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Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(4): 294-297, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066464


Factor V inhibitors are a rare cause of life-threatening bleeding. We present a case of an acquired factor V inhibitor likely caused by coronavirus disease 2019 infection. Bleeding was manifested by severe anemia requiring frequent red-cell transfusion, left psoas muscle hematoma, and left retroperitoneal cavity hematoma. Factor V activity was less than 1% and the factor V inhibitor titer was 31.6 Bethesda units. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA testing of the nasopharynx was positive 2 weeks before presentation and continued to be positive for 30 days. The patient failed treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and dexamethasone. Three cycles of plasmapheresis with fresh frozen plasma replacement resulted in correction of the bleeding and laboratory coagulopathy. This is the first reported case of a factor V inhibitor in a coronavirus disease 2019 patient and suggests that plasmapheresis may be a successful treatment strategy.

Autoantibodies/biosynthesis , COVID-19/blood , Factor V/immunology , Hemorrhagic Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged, 80 and over , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/therapy , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Specificity , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Delayed Diagnosis , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Factor V/antagonists & inhibitors , Female , Hematoma/etiology , Hemorrhagic Disorders/drug therapy , Hemorrhagic Disorders/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/blood , Octreotide/therapeutic use , Plasma , Plasmapheresis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamin K/therapeutic use
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926623, 2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721636


BACKGROUND COVID-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020 in the United States. It has been associated with high mortality and morbidity all over the world. COVID-19 can cause a significant inflammatory response leading to coagulopathy and this hypercoagulable state has been associated with worse clinical outcomes in these patients. The published data regarding the presence of lupus anticoagulant in critically ill COVID-19-positive patients is limited and indicates varying conclusions so far. CASE REPORT Here, we present a case of a 31-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 pneumonia, complicated with superadded bacterial empyema and required video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with decortication. This patient also had prolonged prothrombin time on preoperative labs, which was not corrected with mixing study. Further workup detected positive lupus anticoagulant and anti-cardiolipin IgM along with alteration in other coagulation factor levels. The patient was treated with fresh frozen plasma and vitamin K before surgical intervention. He had an uneventful surgical course. He received prophylactic-dose low molecular weight heparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and did not experience any thrombotic events while hospitalized. CONCLUSIONS COVID-19 infection creates a prothrombotic state in affected patients. The formation of micro-thrombotic emboli results in significantly increased mortality and morbidity. Routine anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin can prevent thrombotic events and thus can improve patient outcomes. In patients with elevated prothrombin time, lupus anticoagulant/anti-cardiolipin antibody-positivity should be suspected, and anticoagulation prophylaxis should be continued perioperatively for better outcomes.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Empyema, Pleural/virology , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cardiolipins/immunology , Chest Tubes , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Empyema, Pleural/diagnostic imaging , Empyema, Pleural/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , International Normalized Ratio , Male , Pandemics , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Plasma , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Vitamin K/therapeutic use
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(8): 1365-1368, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657667


Vitamin K-Antagonists (VKAs) are the treatment of choice in patients with indications other than atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. Moreover, some patients still assume VKAs refusing to change their therapy when direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are properly indicated. The COVID-19 pandemic has completely changed our lives, nullifying inter-personal relationships to avoid contagion, making difficult the VKAs monitoring. We describe the re-organization of our thrombosis centre (TC) as an example on how to face the emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In the first phase, to avoid overcrowding at the TC, we planned to increase the interval time between INRs checks and to encourage blood sampling at home, especially for elderly patients. Moreover, precise scheduled blood sampling was also organized while telephone and email counselling were guaranteed by two doctors of the TC. In the second phase, to reduce the number of patients who daily attended our TC a switch from VKAs to DOACs was carried out, if no contraindications were identified. In the third phase, to protect patients, healthcare staff and hospital from COVID-19 widespread, telemedicine was strengthened. We tried to extend self-testing at home by means of portable coagulometers to as more patients as possible. To avoid patients staying or coming back to the TC an ad hoc web platform for sending the therapeutic dose adjustment and the next scheduled appointment was developed. The TC re-organization allowed us to monitor anticoagulated patients respecting personal isolation and security measures to avoid possible COVID-19 contagion.

Thrombosis/etiology , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Vitamin K/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Italy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology