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1.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(4): 695-707, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963338

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to help determine the effect of dietary supplements on symptom course and quality of life in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 infection. DESIGN: We modified the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS) to conduct a 3 arm, parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, enrolling patients with mild-to-moderate symptoms of COVID-19 infection. Patients took placebo (n = 34), vitamin C 1000 mg (n = 32), or melatonin 10 mg (n = 32) orally for 14 days. OUTCOMES: Ninety Eight (98 out of 104 recruited; mean age = 52 years) patients completed the study. Outcomes were calculated as differences from baseline scores on each of 2 WURSS-derived surveys and analyzed using a spline regression analysis. Regarding symptom progression, those patients taking placebo and vitamin C progressed at the same rate. When compared with those taking placebo (coefficient = -1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.39 to -0.8) the group taking melatonin had a faster resolution of symptoms (coefficient = -0.63 [95% CI -1.02 to -0.21] P = .003). By day 14 all 3 groups had reached plateau.Quality-of-life impact analysis demonstrated that the group taking vitamin C improved at the same rate as the group taking placebo (coefficient = -0.71 (95% CI = -1.11 to -0.3)). The group taking melatonin (coefficient = -1.16 (95% CI = -1.75 to - 0.57) P < .005) had a faster improvement in quality-of-life. By day 14 all 3 groups had reached plateau. CONCLUSION: Vitamin C 1000 mg once daily has no effect on disease progression. Melatonin 10 mg daily may have a statistically significant effect but it is unclear if this represents a clinically significant benefit to those with mild-to-moderate symptoms of COVID-19 infection. Further study is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Melatonin/adverse effects , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Vitamins/therapeutic use
2.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 50: 8-14, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959411

ABSTRACT

COVID19 has emerged as one of the worst pandemics in the history of mankind. Several vaccines have been approved by different government agencies worldwide, but data on their efficacy and safety are limited, and distribution remains a massive challenge. As per WHO, personal immunity is vital for protection against COVID19. Earlier, Vitamin C-mediated pathways have been shown to play critical role in boosting immunity attributed to its antioxidant properties. Recently, the involvement of such pathways in protection against COVID19 has been suggested. The controlled doses of Vitamin C administered through intravenous (IV) injections are being studied for determining its role in the prognosis of COVID19. In this article, we have discussed the potential role of Vitamin C in the management in COVID19 patients and presented recent clinical trials data. Additionally, we have elaborated the possibility of administering Vitamin C through inhalers in order to achieve local high concentration and the challenges of such approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use
3.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957406

ABSTRACT

It is unclear whether vitamin D benefits inpatients with COVID-19. Objective: To examine the relationship between vitamin D and COVID-19 outcomes. Design: Cohort study. Setting: National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) database. Patients: 158,835 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and a sub-cohort with severe disease (n = 81,381) hospitalized between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2021. Methods: We identified vitamin D prescribing using codes for vitamin D and its derivatives. We created a sub-cohort defined as having severe disease as those who required mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), had hospitalization >5 days, or hospitalization ending in death or hospice. Using logistic regression, we adjusted for age, sex, race, BMI, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and urban/rural residence, time period, and study site. Outcomes of interest were death or transfer to hospice, longer length of stay, and mechanical ventilation/ECMO. Results: Patients treated with vitamin D were older, had more comorbidities, and higher BMI compared with patients who did not receive vitamin D. Vitamin D treatment was associated with an increased odds of death or referral for hospice (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.10: 95% CI 1.05-1.14), hospital stay >5 days (AOR 1.78: 95% CI 1.74-1.83), and increased odds of mechanical ventilation/ECMO (AOR 1.49: 95% CI 1.44-1.55). In the sub-cohort of severe COVID-19, vitamin D decreased the odds of death or hospice (AOR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.94), but increased the odds of hospital stay longer >5 days (AOR 2.03, 95% CI 1.87-2.21) and mechanical ventilation/ECMO (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.12-1.21). Limitations: Our findings could reflect more aggressive treatment due to higher severity. Conclusion: Vitamin D treatment was associated with greater odds of extended hospitalization, mechanical ventilation/ECMO, and death or hospice referral.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins
4.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957405

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D supplementation is linked to improved outcomes from respiratory virus infection, and the COVID-19 pandemic renewed interest in understanding the potential role of vitamin D in protecting the lung from viral infections. Therefore, we evaluated the role of vitamin D using animal models of pandemic H1N1 influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In mice, dietary-induced vitamin D deficiency resulted in lung inflammation that was present prior to infection. Vitamin D sufficient (D+) and deficient (D-) wildtype (WT) and D+ and D- Cyp27B1 (Cyp) knockout (KO, cannot produce 1,25(OH)2D) mice were infected with pandemic H1N1. D- WT, D+ Cyp KO, and D- Cyp KO mice all exhibited significantly reduced survival compared to D+ WT mice. Importantly, survival was not the result of reduced viral replication, as influenza M gene expression in the lungs was similar for all animals. Based on these findings, additional experiments were performed using the mouse and hamster models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In these studies, high dose vitamin D supplementation reduced lung inflammation in mice but not hamsters. A trend to faster weight recovery was observed in 1,25(OH)2D treated mice that survived SARS-CoV-2 infection. There was no effect of vitamin D on SARS-CoV-2 N gene expression in the lung of either mice or hamsters. Therefore, vitamin D deficiency enhanced disease severity, while vitamin D sufficiency/supplementation reduced inflammation following infections with H1N1 influenza and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Vitamin D Deficiency , Animals , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins
5.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957404

ABSTRACT

Retrospective studies showed a relationship between vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity and mortality, with an inverse relation between SARS-CoV-2 positivity and circulating calcifediol levels. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the length of hospital stay and clinical improvement in patients with vitamin D deficiency hospitalized with COVID-19. The study was randomized, double blind and placebo controlled. A total of 50 subjects were enrolled and received, in addition to the best available COVID therapy, either vitamin D (25,000 IU per day over 4 consecutive days, followed by 25,000 IU per week up to 6 weeks) or placebo. The length of hospital stay decreased significantly in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group (4 days vs. 8 days; p = 0.003). At Day 7, a significantly lower percentage of patients were still hospitalized in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group (19% vs. 54%; p = 0.0161), and none of the patients treated with vitamin D were hospitalized after 21 days compared to 14% of the patients treated with placebo. Vitamin D significantly reduced the duration of supplemental oxygen among the patients who needed it (4 days vs. 7 days in the placebo group; p = 0.012) and significantly improved the clinical recovery of the patients, as assessed by the WHO scale (p = 0.0048). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization was improved by administration of vitamin D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Hospitalization , Humans , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamins/therapeutic use
6.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957398

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem, a pandemic that commonly affects the elderly and those with comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, respiratory disorders, recurrent infections, immune deficiency, and malignancies, as well as ethnic minorities living in temperate countries. The same groups were worst affected by COVID-19. Since vitamin D deficiency weakens the immune system, it increases the risk of infections, complications, and deaths, such as from sepsis and COVID-19. Deficiency can be remedied cost-effectively through targeted food fortification, supplementation, and/or daily safe sun exposure. Its endocrine functions are limited to mineral metabolism, musculoskeletal systems, specific cell membrane interactions, and parathyroid gland functions. Except for the rapid, endocrine, and cell membrane-based non-genomic functions, all other biological and physiological activities of vitamin D depend on the adequate intracellular synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D (calcitriol) in peripheral target cells via the genome. Calcitriol mediates autocrine (intracrine) and paracrine signalling in immune cells, which provides broader, protective immune functions crucial to overcoming infections. The synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D (calcitriol) in peripheral target cells is dependent on diffusion and endocytosis of D3 and 25(OH)D from the circulation into them, which requires maintenance of serum 25(OH)D concentration above 50 ng/mL. Therefore, in acute infections such as sepsis and respiratory infections like COVID-19, it is necessary to rapidly provide its precursors, D3 and 25(OH)D, through the circulation to generate adequate intracellular calcitriol. Immune defence is one of the crucial non-hormonal functions of vitamin D. A single oral (bolus) dose or divided upfront loading doses between 100,000 and 500,000 IU, using 50,000 IU vitamin D3 increase the serum 25(OH)D concentrations to a therapeutic level of above 50 ng/mL that lasts between two to three months. This takes three to five days to raise serum 25(OH)D. In contrast, a single oral dose of calcifediol (0.014 mg/kg body weight) can generate the needed 25(OH)D concentration within four hours. Considering both D3 and 25(OH)D enter immune cells for generating calcitriol, using the combination of D3 (medium-term) and calcifediol (immediate) is cost-effective and leads to the best clinical outcome. To maximise protection against infections, particularly to reduce COVID-19-associated complications and deaths, healthcare workers should advise patients on safe sun exposure, adequate vitamin D supplementation and balanced diets containing zinc, magnesium, and other micronutrients to support the immune system. Meanwhile, governments, the World Health Organisation, the Centers for Disease Control, and governments should consider similar recommendations to physicians and the public, change the outdated vitamin D and other micronutrient recommendations directed to their population, and organise targetted food fortification programs for the vulnerable groups. This article discusses a rational approach to maintaining a sustained serum 25(OH)D concentration above 50 ng/mL, necessary to attain a robust immune system for overcoming infections. Such would cost-effectively improve the population's health and reduce healthcare costs. It also describes three cost-effective, straightforward protocols for achieving and sustaining therapeutic serum 25(OH)D concentrations above 50 ng/mL (>125 nmol/L) to keep the population healthy, reduce absenteeism, improve productivity, and lower healthcare costs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Vitamin D Deficiency , Aged , Calcifediol , Calcitriol , Cholecalciferol , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immune System , Sepsis/drug therapy , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamins/therapeutic use
7.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(1): 79-96, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955472

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to assess the lifestyle of a selected group of inhabitants of the Mazowieckie Voivodeship before the pandemic and to analyse the impact of lockdown on changes in lifestyle, including changes in the consumption of selected food products that are a source of vitamins and minerals. In August 2020, a survey was conducted based on a proprietary questionnaire. It was shown that during the lockdown period, 24.7% of women and 27.1% of men made changes in their lives. The changes concerned working hours, nature of work, hours of sleep, number of meals consumed and diet. The analysis of the diet showed a decrease in the consumption of vegetables, fruits and legumes in some respondents, which, with low frequency of consumption, may lead to a deficiency of dietary fibre, vitamin C, folic acid, polyphenols and potassium. The consumption of fish, spreadable fats, salt, sugar and drinks was not compliant with the recommendations of healthy eating. Public education about healthy lifestyles is essential to prevent complications from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Life Style , Poland , Vegetables , Vitamins
8.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953779

ABSTRACT

A perennial wild shrub from the Lamiaceae family and native to the Mediterranean region, thyme is considered an important wild edible plant studied for centuries for its unique importance in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industry. Thyme is loaded with phytonutrients, minerals and vitamins. It is pungent in taste, yet rich in moisture, proteins, crude fiber, minerals and vitamins. Its chemical composition may vary with geographical location but is mainly composed of flavonoids and antioxidants. Previous studies have illustrated the therapeutic effects of thyme and its essential oils, especially thymol and carvacrol, against various diseases. This is attributed to its multi-pharmacological properties that include, but are not limited to, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic actions. Moreover, thyme has long been known for its antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiseptic activities, in addition to remarkable disruption of microbial biofilms. In the COVID-19 era, some thyme constituents were investigated for their potential in viral binding. As such, thyme presents a wide range of functional possibilities in food, drugs, and other fields and prominent interest as a nutraceutical. The aims of the current review are to present botanical and nutritive values of this herb, elaborate its major constituents, and review available literature on its dietetic and biological activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Thymus Plant , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Thymol/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Vitamins
9.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271385, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951553

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Post-COVID symptoms are the new concern in the COVID-19 pandemic, where recovered patients experience residual symptoms affecting their quality of life. Therefore, it is imperative to evaluate the role of complete vaccination, prescribed medication, and micronutrients during COVID episodes in the occurrence of post-COVID symptoms. METHOD: A longitudinal evaluation of Indonesia's recovered COVID-19 patients was performed using the data collected from July 2021 and extracted in mid-February 2022. All participants were confirmed with a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction test (PCR) and/or antigen test. This study collected demography and comorbidities information, symptoms and treatment of COVID-19, and collection of self-reported post-COVID symptoms every 30 days within 90 days after diagnosis/onset. Exposures of interest include vaccination status, Favipiravir administration, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and Zinc. A Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to evaluate the longitudinal effect of exposures, presented with adjusted odds ratios and its 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: A total of 923 participants (18.2% fully-vaccinated) were involved in the study, with 79.7% being non-hospitalized. Only 25.7% did not develop any residual symptoms within 90 days. Fatigue was the most reported post-COVID symptom in each measurement time (39.5%, 16.3%, and 7.3%). Full-vaccination was effective against chronic cough (aOR 0.527, 95% CI 0.286-0.971), chronic headache (aOR 0.317, 95% CI 0.163-0.616), and chronic arthritis (aOR 0.285, 95% CI 0.116-0.703). The combination of micronutrient supplementations and Favipiravir gave no significant effect on all post-COVID symptoms. However, early initiation of Favipiravir and delaying vitamin D administration were associated with arthritis. CONCLUSION: Full vaccination of COVID-19 prevents the disease and the development of residual symptoms when infected with SARS-COV-2. Hence, it is crucial to reconsider the prescription of micronutrient supplementation or adjust the dose of Favipiravir in the current guideline.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , COVID-19 , Amides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pyrazines , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vitamin D , Vitamins
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 441, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serum vitamin D levels may have a protective role against severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Studies have shown that deficiency in vitamin D may be a significant risk factor for poor outcomes. This study aims to compare the outcome and clinical condition of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection considering serum vitamin D levels. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 202 COVID-19 patients without known cardiovascular disease (reduced ejection fraction, uncontrolled arrhythmia, pericardial effusion, cardiac block, valvular disease, or hypertension) were included. Patients were divided into three groups of insufficient (< 30 ng/mL), normal (30 to 50 ng/mL), and high (> 50 ng/mL) serum vitamin D levels. Clinical outcome was defined as severe if invasive respiratory intervention and ICU admission was required. RESULTS: The patients were divided into three groups based on their vitamin D level: 127 cases in the insufficient vitamin D group, 53 cases in the normal vitamin D group, and 22 cases in the high vitamin D group. The mean age of the population study was 56 years. Thirty-four patients had severe clinical outcomes. The distribution of this group was as follows: 21 patients in the insufficient vitamin D group (16.5%), eight patients in the normal vitamin D group (15.1%), and five patients in the high vitamin D group (22.7%); P = 0.74. No significant differences were found between the groups in terms of mortality rate (P = 0.46). Moreover, the mean of leukocytes (mean ± SD = 6873.5 ± 4236.2), ESR (mean ± SD = 38.42 ± 26.7), and CPK-MB (mean ± SD = 63 ± 140.7) were higher in the insufficient vitamin D group, but it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The finding of the present study showed that vitamin D could not make a significant difference in cardiovascular systems, laboratory results, and severity of the disease in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular System , Vitamin D Deficiency , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamins
12.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 73: 127044, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936888

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a rapidly spreading disease, which has caught the world by surprise. Millions of people suffer from illness, and the mortality rates are dramatically high. Currently, there is no specific and immediate treatment for this disease. Remedies are limited to supportive regiments and few antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs. The lack of a definite cure for COVID-19 is the reason behind its high mortality and global prevalence. COVID-19 can lead to a critical illness with severe respiratory distress and cytokine release. Increased oxidative stress and excessive production of inflammatory cytokines are vital components of severe COVID-19. Micronutrients, metalloids, and vitamins such as iron, manganese, selenium, Zinc, Copper, vitamin A, B family, and C are among the essential and trace elements that play a pivotal role in human nutrition and health. They participate in metabolic processes that lead to energy production. In addition, they support immune functions and act as antioxidants. Therefore, maintaining an optimal level of micronutrients intake, particularly those with antioxidant activities, is essential to fight against oxidative stress, modulate inflammation, and boost the immune system. Therefore, these factors could play a crucial role in COVID-19 prevention and treatment. In this review, we aimed to summarize antiviral properties of different vitamins and minerals. Moreover, we will investigate the correlation between them and their effects in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Selenium , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Minerals/therapeutic use , Selenium/therapeutic use , Vitamin A , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(7)2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938900

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Starting in early December 2019, the novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) from infection with COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic. Many aspects of its pathogenesis and related clinical consequences are still unclear. Early diagnosis and dynamic monitoring of prognostic factors are essential to improve the ability to manage COVID-19 infection. This study aimed to provide an account of the role played by vitamins C and D on the onset, progression and severity of COVID-19. Clinical features and infection-related risk factors are also briefly discussed. Material and Methods: In March 2022, the main online databases were accessed. All the articles that investigate the possible role of vitamins C and D on COVID-19 susceptibility, severity and progression were considered. Results: The current evidence on vitamin C and D supplementation in patients with COVID-19 infection is inconsistent and controversial. In some studies, vitamins were used as coadjuvant of a formal experimental therapy, while in others as main treatment. Ethnicity and hospital setting (inpatient/outpatient) were also variable. Moreover, there was no consensus between studies in administration protocol: high heterogeneity in dosage, administration, and duration of the treatment were evident. Finally, some studies administered vitamins pre- and/or during COVID infection, in patients with different risk factors and infection severity. Conclusions: While waiting to develop a targeted, safe and effective therapy, it is important to investigate individual predisposition and proper disease management. Concluding, available data on the use of nutraceuticals in COVID-19 are inconsistent. However, there is a lack of evidence-based guidelines which recommend vitamin C and D supplementation in patients with COVID-19, and results from high quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are inconsistent. Current investigations so far are mostly observational, and include a relatively small sample size which can lead to biased results. Large-scale multicentre studies are therefore needed.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
14.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 24(7): 439-440, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929236
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11741, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927102

ABSTRACT

One of the biggest challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic is the heterogeneity in disease severity exhibited amongst patients. Among multiple factors, latest studies suggest vitamin D deficiency and pre-existing health conditions to be major contributors to death from COVID-19. It is known that certain urban form attributes can impact sun exposure and vitamin D synthesis. Also, long-term exposure to air pollution can play an independent role in vitamin D deficiency. We conducted a correlational analysis of urban form and air quality in relation to the demographics and COVID-19 incidence and mortality across 32 London boroughs between March 2020 and January 2021. We found total population, number of residents of Asian ethnicity, 4-year average PM10 levels and road length to be positively correlated with COVID-19 cases and deaths. We also found percentage of households with access to total open space to be negatively correlated with COVID-19 deaths. Our findings link COVID-19 incidence and mortality across London with environmental variables linked to vitamin D status. Our study is entirely based on publicly available data and provides a reference framework for further research as more data are gathered and the syndemic dimension of COVID-19 becomes increasingly relevant in connection to health inequalities within large urban areas.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , London/epidemiology , Pandemics , Vitamin D/analysis , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins/analysis
16.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0268396, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923684

ABSTRACT

To assess the evidence on SARS-CoV2 infection and Covid-19 in relation to deficiency and supplementation of vitamin D, we conducted a systematic review up to April 2021. We summarised data from 38 eligible studies, which presented risk estimates for at least one endpoint, including two RCT and 27 cohort-studies: 205565 patients with information on 25OHD status and 2022 taking vitamin D supplementation with a total of 1197 admitted to the ICU or who needed invasive mechanical ventilation or intubation and hospital stay, and more than 910 Covid-19 deaths. Primary outcomes were severity and mortality and the main aim was to evaluate the association with vitamin D supplementation. Random effects models showed that supplementation was associated with a significant lower risk of both Covid-19 severe disease (SRR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20-0.72, 6 studies) and mortality (SRR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.70, 8 studies). There were no statistically significant dose differences between studies: summary estimates with regular doses remain statistically significant, suggesting that higher doses are not necessary. For patients on vitamin D supplementation, a greater reduction in mortality risk emerged in older individuals and at higher latitudes. Regarding the quality of studies, assessed using the New Castle-Ottawa quality scale, the analysis revealed in most cases no statistically significant differences between low, medium or high quality studies. We found significant associations of vitamin D supplementation with Covid-19, encompassing risks of disease worsening and mortality, especially in seasons characterized by 25OHD deficiency and with not severe patients. Dedicated randomized clinical studies are encouraged to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Aged , Dietary Supplements , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
17.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267918, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of oral vitamin D3 supplementation for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 remains to be determined. The study was aimed to evaluate whether vitamin D3 supplementation could prevent respiratory worsening among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We designed a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, sequential, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The study was conducted in 17 second and third level hospitals, located in four provinces of Argentina, from 14 August 2020 to 22 June 2021. We enrolled 218 adult patients, hospitalized in general wards with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infection, mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and risk factors for disease progression. Participants were randomized to a single oral dose of 500 000 IU of vitamin D3 or matching placebo. Randomization ratio was 1:1, with permuted blocks and stratified for study site, diabetes and age (≤60 vs >60 years). The primary outcome was the change in the respiratory Sepsis related Organ Failure Assessment score between baseline and the highest value recorded up to day 7. Secondary outcomes included the length of hospital stay; intensive care unit admission; and in-hospital mortality. Overall, 115 participants were assigned to vitamin D3 and 105 to placebo (mean [SD] age, 59.1 [10.7] years; 103 [47.2%] women). There were no significant differences in the primary outcome between groups (median [IQR] 0.0 [0.0-1.0] vs 0.0 [0.0-1.0], for vitamin D3 and placebo, respectively; p = 0.925). Median [IQR] length of hospital stay was not significantly different between vitamin D3 group (6.0 [4.0-9.0] days) and placebo group (6.0 [4.0-10.0] days; p = 0.632). There were no significant differences for intensive care unit admissions (7.8% vs 10.7%; RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.70; p = 0.622), or in-hospital mortality (4.3% vs 1.9%; RR 2.24; 95% CI 0.44 to 11.29; p = 0.451). There were no significant differences in serious adverse events (vitamin D3 = 14.8%, placebo = 11.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and risk factors, a single high oral dose of vitamin D3 as compared with placebo, did not prevent the respiratory worsening. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClincicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04411446.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholecalciferol , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917525

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D has been described as an essential nutrient and hormone, which can cause nuclear, non-genomic, and mitochondrial effects. Vitamin D not only controls the transcription of thousands of genes, directly or indirectly through the modulation of calcium fluxes, but it also influences the cell metabolism and maintenance specific nuclear programs. Given its broad spectrum of activity and multiple molecular targets, a deficiency of vitamin D can be involved in many pathologies. Vitamin D deficiency also influences mortality and multiple outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Active and native vitamin D serum levels are also decreased in critically ill patients and are associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and in-hospital mortality. In addition to regulating calcium and phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D-related mechanisms regulate adaptive and innate immunity. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have a role in excessive proinflammatory cell recruitment and cytokine release, which contribute to alveolar and full-body endothelial damage. AKI is one of the most common extrapulmonary manifestations of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There are also some correlations between the vitamin D level and COVID-19 severity via several pathways. Proper vitamin D supplementation may be an attractive therapeutic strategy for AKI and has the benefits of low cost and low risk of toxicity and side effects.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
19.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917648

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is the greatest challenge facing modern medicine and public health systems. The viral evolution of SARS-CoV-2, with the emergence of new variants with in-creased infectious potential, is a cause for concern. In addition, vaccination coverage remains in-sufficient worldwide. Therefore, there is a need to develop new therapeutic options, and/or to optimize the repositioning of drugs approved for other indications for COVID-19. This may include the use of calcifediol, the prohormone of the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) as it may have potential useful effects for the treatment of COVID-19. We review the aspects associating COVID-19 with VDES and the potential use of calcifediol in COVID-19. VDES/VDR stimulation may enhance innate antiviral effector mechanisms, facilitating the induction of antimicrobial peptides/autophagy, with a critical modulatory role in the subsequent host reactive hyperinflammatory phase during COVID-19: By decreasing the cytokine/chemokine storm, regulating the renin-angiotensin-bradykinin system (RAAS), modulating neutrophil activity and maintaining the integrity of the pulmonary epithelial barrier, stimulating epithelial repair, and directly and indirectly decreasing the increased coagulability and prothrombotic tendency associated with severe COVID-19 and its complications. Available evidence suggests that VDES/VDR stimulation, while maintaining optimal serum 25OHD status, in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection may significantly reduce the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and severe COVID-19, with possible beneficial effects on the need for mechanical ventilation and/or intensive care unit (ICU) admission, as well as deaths in the course of the disease. The pharmacokinetic and functional characteristics of calcifediol give it superiority in rapidly optimizing 25OHD levels in COVID-19. A pilot study and several observational intervention studies using high doses of calcifediol (0.532 mg on day 1 and 0.266 mg on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28) dramatically decreased the need for ICU admission and the mortality rate. We, therefore, propose to use calcifediol at the doses described for the rapid correction of 25OHD deficiency in all patients in the early stages of COVID-19, in association, if necessary, with the new oral antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcifediol , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Endocrine System , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
20.
Comput Biol Med ; 147: 105788, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914269

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the worldwide spread of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), and till now, it has caused death to more than 6.2 million people. Although various vaccines and drug candidates are being tested globally with limited to moderate success, a comprehensive therapeutic cure is yet to be achieved. In this study, we applied computational drug repurposing methods complemented with the analyses of the already existing gene expression data to find better therapeutics in treatment and recovery. Primarily, we identified the most crucial proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and host human cells responsible for viral infection and host response. An in-silico screening of the existing drugs was performed against the crucial proteins for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a few existing drugs were shortlisted. Further, we analyzed the gene expression data of SARS-CoV-2 in human lung epithelial cells and investigated the molecules that can reverse the cellular mRNA expression profiles in the diseased state. LINCS L1000 and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) were utilized to obtain two sets of compounds that can be used to counter SARS-CoV-2 infection from the gene expression perspective. Indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and Vitamin-A were found in two sets of compounds, and in the in-silico screening of existing drugs to treat SARS-CoV-2. Our in-silico findings on Indomethacin were further successfully validated by in-vitro testing in Vero CCL-81 cells with an IC50 of 12 µM. Along with these findings, we briefly discuss the possible roles of Indomethacin and Vitamin-A to counter the SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Vitamins
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