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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e064058, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235059

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) were at high risk of infection due to their exposure to COVID infections. HCWs were the backbone of our healthcare response to this pandemic; every HCW withdrawn or lost due to infection had a substantial impact on our capacity to deliver care. Primary prevention was a key approach to reduce infection. Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in Canadians and worldwide. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to significantly decrease the risk of respiratory infections. Whether this risk reduction would apply to COVID-19 infections remained to be determined. This study aimed to determine the impact of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on incidence of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection rate and severity in HCWs working in high COVID incidence areas. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PROTECT was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group multicentre trial of vitamin D supplementation in HCWs. Participants were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio in variable block size to intervention (one oral loading dose of 100 000 IU vitamin D3+10 000 IU weekly vitamin D3) or control (identical placebo loading dose+weekly placebo). The primary outcome was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection, documented by RT-qPCR on salivary (or nasopharyngeal) specimens obtained for screening or diagnostic purposes, as well as self-obtained salivary specimens and COVID-19 seroconversion at endpoint. Secondary outcomes included disease severity; duration of COVID-19-related symptoms; COVID-19 seroconversion documented at endpoint; duration of work absenteeism; duration of unemployment support; and adverse health events. The trial was terminated prematurely, due to recruitment difficulty. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study involves human participants and was approved by the Research Ethics Board (REB) of the Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine serving as central committee for participating institutions (#MP-21-2021-3044). Participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study before taking part. Results are being disseminated to the medical community via national/international conferences and publications in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04483635.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
2.
Nutrients ; 15(11)2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242223

ABSTRACT

Over the last few years, we have experienced the infection generated by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) often resulting in an exaggerated immune reaction and systemic inflammation. The preferred treatments against SARS-CoV-2 were those that mitigated immunological/inflammatory dysfunction. A variety of observational epidemiological studies have reported that vitamin D deficiency is often a crucial factor in many inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases, as well as the susceptibility to contract infectious diseases, including acute respiratory infections. Similarly, resveratrol regulates immunity, modifying the gene expression and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in the immune cells. Therefore, it plays an immunomodulatory role that can be beneficial in the prevention and development of non-communicable diseases associated with inflammation. Since both vitamin D and resveratrol also act as immunomodulators in inflammatory pathologies, many studies have paid particular attention to an integrated treatment of either vitamin D or resveratrol in the immune reaction against SARS-CoV-2 infections. This article offers a critical evaluation of published clinical trials that have examined the use of vitamin D or resveratrol as adjuncts in COVID-19 management. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties linked to the modulation of the immune system, along with antiviral properties of both vitamin D and resveratrol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy
3.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 26(4): 309-315, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316218

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Marked inter-individual differences in the clinical manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has initiated studies in the field of genetics. This review evaluates recent genetic evidence (predominantly in the last 18 months) related to micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements) and COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: In patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), altered circulating levels of micronutrients may serve as prognostic markers of disease severity. Mendelian randomization (MR) studies did not find significant effect of variable genetically predicted levels of micronutrients on COVID-19 phenotypes, however, recent clinical studies on COVID-19 point out to vitamin D and zinc supplementation as a nutritional strategy to reduce disease severity and mortality. Recent evidence also points to variants in vitamin D receptor ( VDR ) gene, most notably rs2228570 (FokI) "f" allele and rs7975232 (ApaI) "aa" genotype as poor prognostic markers. SUMMARY: Since several micronutrients were included in the COVID-19 therapy protocols, research in the field of nutrigenetics of micronutrients is in progress. Recent findings from MR studies prioritize genes involved in biological effect, such as the VDR gene, rather than micronutrient status in future research. Emerging evidence on nutrigenetic markers may improve patient stratification and inform nutritional strategies against severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trace Elements , Humans , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300836

ABSTRACT

The importance of the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, is increasing as a requirement of the aging population in developed countries and the sustainability of healthcare. Similarly, the 2013-2030 action plan of the WHO for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases seeks these achievements. Adequate lifestyle changes, alone or with the necessary treatments, could reduce the risk of mortality or the deterioration of quality of life. In our recent work, we summarized the role of two central factors, i.e., appropriate levels of vitamin D and SIRT1, which are connected to adequate lifestyles with beneficial effects on the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. Both of these factors have received increased attention in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic as they both take part in regulation of the main metabolic processes, i.e., lipid/glucose/energy homeostasis, oxidative stress, redox balance, and cell fate, as well as in the healthy regulation of the immune system. Vitamin D and SIRT1 have direct and indirect influence of the regulation of transcription and epigenetic changes and are related to cytoplasmic signaling pathways such as PLC/DAG/IP3/PKC/MAPK, MEK/Erk, insulin/mTOR/cell growth, proliferation; leptin/PI3K-Akt-mTORC1, Akt/NFĸB/COX-2, NFĸB/TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß, and AMPK/PGC-1α/GLUT4, among others. Through their proper regulation, they maintain normal body weight, lipid profile, insulin secretion and sensitivity, balance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory processes under normal conditions and infections, maintain endothelial health; balance cell differentiation, proliferation, and fate; and balance the circadian rhythm of the cellular metabolism. The role of these two molecules is interconnected in the molecular network, and they regulate each other in several layers of the homeostasis of energy and the cellular metabolism. Both have a central role in the maintenance of healthy and balanced immune regulation and redox reactions; therefore, they could constitute promising targets either for prevention or as complementary therapies to achieve a better quality of life, at any age, for healthy people and patients under chronic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Neoplasms , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Aged , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Quality of Life , Pandemics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Vitamins , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Lipids
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(8)2023 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298498

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is a group of lipophilic hormones with pleiotropic actions. It has been traditionally related to bone metabolism, although several studies in the last decade have suggested its role in sarcopenia, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, insulin-resistance and diabetes, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases and infections. In the pandemic era, by considering the response of the different branches of the immune system to SARS-CoV-2 infection, our aims are both to analyse, among the pleiotropic effects of vitamin D, how its strong multimodal modulatory effect on the immune system is able to affect the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease and to emphasise a possible relationship between the well-known circannual fluctuations in blood levels of this hormone and the epidemiological trend of this infection, particularly in the elderly population. The biologically active form of vitamin D, or calcitriol, can influence both the innate and the adaptive arm of the immune response. Calcifediol levels have been found to be inversely correlated with upper respiratory tract infections in several studies, and this activity seems to be related to its role in the innate immunity. Cathelicidin is one of the main underlying mechanisms since this peptide increases the phagocytic and germicidal activity acting as chemoattractant for neutrophils and monocytes, and representing the first barrier in the respiratory epithelium to pathogenic invasion. Furthermore, vitamin D exerts a predominantly inhibitory action on the adaptive immune response, and it influences either cell-mediated or humoral immunity through suppression of B cells proliferation, immunoglobulins production or plasma cells differentiation. This role is played by promoting the shift from a type 1 to a type 2 immune response. In particular, the suppression of Th1 response is due to the inhibition of T cells proliferation, pro-inflammatory cytokines production (e.g., INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17) and macrophage activation. Finally, T cells also play a fundamental role in viral infectious diseases. CD4 T cells provide support to B cells antibodies production and coordinate the activity of the other immunological cells; moreover, CD8 T lymphocytes remove infected cells and reduce viral load. For all these reasons, calcifediol could have a protective role in the lung damage produced by COVID-19 by both modulating the sensitivity of tissue to angiotensin II and promoting overexpression of ACE-2. Promising results for the potential effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the severity of COVID-19 disease was demonstrated in a pilot clinical trial of 76 hospitalised patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection where oral calcifediol administration reduced the need for ICU treatment. These interesting results need to be confirmed in larger studies with available information on vitamin D serum levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Aged , Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Calcifediol , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Vitamins/pharmacology
6.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 11(5): 362-374, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295278

ABSTRACT

Over the past 100 years, many major breakthroughs and discoveries have occurred in relation to vitamin D research. These developments include the cure of rickets in 1919, the discovery of vitamin D compounds, advances in vitamin D molecular biology, and improvements in our understanding of endocrine control of vitamin D metabolism. Furthermore, recommended daily allowances for vitamin D have been established and large clinical trials of vitamin D, aimed at clarifying the effect of Vitamin D in the prevention of multiple diseases, have been completed. However, disappointingly, these clinical trials have not fulfilled the expectations many had 10 years ago. In almost every trial, various doses and routes of administration did not show efficacy of vitamin D in preventing fractures, falls, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, asthma, and respiratory infections. Although concerns about side-effects of long-term high-dose treatments, such as hypercalcaemia and nephrocalcinosis, have been around for four decades, some trials from the past 5 years have had new and unexpected adverse events. These adverse events include increased fractures, falls, and hospitalisations in older people (aged >65 years). Several of these clinical trials were powered appropriately for a primary outcome but did not include dose response studies and were underpowered for secondary analyses. Furthermore, more attention should be paid to the safety of high doses of vitamin D supplementation, particularly in older people. In addition, despite universal recommendations by osteoporosis societies for combining calcium supplements with vitamin D there remains insufficient data about their efficacy and effect on fracture risk in the highest risk groups. More trials are needed for people with severe vitamin D deficiency (ie, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <25nmol/L [10ng/mL]). In this Personal View, we summarise and discuss some of the major discoveries and controversies in the field of vitamin D.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fractures, Bone , Osteoporosis , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Osteoporosis/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements
7.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 133(1): 6-15, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294942

ABSTRACT

The single-stranded RNA virus, SARS-CoV-2, causing the COVID-19 pandemic, has severely impacted daily life globally. It has been suggested to supplement the general population with vitamin D to reduce the impact of COVID-19. Nevertheless, no clear consensus can be found as to whether vitamin D affects COVID-19 disease burden. Some studies found that vitamin D levels and/or vitamin D supplementation alleviated COVID-19 disease severity and mortality. Contrarily, other studies found no such effects of vitamin D. To understand this lack of consensus, it is relevant to investigate molecular studies of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), as such studies might explain apparent controversies. We have investigated recent studies of how transcriptional regulation by the VDR affects the immune response against SARS-CoV-2. One study found that cells from severe COVID-19 patients displayed a dysregulated vitamin D response. Contrarily, another study observed a normal immune response towards SARS-CoV-2 in a patient with a non-functional VDR. These observations indicate that hypovitaminosis D is not a prerequisite for an efficient immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and therefore not a driving factor for developing severe COVID-19. However, should a patient develop severe COVID-19, vitamin D seems to be beneficial potentially by dampening the cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 108(5): 1034-1042, 2023 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This work aims to review and discuss controversial topics in the field of vitamin D, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19. METHODS: The International Conferences "Controversies in Vitamin D" are a series of workshops that started in 2017 featuring international experts and leaders in vitamin D research and clinical practice. The fifth annual conference was held in Stresa, Italy, September 15 to 18, 2021. EVIDENCE: Before the event, participants reviewed available studies on their assigned topic, drafted a related abstract, and presented their findings at the time of the conference. Relevant literature that became available since was also discussed within the panel and updated accordingly. CONSENSUS: Before the event, the drafted abstracts had been merged to prepare a preliminary document. After the conference presentations, in-depth discussions in open sessions led to consensus. The document was subsequently modified according to discussions and up-to-date literature inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: There is quite consistent evidence for an association between low 25 OH vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and poor COVID-19 outcomes, despite heterogeneous publications of variable quality. However, the low vitamin D status in COVID-19 patients might also reflect reverse causality. Vitamin D supplementation might have a positive role in COVID-19 prevention. The evidence supporting a beneficial effect of vitamin D treatment in decreasing the risk of COVID-19 complications is conflicting. Conclusive statements regarding the beneficial effect of vitamin D in this context await high-quality, randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Consensus , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
9.
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci ; 59(8): 517-554, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264438

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D has a well-known role in the calcium homeostasis associated with the maintenance of healthy bones. It increases the efficiency of the intestinal absorption of dietary calcium, reduces calcium losses in urine, and mobilizes calcium stored in the skeleton. However, vitamin D receptors are present ubiquitously in the human body and indeed, vitamin D has a plethora of non-calcemic functions. In contrast to most vitamins, sufficient vitamin D can be synthesized in human skin. However, its production can be markedly decreased due to factors such as clothing, sunscreens, intentional avoidance of the direct sunlight, or the high latitude of the residence. Indeed, more than one billion people worldwide are vitamin D deficient, and the deficiency is frequently undiagnosed. The chronic deficiency is not only associated with rickets/osteomalacia/osteoporosis but it is also linked to a higher risk of hypertension, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or cancer. Supplementation of vitamin D may be hence beneficial, but the intake of vitamin D should be under the supervision of health professionals because overdosing leads to intoxication with severe health consequences. For monitoring vitamin D, several analytical methods are employed, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed in detail in this review.


Subject(s)
Rickets , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Calcium , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins , Rickets/complications , Rickets/drug therapy , Calcium, Dietary
10.
J Neurol ; 270(4): 1835-1842, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease and treatment-associated immune system abnormalities may confer higher risk of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). We assessed modifiable risk factors associated with COVID-19 in PwMS. METHODS: Among patients referring to our MS Center, we retrospectively collected epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data of PwMS with confirmed COVID-19 between March 2020 and March 2021 (MS-COVID, n = 149). We pursued a 1:2 matching of a control group by collecting data of PwMS without history of previous COVID-19 (MS-NCOVID, n = 292). MS-COVID and MS-NCOVID were matched for age, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and line of treatment. We compared neurological examination, premorbid vitamin D levels, anthropometric variables, life-style habits, working activity, and living environment between the two groups. Logistic regression and Bayesian network analyses were used to evaluate the association with COVID-19. RESULTS: MS-COVID and MS-NCOVID were similar in terms of age, sex, disease duration, EDSS, clinical phenotype and treatment. At multiple logistic regression, higher levels of vitamin D (OR 0.93, p < 0.0001) and active smoking status (OR 0.27, p < 0.0001) emerged as protective factors against COVID-19. In contrast, higher number of cohabitants (OR 1.26, p = 0.02) and works requiring direct external contact (OR 2.61, p = 0.0002) or in the healthcare sector (OR 3.73, p = 0.0019) resulted risk factors for COVID-19. Bayesian network analysis showed that patients working in the healthcare sector, and therefore exposed to increased risk of COVID-19, were usually non-smokers, possibly explaining the protective association between active smoking and COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Higher Vitamin D levels and teleworking may prevent unnecessary risk of infection in PwMS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Bayes Theorem , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Risk Factors
11.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 396(4): 607-620, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288183

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a wide-ranging spectrum of clinical symptoms, from asymptomatic/mild to severe. Recent research indicates that, among several factors, a low vitamin D level is a modifiable risk factor for COVID-19 patients. This study aims to evaluate the effect of vitamin D on hospital and laboratory outcomes of patients with COVID-19.Five databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library) and clinicaltrials.gov were searched until July 2022, using relevant keywords/Mesh terms. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that addressed the topic were included. The Cochrane tool was used to assess the studies' risk of bias, and the data were analyzed using the review manager (RevMan 5.4).We included nine RCTs with 1586 confirmed COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D group showed a significant reduction of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (risk ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.41, 0.84], P = 0.003), and higher change in vitamin D level (standardized mean difference = 2.27, 95% CI [2.08, 2.47], P < 0.00001) compared to the control group. Other studied hospital and laboratory outcomes showed non-significant difference between vitamin D and the control group (P ≥ 0.05).In conclusion, vitamin D reduced the risk of ICU admission and showed superiority in changing vitamin D level compared to the control group. However, other outcomes showed no difference between the two groups. More RCTs are needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins , Dietary Supplements , Hospitals
12.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 34(3): 129-137, 2023 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249196

ABSTRACT

Thromboembolic complications including cerebrovascular accidents, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, deep vein thrombosis and disseminating intravascular coagulopathy are serious encounters in sever coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected patients. This worsens the prognosis and may lead to death or life long morbidities. The laboratory finding of the disturbed haemostasias and the hyperinflammatory response are almost invariably present in COVID-19 patients. Multiple treatment modalities are utilized by the healthcare professionals to overcome the cytokine storm, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and coagulopathy in these patients. The combined actions of vitamin D (VitD) as a steroid hormone with anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antithrombotic properties increase the potential of the possible involvement of hypovitaminosis D in the thromboembolic complications of COVID-19 infection, and stimulated researchers and physicians to administer VitD therapy to prevent the infection and/or overcome the disease complications. The current review highlighted the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and hemostatic functions of VitD and its interrelation with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) pathway and the complement system. Additionally, the association of VitD deficiency with the incidence and progression of COVID-19 infection and the associated cytokine storm, oxidative stress, hypercoagulability, and endothelial dysfunction were emphasized. Normalizing VitD levels by daily low dose therapy in patients with hypovitaminosis D below (25 nmol/l) is essential for a balanced immune response and maintaining the health of the pulmonary epithelium. It protects against upper respiratory tract infections and decreases the complications of COVID-19 infections. Understanding the role of VitD and its associated molecules in the protection against the coagulopathy, vasculopathy, inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 infection could lead to new therapeutic strategies to prevent, treat, and limit the complications of this deadly virus infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
13.
Nutrients ; 15(4)2023 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260745

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is indicated to be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of both respiratory health and mental health problems, while mental health issues are a common consequence of diseases of the respiratory system. The aim of the presented systematic review was to gather available evidence regarding the influence of the supplementation of vitamin D on mental health in adults with respiratory system diseases obtained within randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The systematic review was conducted on the basis of the PubMed and Web of Science databases in agreement with the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), while being registered within the database of the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (CRD42020155779). A total of 8514 studies published before September 2021 were screened and 5 RCTs were included, which were assessed using the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials. Screening, inclusion, reporting, and assessment were conducted by two researchers independently. The studies focused on the assessment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but also increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, pulmonary tuberculosis, and bronchial asthma. The studies were conducted for various periods of time-from 2 months to a year-while the dose of vitamin D applied was also diverse-from 4000 IU applied daily, to 100,000 IU applied weekly, or monthly. The psychological measures applied within the studies allowed the assessment, mainly, of quality of life, but also well-being, and depression. For the majority of studies, some concerns regarding risk of bias were defined, resulting from the randomization process and selection of reported results; however, for one study, the risk was even defined as high. Within the included studies, three studies confirmed a beneficial effect of vitamin D (including those with a high risk of bias), but two studies did not confirm it. Taking into account the evidence gathered, in spite of a positive influence of vitamin D on mental health in individuals with increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections and bronchial asthma, the conducted systematic review is not a strong confirmation of the beneficial effect of the supplementation of vitamin D on mental health in adults with respiratory system diseases.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Mental Health , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vitamins , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Asthma/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements
14.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2022 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242603

ABSTRACT

Medicines have been re-purposed as therapeutics for COVID-19 and it is with great interest that we read the publication entitled, "Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on COVID-19 Related Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Nutrients
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(1)2022 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234431

ABSTRACT

The specialized literature emphasizes the fact that vitamin D has a potentially beneficial effect in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this article is to highlight the role of vitamin D, both prophylactic and curative, in the treatment of patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Even though its relevance is still unknown and causes various controversies, there is currently no specific treatment for patients diagnosed with COVID-19. There are various prevention strategies with new vaccination schedules, but additional randomized and clinical trials are still needed to combat this pandemic. In addition to the systemic manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection, oral manifestations of this disease have also been described in the literature. The etiology of oral manifestations associated with COVID-19 infection and vitamin D deficiency remains controversial. In the present studies, oral manifestations such as salivary gland infections, aphthae, erythema, gingivitis, ulcers, etc. have been reported. This is a new topic, and the prevalence of manifestations is described in only a few studies, which is inconsistent with the number of COVID-19 cases reported since the beginning of the pandemic. The clinical symptomatology in patients with current COVID-19 infection is polymorphic. Whether the oral manifestation is directly caused by SARS-CoV-2 or a secondary manifestation remains an important topic to analyze and discuss.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins
16.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2022 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229363

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic represents a global health challenge, particularly considering concomitant diseases. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) can be considered a population at risk. On the other hand, the risk of developing IBD and COVID-19 have both been described as modulated by vitamin D (VD) levels. In this work, a cohort of 106 adult patients affected by IBD was prospectively enrolled, during the second wave of the pandemic in Italy. In these patients, VD plasma levels, demographic, and clinical characteristics were tested for a correlation/an association with the risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the study period (anti-spike IgG positivity) and the severity of COVID-19 symptoms. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, VD supplementation (Odds Ratio; OR 0.116, p = 0.002), therapy with monoclonal antibodies (OR 0.227, p = 0.007), and the use of mesalazine (OR 2.968, p = 0.046) were found to be independent predictors of SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Moreover, hypertension was associated with severe disease (p = 0.019), while a VD level higher than 30 ng/mL (p = 0.031, OR 0.078) was associated with asymptomatic infection. No interplay between IBD activity and COVID-19 risk of infection or symptoms was observed. These results confirm the importance of VD levels in defining the risk of COVID-19 and give encouraging data about the safety of maintaining immunomodulatory treatments for IBD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements
17.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 23(2): 293-297, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174753

ABSTRACT

Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at high risk for adverse outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Further, COVID-19 infection is associated with numerous cardiovascular (CV) complications including arrhythmia, myocardial injury, cardiomyopathy, and thrombotic events. Increased susceptibility to COVID-19 and CV complications related to COVID-19 may be in part related to immune dysregulation and inflammation associated with CV disease which is exacerbated with viral infection. Vitamin D plays a major role in immune function and exerts anti-inflammatory effects, which may prove important in the context of CVD and COVID-19. To date, studies have shown minimal benefit for vitamin D supplementation in patients with COVID-19, though there are no studies specific to patients with CVD and related complications. Further, given that vitamin D has important protective effects on the CV system, including augmentation of myocardial contractility and anti-thrombotic effects, it is unknown if supplementation with vitamin D can mitigate CVD complications associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Vitamin D/physiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
18.
Curr Pharm Des ; 28(21): 1695-1702, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197774

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is an important immune-modulator with anti-inflammatory properties. While this prohormone has been studied extensively in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, findings have been inconsistent regarding its overall benefit in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Most studies to date have been observational in nature, not accounting for the use of corticosteroids. Furthermore, the few randomized clinical trials designed to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on COVID-19 outcomes have been relatively small and thus insufficiently powered to assure a balance of corticosteroid use between study arms. The current perspective addresses the interaction of vitamin D and corticosteroids as a potential explanation for the divergent results reported in the literature. Future research on vitamin D and COVID-19 will benefit by considering this interaction, especially among hospitalized patients requiring oxygen and mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins
19.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272513, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elderly long-term care residents (ELTCRs) face considerable burden of infection, especially evident during the COVID-19 pandemic. The nutritional status of the host can influence susceptibility to infection by altering immune system integrity, therefore, nutrition-based interventions may be a viable complement to existing infection prevention measures. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review sought to identify nutritional interventions and factors that have the strongest evidence to benefit ELTCRs, and thus best poised for rigorous clinical trial evaluation and subsequent implementation. METHODS: A database search of OVID-Medline, OVID-Embase, and Web of Science was performed from 2011 to 2021 to identify nutritional intervention studies which attribute to changes in infection in contemporary ELTCR settings. Articles were screened in duplicate and data extraction completed by a single reviewer, while a second reviewer verified the data which was fitted to identify evidence for nutritional interventions related to reducing rates of infection among ELTCRs. RESULTS: The search identified 1018 studies, of which 11 (nine clinical trials and two observational cohort studies) satisfied screening criteria. Interventions that significantly reduced risk of infection included whey protein (any infection), Black Chokeberry (urinary tract infection), and vitamin D (acute respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection). Both zinc and a dedicated meal-plan significantly improved lymphocyte parameters. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with the development of respiratory tract infections. Probiotic and soy-based protein interventions did not significantly affect risk of infection or lymphocyte parameters, respectively. CONCLUSION: The current scoping review was effective in identifying the use of nutrition-based interventions for infection prevention among ELTCRs. In this study, some nutrition-based interventions were observed to significantly influence the risk of infection among ELTCRs. Nutritional interventions such as vitamin D (preventing deficiency/insufficiency), Black Chokeberry juice, zinc gluconate, whey protein, and varied and nutrient dense meal plans may be suitable for future rigorous clinical trial evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Long-Term Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins , Whey Proteins
20.
Work ; 75(2): 391-400, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low levels of vitamin D are widespread in the world's population and associated with sun exposure, genetics, and lifestyles. Office workers in different occupational sectors seem more vulnerable than others. Scientific evidence reports a contribution of vitamin D in resistance to infections, opening to supplementation as a preventive action against pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. OBJECTIVE: A pilot campaign in the workplace during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was conducted based on the preliminary measurement of vitamin D amount and its integration. METHODS: A preventive action to contrast the deficiency of vitamin D was offered to a population of 700 bank employees. Vitamin D supplementation was performed between April and June 2021, on workers (n = 139) and showed 25(OH)D serum levels ≤ 30 ng/ml. Demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle information were collected by survey and changes in the serum 25(OH)D amounts were monitored. RESULTS: The adherence of the target population to the prevention campaign was 21%. 75% of the enrolled workers had low levels of vitamin D. After the intervention, serum vitamin D levels increased (1.28-fold;p = 0.0001) and 80% of the subjects reported optimal values > 30 ng/ml. Only 2.9% reported slight flu-like symptoms, but only 0.7% was confirmed as COVID-19, with respect to a ten-fold higher incidence in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation can be achieved by simple and noninvasive approaches and can bring along further insights into health literacy on diet and lifestyles, representing an opportunity to protect the population by the widespread state of vitamin deficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control
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