elderly and in those burdened with comorbidities such as diabetes, obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, cancer, hypertension, hepatitis B, obesity or chronic kidney disease. Objective: The aim of the study was to review the current literature on the influence and importance of vitamin D levels on the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Material and method: A systematic review of studies published from January 1, 2009 to June 31, 2021 has been performed. For this purpose, bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Scopus were searched. The following keywords and combinations were used: Covid-19, vitamin D, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, vitamin D supplementation, SARS-CoV-2. Results: It has been shown that vitamin D plays an important role in the mechanisms of the innate immunity in the course of the acute respiratory infections. The overlapping factors of the severity of COVID-19 disease, vitamin D deficiency, and the prevalence of obesity, age scare, ethnicity, has led some researchers to hypothesize that vitamin D supplementation may be promising as a preventive or therapeutic measure for COVID-19. Conclusions: A very important factor that has an immunomodulatory character is vitamin D, the adequate supplementation of which can be a preventive or therapeutic measure in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially in elderly people, with obesity and other chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Aged , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736920

ABSTRACT

Human milk is the best food for infants. Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of viral and bacterial infections. Breast milk contains the perfect amount of nutrients needed to promote infant growth, except for vitamin D. Vitamin D is crucial for calcium metabolism and bone health, and it also has extra-skeletal actions, involving innate and adaptive immunity. As exclusive breastfeeding is a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency, infants should be supplemented with vitamin D at least during the first year. The promotion of breastfeeding and vitamin D supplementation represents an important objective of public health.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Vitamin D Deficiency , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Infant , Milk, Human , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control
6.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725884

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) global pandemic is a devastating event that is causing thousands of victims every day around the world. One of the main reasons of the great impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on society is its unexpected spread, which has not allowed an adequate preparation. The scientific community is fighting against time for the production of a vaccine, but it is difficult to place a safe and effective product on the market as fast as the virus is spreading. Similarly, for drugs that can directly interfere with viral pathways, their production times are long, despite the great efforts made. For these reasons, we analyzed the possible role of non-pharmacological substances such as supplements, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in reducing the risk of Sars-CoV-2 infection or mitigating the symptoms of COVID-19. These substances could have numerous advantages in the current circumstances, are generally easily available, and have negligible side effects if administered at the already used and tested dosages. Large scientific evidence supports the benefits that some bacterial and molecular products may exert on the immune response to respiratory viruses. These could also have a regulatory role in systemic inflammation or endothelial damage, which are two crucial aspects of COVID-19. However, there are no specific data available, and rigorous clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the putative benefits of diet supplementation, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
7.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 23(2): 293-297, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718863

ABSTRACT

Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at high risk for adverse outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Further, COVID-19 infection is associated with numerous cardiovascular (CV) complications including arrhythmia, myocardial injury, cardiomyopathy, and thrombotic events. Increased susceptibility to COVID-19 and CV complications related to COVID-19 may be in part related to immune dysregulation and inflammation associated with CV disease which is exacerbated with viral infection. Vitamin D plays a major role in immune function and exerts anti-inflammatory effects, which may prove important in the context of CVD and COVID-19. To date, studies have shown minimal benefit for vitamin D supplementation in patients with COVID-19, though there are no studies specific to patients with CVD and related complications. Further, given that vitamin D has important protective effects on the CV system, including augmentation of myocardial contractility and anti-thrombotic effects, it is unknown if supplementation with vitamin D can mitigate CVD complications associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Vitamin D/physiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
8.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 395(4): 487-494, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661670

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly contagious viral infection that has killed millions of people around the world. The most important diagnostic feature of COVID-19 is lymphocyte depletion, particularly the depletion of T cells. In COVID-19 infections, there is a link between destruction of T cells and increased expression of inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules (PD-1/PD-L1) on T cell surfaces. It was shown that PD-1/PD-L1 levels increase in severely COVID-19 infected individuals. Higher proinflammatory cytokine levels cause increased PD-1/PD-L1 expression. In severe COVID-19, higher proinflammatory cytokine levels may increase PD-1/PD-L1. Vitamin-D is an important immune regulator. It is known that the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes decrease in vitamin D deficiency while vitamin D supplementation increases CD + 4 lymphocytes. Vitamin D can increase regulatory T cell (Treg) activity. Vitamin D also has a diminishing effect on proinflammatory cytokines. In severe COVID-19 cases, vitamin D supplementation may inhibit the increase of PD-L1 expression through reducing proinflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, vitamin D supplementation could eliminate the suppressive effect of PD-L1 on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, preventing lymphopenia and reducing disease severity and mortality in patients infected with COVID-19. Besides, vitamin D supplementation can reduce inflammation by increasing Treg activity. The aim of this letter is to discuss the functions of inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules and their effects on dysfunction and depletion of T-cells as well as to explain the possible modulatory effect of vitamin D on these checkpoints and T cells.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Animals , B7-H1 Antigen/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans
9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2025734, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649505

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused severe financial, clinical, and sociological consequences besides posing a burden on healthcare. Many nutritional approaches have been employed to manage the deleterious consequences of COVID-19. Among the several micronutrients, vitamin D deprivation has been linked to an increased likelihood of hospitalization of COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D has been reported to be a critical regulator of the renin-angiotensin system, which is used by the SARS-CoV-2 to access the host cell. Vitamin D also modulates the multiple immune system mechanisms to contain the virus, including the curtailment of the viral entry into the host cell. The adequate levels of vitamin D in the host have been associated with the reduced release of proinflammatory cytokines, thus lowering the risk of a cytokine storm; increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines and enhanced secretion of natural antimicrobial peptides. It may also be involved in the enhancement of the Th2 immune response and activation of defensive cells such as macrophages. Contrary to these findings, several studies have concluded that there is no direct association between vitamin D concentrations and poor prognosis of the disease. Hence, this paper aims to decipher the immunoregulatory properties of vitamin D and its possible involvement in management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Cytokines , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
10.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 48: 167-177, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Micronutrient supplements such as vitamin D, vitamin C, and zinc have been used in managing viral illnesses. However, the clinical significance of these individual micronutrients in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. We conducted this meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of the clinical significance of these individual micronutrients in COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases through December 5th, 2021. All individual micronutrients reported by ≥ 3 studies and compared with standard-of-care (SOC) were included. The primary outcome was mortality. The secondary outcomes were intubation rate and length of hospital stay (LOS). Pooled risk ratios (RR) and mean difference (MD) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the random-effects model. RESULTS: We identified 26 studies (10 randomized controlled trials and 16 observational studies) involving 5633 COVID-19 patients that compared three individual micronutrient supplements (vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc) with SOC. Nine studies evaluated vitamin C in 1488 patients (605 in vitamin C and 883 in SOC). Vitamin C supplementation had no significant effect on mortality (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.62-1.62, P = 1.00), intubation rate (RR 1.77, 95% CI 0.56-5.56, P = 0.33), or LOS (MD 0.64; 95% CI -1.70, 2.99; P = 0.59). Fourteen studies assessed the impact of vitamin D on mortality among 3497 patients (927 in vitamin D and 2570 in SOC). Vitamin D did not reduce mortality (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.49-1.17, P = 0.21) but reduced intubation rate (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32-0.97, P = 0.04) and LOS (MD -1.26; 95% CI -2.27, -0.25; P = 0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that vitamin D supplementation was not associated with a mortality benefit in patients receiving vitamin D pre or post COVID-19 diagnosis. Five studies, including 738 patients, compared zinc intake with SOC (447 in zinc and 291 in SOC). Zinc supplementation was not associated with a significant reduction of mortality (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.60-1.03, P = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Individual micronutrient supplementations, including vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc, were not associated with a mortality benefit in COVID-19. Vitamin D may be associated with lower intubation rate and shorter LOS, but vitamin C did not reduce intubation rate or LOS. Further research is needed to validate our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins
11.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 38(4): e3517, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589132

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on mortality and admission to intensive care unit (ICU) of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Web of Science and medRxiv with terms relative to vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19 was conducted on 26 March 2021. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software was used for the quantitative assessment of data and random-effects model was applied. To investigate the association between the dose of vitamin D and the outcomes of interest, meta-regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Two thousand and seventy-eight patients from nine studies with data on mortality were included (583 received vitamin D supplementation, while 1495 did not). Sixty-one (10.46%) individuals in the treated group died, compared to 386 (25.81%) in the non-treated group (odds ratio [OR]: 0.597; 95% CI: 0.318-1.121; p = 0.109). Eight hundred and sixty patients from six studies with data on ICU admission were included (369 received vitamin D supplementation, while 491 did not). Forty-five (12.19%) individuals in the treated group were admitted to ICU, compared to 129 (26.27%) in the non-treated group (OR: 0.326; 95% CI: 0.149-0.712; p = 0.005). No significant linear relationship between vitamin D dose and log OR of mortality or log OR of ICU admission was observed. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis indicates a beneficial role of vitamin D supplementation on ICU admission, but not on mortality, of COVID-19 patients. Further research is urgently needed to understand the benefit of vitamin D in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
12.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572578

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, in modern societies, many people can be at high risk to have low vitamin D levels. Therefore, testing of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OH-D) levels should be performed before prescribing them vitamin D supplementation. However, in some cases the 25OH-D level assessment is not available at the right moment, e.g., due to mandatory quarantine of COVID-19 outpatients. Therefore, such patients could be advised to start taking moderate vitamin D doses (e.g., 4000 IU/day for adults), and their 25-OH-D levels could be checked later. The proposed algorithm also comprises vitamin D dosing principles when baseline 25OH-D levels are known.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(5): 1484-1502, 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566540

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency may increase the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to determine the association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and susceptibility to COVID-19, its severity, mortality, and role of vitamin D in its treatment. METHODS: We searched CINAHL, Cochrane library, EMBASE, PubMED, Scopus, and Web of Science up to May 30, 2021, for observational studies on association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and susceptibility to COVID-19, severe disease, and death among adults, and, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing vitamin D treatment against standard care or placebo, in improving severity or mortality among adults with COVID-19. Risk of bias was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational studies and AUB-KQ1 Cochrane tool for RCTs. Study-level data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 and R (v4.1.0). Heterogeneity was determined by I2 and sources were explored through prespecified sensitivity analyses, subgroup analyses, and meta-regressions. RESULTS: Of 1877 search results, 76 studies satisfying eligibility criteria were included. Seventy-two observational studies were included in the meta-analysis (n = 1 976 099). Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency increased the odds of developing COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 1.46; 95% CI, 1.28-1.65; P < 0.0001; I2 = 92%), severe disease (OR 1.90; 95% CI, 1.52-2.38; P < 0.0001; I2 = 81%), and death (OR 2.07; 95% CI, 1.28-3.35; P = 0.003; I2 = 73%). The 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations were lower in individuals with COVID-19 compared with controls (mean difference [MD] -3.85 ng/mL; 95% CI, -5.44 to -2.26; P ≤ 0.0001), in patients with severe COVID-19 compared with controls with nonsevere COVID-19 (MD -4.84 ng/mL; 95% CI, -7.32 to -2.35; P = 0.0001) and in nonsurvivors compared with survivors (MD -4.80 ng/mL; 95% CI, -7.89 to -1.71; P = 0.002). The association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and death was insignificant when studies with high risk of bias or studies reporting unadjusted effect estimates were excluded. Risk of bias and heterogeneity were high across all analyses. Discrepancies in timing of vitamin D testing, definitions of severe COVID-19, and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency partly explained the heterogeneity. Four RCTs were widely heterogeneous precluding meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Multiple observational studies involving nearly 2 million adults suggest vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency increases susceptibility to COVID-19 and severe COVID-19, although with a high risk of bias and heterogeneity. Association with mortality was less robust. Heterogeneity in RCTs precluded their meta-analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Adult , Humans , Prognosis , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23380, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550341

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a major worldwide health problem because of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and mortality. Several lines of evidence have suggested a relationship between the vitamin D endocrine system and severity of COVID-19. We present a survival study on a retrospective cohort of 15,968 patients, comprising all COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Andalusia between January and November 2020. Based on a central registry of electronic health records (the Andalusian Population Health Database, BPS), prescription of vitamin D or its metabolites within 15-30 days before hospitalization were recorded. The effect of prescription of vitamin D (metabolites) for other indication previous to the hospitalization was studied with respect to patient survival. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and hazard ratios support an association between prescription of these metabolites and patient survival. Such association was stronger for calcifediol (Hazard Ratio, HR = 0.67, with 95% confidence interval, CI, of [0.50-0.91]) than for cholecalciferol (HR = 0.75, with 95% CI of [0.61-0.91]), when prescribed 15 days prior hospitalization. Although the relation is maintained, there is a general decrease of this effect when a longer period of 30 days prior hospitalization is considered (calcifediol HR = 0.73, with 95% CI [0.57-0.95] and cholecalciferol HR = 0.88, with 95% CI [0.75, 1.03]), suggesting that association was stronger when the prescription was closer to the hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Calcifediol/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Survival Analysis
15.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(5): 394-402, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547558

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is spreading like wildfire with no specific recommended treatment in sight. While some risk factors such as the presence of comorbidities, old age, and ethnicity have been recognized, not a lot is known about who the virus will strike first or impact more. In this hopeless scenario, exploration of time-tested facts about viral infections, in general, seems to be a sound basis to prop further research upon. The fact that immunity and its various determinants (e.g., micronutrients, sleep, and hygiene) have a crucial role to play in the defense against invading organisms, may be a good starting point for commencing research into these as yet undisclosed territories. Herein, the excellent immunomodulatory, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory roles of Vitamin D necessitate thorough investigation, particularly in COVID-19 perspective. This article reviews mechanisms and evidence suggesting the role Vitamin D plays in people infected by the newly identified COVID-19 virus. For this review, we searched the databases of Medline, PubMed, and Embase. We studied several meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials evaluating the role of Vitamin D in influenza and other contagious viral infections. We also reviewed the circumstantial and anecdotal evidence connecting Vitamin D with COVID-19 emerging recently. Consequently, it seems logical to conclude that the immune-enhancing, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and lung-protective role of Vitamin D can be potentially lifesaving. Hence, Vitamin D deserves exhaustive exploration through rigorously designed and controlled scientific trials. Using Vitamin D as prophylaxis and/or chemotherapeutic treatment of COVID-19 infection is an approach worth considering. In this regard, mass assessment and subsequent supplementation can be tried, especially considering the mechanistic evidence in respiratory infections, low potential for toxicity, and widespread prevalence of the deficiency of Vitamin D affecting many people worldwide.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunity/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamins/adverse effects
16.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542692

ABSTRACT

A number of observational studies and reviews on the potential role of vitamin D in COVID-19 have been published since the beginning of this ongoing global pandemic [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Humans
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1676914, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study screened for factors affecting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients, appraised vitamin D's efficacy in preventing COVID-19, and assessed the effects of clinical characteristics, glycemic status, vitamin D, and hydroxychloroquine administration on COVID-19's progression and severity in T1DM patients. METHODS: This retrospective research on 150 adults was conducted at Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Participants were allocated to three groups (50/group): control, T1DM, and T1DM with COVID-19. Participants' fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), complete blood count, vitamin D, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, D-dimer, liver and kidney function, and hydroxychloroquine treatment were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: The percentages of comorbidities and not taking hydroxychloroquine were significantly higher among T1DM patients with COVID-19 than patients with T1DM only. Mean vitamin D level was significantly lower in T1DM with COVID-19 patients than in the other two groups. Vitamin D showed a significant negative correlation with LDH, CRP, ESR, ferritin, and D-dimer, which was the most reliable predictor of COVID-19 severity in T1DM patients. CONCLUSION: Comorbidities and vitamin D deficiency are risk factors for COVID-19 in patients with T1DM. Patients who do not take hydroxychloroquine and have higher FBG and HbA1c levels are vulnerable to COVID-19. Vitamin D may be useful for preventing COVID-19 in T1DM patients. Comorbidities, higher FBG and HbA1c levels, not taking hydroxychloroquine, and vitamin D inadequacy elevate COVID-19 progression and severity in patients with T1DM.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Adult , Blood Cell Count , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Incidence , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Biomolecules ; 11(11)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502359

ABSTRACT

Immune cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B cells, express the vitamin D receptor and 1α-hydroxylase. In vitro studies have shown that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, has an anti-inflammatory effect. Recent epidemiological evidence has indicated a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence, or aggravation, of infectious diseases and inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis. However, the impact of vitamin D on treatment and prevention, particularly in infectious diseases such as the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), remains controversial. Here, we review recent evidence associated with the relationship between vitamin D and inflammatory diseases and describe the underlying immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune System/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Animals , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/prevention & control , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/prevention & control , Macrophages/immunology , Mice , Monocytes/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/prevention & control , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Receptors, Calcitriol/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 758154, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477831

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has severely impacted daily life all over the world. Any measures to slow down the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to decrease disease severity are highly requested. Recent studies have reported inverse correlations between plasma levels of vitamin D and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity. Therefore, it has been proposed to supplement the general population with vitamin D to reduce the impact of COVID-19. However, by studying the course of COVID-19 and the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in a family with a mutated, non-functional vitamin D receptor, we here demonstrate that vitamin D signaling was dispensable for mounting an efficient adaptive immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in this family. Although these observations might not directly be transferred to the general population, they question a central role of vitamin D in the generation of adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets/genetics , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
20.
Cardiol J ; 29(2): 188-196, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a likely candidate for treatment as its immune modulating characteristics have effects on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. It was sought herein, to summarize the studies published to date regarding the vitamin D supplementation to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive patients. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The primary outcome were 14-day and in-hospital mortality reported as an odds ratio (OR) with the associated 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Eight articles were included in the review with a combined total of 2,322 individual patients, 786 in the vitamin D supplementation group and 1,536 in the control group. The use of vitamin D compared to the group without vitamin D supplementation was associated with a lower 14-day mortality (18.8% vs. 31.3%, respectively; OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.12-2.19; p = 0.36), a lower in-hospital mortality (5.6% vs. 16.1%; OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.23-1.37; I2 = 74%; p = 0.20), the rarer intensive care unit admission (6.4% vs. 23.4%; OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06-0.54; I2 = 77%; p = 0.002) as well as rarer mechanical ventilation (6.5% vs. 18.9%; OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.16-0.80; I2 = 0.48; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients has the potential to positively impact patients with both mild and severe symptoms. As several high-quality randomized control studies have demonstrated a benefit in hospital mortality, vitamin D should be considered a supplemental therapy of strong interest. Should vitamin D prove to reduce hospitalization rates and symptoms outside of the hospital setting, the cost and benefit to global pandemic mitigation efforts would be substantial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
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