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1.
N Engl J Med ; 386(25): 2387-2398, 2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies that have evaluated the use of intravenous vitamin C in adults with sepsis who were receiving vasopressor therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) have shown mixed results with respect to the risk of death and organ dysfunction. METHODS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned adults who had been in the ICU for no longer than 24 hours, who had proven or suspected infection as the main diagnosis, and who were receiving a vasopressor to receive an infusion of either vitamin C (at a dose of 50 mg per kilogram of body weight) or matched placebo administered every 6 hours for up to 96 hours. The primary outcome was a composite of death or persistent organ dysfunction (defined by the use of vasopressors, invasive mechanical ventilation, or new renal-replacement therapy) on day 28. RESULTS: A total of 872 patients underwent randomization (435 to the vitamin C group and 437 to the control group). The primary outcome occurred in 191 of 429 patients (44.5%) in the vitamin C group and in 167 of 434 patients (38.5%) in the control group (risk ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.40; P = 0.01). At 28 days, death had occurred in 152 of 429 patients (35.4%) in the vitamin C group and in 137 of 434 patients (31.6%) in the placebo group (risk ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.40) and persistent organ dysfunction in 39 of 429 patients (9.1%) and 30 of 434 patients (6.9%), respectively (risk ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.05). Findings were similar in the two groups regarding organ-dysfunction scores, biomarkers, 6-month survival, health-related quality of life, stage 3 acute kidney injury, and hypoglycemic episodes. In the vitamin C group, one patient had a severe hypoglycemic episode and another had a serious anaphylaxis event. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with sepsis receiving vasopressor therapy in the ICU, those who received intravenous vitamin C had a higher risk of death or persistent organ dysfunction at 28 days than those who received placebo. (Funded by the Lotte and John Hecht Memorial Foundation; LOVIT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03680274.).


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Sepsis , Adult , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Multiple Organ Failure , Quality of Life , Sepsis/drug therapy , Vasoconstrictor Agents/adverse effects , Vitamins/adverse effects
2.
Trials ; 23(1): 114, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused millions of deaths, and new treatments are urgently needed. Factors associated with a worse COVID-19 prognosis include old age (> 65 years), ethnicity, male sex, obesity, and people with comorbidities. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency was reported as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19. According to a recent clinical case series, vitamin D deficiency is a modifiable risk factor, which has the prospect of reducing hospital stay, intensive care, and fatal outcomes. Vitamin D has potent immunomodulatory properties, and its supplementation might improve important outcomes in critically ill and vitamin D-deficient COVID-19 patients. Despite the evidence that supports an association between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 severity, there is uncertainty about the direct link. Therefore, the aim of the trial is to assess if high-dose vitamin D supplementation has a therapeutic effect in vitamin D-deficient patients with COVID-19. METHODS: As the trial design, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multi-center approach was chosen to compare a high single dose of vitamin D (140,000 IU) followed by treatment as usual (TAU) (VitD + TAU) with treatment as usual only (placebo + TAU) in patients with COVID-19 and vitamin D deficiency. DISCUSSION: Vitamin D substitution in patients with COVID-19 and vitamin D deficiency should be investigated for efficacy and safety. The study aim is to test the hypothesis that patients with vitamin D deficiency suffering from COVID-19 treated under standardized conditions in hospital will recover faster when additionally treated with high-dose vitamin D supplementation. Latest studies suggest that vitamin D supplementation in patients with COVID-19 is highly recommended to positively influence the course of the disease. With this randomized controlled trial, a contribution to new treatment guidelines shall be made. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04525820 and SNCTP 2020-01401.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/adverse effects
3.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(5): 394-402, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547558

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is spreading like wildfire with no specific recommended treatment in sight. While some risk factors such as the presence of comorbidities, old age, and ethnicity have been recognized, not a lot is known about who the virus will strike first or impact more. In this hopeless scenario, exploration of time-tested facts about viral infections, in general, seems to be a sound basis to prop further research upon. The fact that immunity and its various determinants (e.g., micronutrients, sleep, and hygiene) have a crucial role to play in the defense against invading organisms, may be a good starting point for commencing research into these as yet undisclosed territories. Herein, the excellent immunomodulatory, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory roles of Vitamin D necessitate thorough investigation, particularly in COVID-19 perspective. This article reviews mechanisms and evidence suggesting the role Vitamin D plays in people infected by the newly identified COVID-19 virus. For this review, we searched the databases of Medline, PubMed, and Embase. We studied several meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials evaluating the role of Vitamin D in influenza and other contagious viral infections. We also reviewed the circumstantial and anecdotal evidence connecting Vitamin D with COVID-19 emerging recently. Consequently, it seems logical to conclude that the immune-enhancing, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and lung-protective role of Vitamin D can be potentially lifesaving. Hence, Vitamin D deserves exhaustive exploration through rigorously designed and controlled scientific trials. Using Vitamin D as prophylaxis and/or chemotherapeutic treatment of COVID-19 infection is an approach worth considering. In this regard, mass assessment and subsequent supplementation can be tried, especially considering the mechanistic evidence in respiratory infections, low potential for toxicity, and widespread prevalence of the deficiency of Vitamin D affecting many people worldwide.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunity/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamins/adverse effects
4.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 20(2): 168-177, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528767

ABSTRACT

The role of vitamin D in maintaining a healthy cardiovascular (CV) and the renal system has received increasing attention. Low vitamin D levels are associated with the incidence of hypertension, cardiac remodeling, and chronic congestive heart failure. Low vitamin D levels also influence renal disease progression and albuminuria deterioration. Moreover, recent research indicates that vitamin D deficiency can be a potential risk factor for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) infection and poorer outcomes. Data are inconclusive as to whether supplementation with vitamin D agents reduces CV disease risk or COVID-19 severity. Conversely, in patients with kidney disease, vitamin D supplementation is associated with an improvement in kidney function and albuminuria. This narrative review considers recent data on the effects of vitamin D on the CV and renal system, as well as its possible role regarding COVID-19 complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Albuminuria , Female , Humans , Kidney , Male , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/adverse effects
5.
Trials ; 22(1): 802, 2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Because of the effect of vitamins on modulating the immune system function, we have evaluated the effect of supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E in ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This study was a randomized and single-blinded clinical trial in which 60 subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The intervention group (n=30) received vitamins, and the control group did not receive any vitamin or placebo. The intervention was included 25,000 IU daily of vitamins A, 600,000 IU once during the study of D, 300 IU twice daily of E, 500 mg four times daily of C, and one amp daily of B complex for 7 days. At baseline and after the 7-day intervention, the serum levels of inflammatory markers, vitamins, and the SOFA score were assessed. In addition, the mortality rate and duration of hospitalization were evaluated after the intervention (IRCT registration number: IRCT20200319046819N1/registration date: 2020-04-04, https://www.irct.ir/trial/46838 ). RESULTS: Significant changes were detected in serum levels of vitamins (p < 0.001 for all vitamins), ESR (p < 0.001), CRP (p = 0.001), IL6 (p = 0.003), TNF-a (p = 0.001), and SOFA score (p < 0.001) after intervention compared with the control group. The effect of vitamins on the mortality rate was not statistically significant (p=0.112). The prolonged hospitalization rate to more than 7 days was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (p=0.001). Regarding the effect size, there was a significant and inverse association between receiving the intervention and prolonged hospitalization (OR = 0.135, 95% CI 0.038-0.481; p=0.002); however, after adjusting for confounders, it was not significant (OR=0.402, 95% CI 0.086-1.883; p=0.247). CONCLUSION: Supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E could improve the inflammatory response and decrease the severity of disease in ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamins , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamins/adverse effects
6.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(5): 672-682, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493295

ABSTRACT

While the use of vitamin C as a therapeutic agent has been investigated since the 1950s, there has been substantial recent interest in the role of vitamin C supplementation in critical illness and particularly, sepsis and septic shock. Humans cannot synthesize vitamin C and rely on exogenous intake to maintain a plasma concentration of approximately 70 to 80 µmol/L. Vitamin C, in healthy humans, is involved with antioxidant function, wound healing, endothelial function, and catecholamine synthesis. Its function in the human body informs the theoretical basis for why vitamin C supplementation may be beneficial in sepsis/septic shock.Critically ill patients can be vitamin C deficient due to low dietary intake, increased metabolic demands, inefficient recycling of vitamin C metabolites, and loss due to renal replacement therapy. Intravenous supplementation is required to achieve supraphysiologic serum levels of vitamin C. While some clinical studies of intravenous vitamin C supplementation in sepsis have shown improvements in secondary outcome measures, none of the randomized clinical trials have shown differences between vitamin C supplementation and standard of care and/or placebo in the primary outcome measures of the trials. There are some ongoing studies of high-dose vitamin C administration in patients with sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019; the majority of evidence so far does not support the routine supplementation of vitamin C in patients with sepsis or septic shock.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Ascorbic Acid Deficiency/physiopathology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Critical Illness , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/adverse effects
8.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 46(6): 1075-1078, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270828

ABSTRACT

During the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, an unusual outbreak of yellow-brown pigmentation on the skin of children was reported. Because of the restrictions on movement promulgated during the lockdown, most consultancies were performed using teledermatology. Data concerning personal care products and application of topical substances were collected, which revealed use of the same brand of wipes for all patients. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was performed to compare the components of the wipes before and after the observation of the pigmentation, in order to detect the responsible substance. This analysis revealed a level about 10-fold higher than normal of ascorbic acid and its oxidation products (dehydroascorbic acid and L-threonic acid) in the wipes associated with the pigmentation. These 'colouring wipes' represent a peculiar but harmless phenomenon that highlights the importance of careful questioning about personal care products used by patients.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine , Skin Pigmentation/drug effects , Skin/pathology , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Vitamins/adverse effects
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25876, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients infected with a virus usually lack vitamin C. High-dose vitamin C has an antiviral effect, and has been used by several researchers to treat COVID-19 by intravenous infusion, achieving good results. However, the efficacy and safety of vitamin C in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 remain unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of high-dose vitamin C infusion in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Chinese Wanfang database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database. The aim was to collect randomized controlled trials of high-dose vitamin C infusion in the treatment of patients with COVID-19, with the retrieval time being from the establishment of the database to March 2021. In accordance with the pre-designed inclusion/exclusion criteria, all data were extracted independently by 2 researchers. To assess the risk bias in the studies, the Cochrane collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used to assess the risk bias in the studies, while meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.3 software. RESULTS: In the present study, a high-quality comprehensive evaluation is provided of high-dose vitamin C infusion in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Further convincing evidence for the clinical treatment of COVID-19 is provided, in addition to evidence-based guidance for clinical practice. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021246342.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Interleukin-6/blood , Length of Stay , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/adverse effects
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 7020-7034, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The inflammatory reaction is the main cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019, especially those with severe and critical illness. Several studies suggested that high-dose vitamin C reduced inflammatory reaction associated with sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of high-dose vitamin C in Coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: We included 76 patients with Coronavirus disease 2019, classified into the high-dose vitamin C group (loading dose of 6g intravenous infusion per 12 hr on the first day, and 6g once for the following 4 days, n=46) and the standard therapy group (standard therapy alone, n=30). RESULTS: The risk of 28-day mortality was reduced for the high-dose vitamin C versus the standard therapy group (HR=0.14, 95% CI, 0.03-0.72). Oxygen support status was improved more with high-dose vitamin C than standard therapy (63.9% vs 36.1%). No safety events were associated with high-dose vitamin C therapy. CONCLUSION: High-dose vitamin C may reduce the mortality and improve oxygen support status in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 without adverse events.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Aged , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/adverse effects
11.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 27(5): 365-376, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975047

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common among hospitalized patients with Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19), with the occurrence of AKI ranging from 0.5% to 80%. The variability in the occurrence of AKI has been attributed to the difference in geographic locations, race/ethnicity, and severity of illness. AKI among hospitalized patients is associated with increased length of stay and in-hospital deaths. Even patients with AKI who survive to hospital discharge are at risk of developing chronic kidney disease or end-stage kidney disease. An improved knowledge of the pathophysiology of AKI in COVID-19 is crucial to mitigate and manage AKI and to improve the survival of patients who developed AKI during COVID-19. The goal of this article is to provide our current understanding of the etiology and the pathophysiology of AKI in the setting of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Glomerulonephritis/metabolism , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Azotemia/metabolism , Azotemia/pathology , Azotemia/physiopathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Glomerulonephritis/physiopathology , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous/metabolism , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous/pathology , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/injuries , Length of Stay , Myoglobin/metabolism , Nephritis, Interstitial/metabolism , Nephritis, Interstitial/pathology , Nephritis, Interstitial/physiopathology , Nephrosis, Lipoid/metabolism , Nephrosis, Lipoid/pathology , Nephrosis, Lipoid/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Rhabdomyolysis/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/pathology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/physiopathology , Vitamins/adverse effects
13.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620963635, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835773

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) spreads across the world multiple therapeutic interventions have been tried to reduce morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of collapsing focal sclerosing glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and acute oxalate nephropathy in a patient treated with high-dose intravenous vitamin C for severe COVID-19 infection. Collapsing FSGS has been described in patients with COVID-19 infection associated with APOL-1; however, this case had collapsing FSGS developing in low-risk heterozygous APOL-1 variant, and we postulate that the intensity of the COVID-19 cytokine storm overwhelmed the protective state of APOL-1 heterozygosity. This case illustrates the importance of assessing the risk and benefit of planned therapeutic interventions on a case-by-case basis especially when there are still so many unknowns in the management of COVID-19 infection. Strong consideration should be given for performing a renal biopsy in patients who develop multifactorial acute kidney injury.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/chemically induced , Hyperoxaluria/chemically induced , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Oxalates/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Acute Disease , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Biopsy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/diagnosis , Humans , Hyperoxaluria/diagnosis , Hyperoxaluria/metabolism , Injections, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/adverse effects
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