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1.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686899

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D (VD) is a calcium- and phosphate-controlling hormone used to treat bone disorders; yet, several other effects are progressively emerging. VD deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide, with suboptimal exposure to sunlight listed among the leading causes: oral supplementation with either cholecalciferol or calcitriol is used. However, there is a scarcity of clinical studies investigating how quickly VD concentrations can increase after supplementation. In this pilot study, the commercial supplement ImmuD3 (by Erboristeria Magentina®) was chosen as the source of VD and 2000 IU/day was administered for one month to 21 healthy volunteers that had not taken any other VD supplements in the previous 30 days. Plasma VD levels were measured through liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after 7, 14, and 28 days of supplementation. We found that 95% of the participants had insufficient VD levels at baseline (<30 ng/mL; median 23.72 ng/mL; IQR 18.10-26.15), but after 28 days of supplementation, this percentage dropped to 62% (median 28.35 ng/mL; IQR 25.78-35.20). The median increase in VD level was 3.09 ng/mL (IQR 1.60-5.68) after 7 days and 8.85 ng/mL (IQR 2.85-13.97F) after 28 days. This study suggests the need for continuing VD supplementation and for measuring target level attainment.


Subject(s)
Bone Density Conservation Agents/blood , Cholecalciferol/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins/blood , Adult , Aged , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Young Adult
2.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently the protective role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) against viral infections has been hypothesized. We evaluated the association between vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility and severity in a cohort of kidney transplanted patients (KTxp). METHODS: A total of 61 KTxp with SARS-CoV-2 infection (COV+) were matched with 122 healthy KTxp controls (COV-). Main biochemical parameters at 1, 6, and 12 months before SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded. Vitamin D status was considered as the mean of two 25(OH)D measures obtained 6 ± 2 months apart during the last year. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection was based on the need for hospitalization (HOSP+) and death (D+). RESULTS: 25(OH)D levels were lower in COV+ than in controls [19(12-26) vs. 23(17-31) ng/mL, p = 0.01]. No differences among the other biochemical parameters were found. The SARS-CoV-2 infection discriminative power of 25(OH)D was evaluated by ROC-curve (AUC 0.61, 95% CI 0.5-0.7, p = 0.01). 25(OH)D was not significantly different between HOSP+ and HOSP- [17(8-25) vs. 20(15-26) ng/mL, p = 0.19] and between D+ and D- [14(6-23) vs. 20(14-26) ng/mL, p = 0.22] and had no significant correlation with disease length. CONCLUSIONS: During the year preceding the infection, 25(OH)D levels were lower in COV+ KTxp in comparison with controls matched for demographic features and comorbidities. No significant association between vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 infection related outcomes was found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation , Vitamin D/blood , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/blood
3.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613922

ABSTRACT

The article by D'Avolio and colleagues [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamins/blood , Humans , Incidence , Patient Acuity , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
4.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463781

ABSTRACT

To date, vitamin D seems to have a significant role in affecting the prevention and immunomodulation in COVID-19 disease. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight that this pro-hormone has other several activities, such as affecting drug concentrations, since it regulates the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetics is influenced by CYPs, but no data are available in the literature concerning the association among vitamin D levels, seasonality (which affects vitamin D concentrations) and EFV plasma levels. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels on EFV plasma concentrations in different seasons. We quantified 25(OH)D3 by using chemiluminescence immunoassay, whereas EFV plasma concentrations were quantified with the HPLC-PDA method. A total of 316 patients were enrolled in Turin and Rome. Overall, 25(OH)D3levels resulted in being inversely correlated with EFV concentrations. Some patients with EFV levels higher than 4000 ng/mL showed a deficient 25(OH)D3 concentration in Turin and Rome cohorts and together. EFV concentrations were different in patients without vitamin D supplementation, whereas, for vitamin D-administered individuals, no difference in EFV exposure was present. Concerning seasonality, EFV concentrations were associated with 25(OH)D3 deficiency only in winter and in spring, whereas a significant influence was highlighted for 25(OH)D3 stratification for deficient, insufficient and sufficient values in winter, spring and summer. A strong and inverse association between 25(OH)D3and EFV plasma concentrations was suggested. These data suggest that vitamin D is able to affect drug exposure in different seasons; thus, the achievement of the clinical outcome could be improved by also considering this pro-hormone.


Subject(s)
Alkynes/blood , Alkynes/therapeutic use , Benzoxazines/blood , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes/blood , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Seasons , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamins/blood
5.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 214: 105965, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454329

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency is a negative endocrine renin-angiotensin system (RAS) modulator and PCOS women are often vitamin D deficient, leading to RAS overactivation in PCOS. A cross-sectional study was performed in 99 PCOS and 68 control women who presented sequentially. Circulating plasma levels of RAS proteins (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), renin and angiotensinogen) were measured by Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer (SOMA)-scan and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured by tandem mass spectroscopy. The RAS system was found to be overactivated in the PCOS women compared to non-PCOS control women with increased renin and decreased angiotensinogen (p < 0.05); 25-hydroxyvitamin D was also significantly lower in the PCOS group (p < 0.0001). In PCOS women, plasma renin was increased in vitamin D deficient and insufficient groups compared with the vitamin D sufficient group (p < 0.005), but did not differ across non-PCOS control subgroups. In non-PCOS controls, plasma ACE2 decreased from vitamin D insufficiency to deficiency (p < 0.05). Angiotensinogen was not different across the vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency and deficiency strata for either PCOS or non-PCOS controls. These data show that RAS activation through increased plasma renin levels was seen in vitamin D insufficient and deficient PCOS subjects compared to non-PCOS control women. In addition, decreased plasma ACE2 levels were seen in vitamin D deficiency in non-PCOS controls, which may predispose these vitamin D deficient subjects to increased cardiovascular risk and susceptibility to infectious agents such as COVID-19 where this is a risk factor.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Angiotensinogen/blood , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/blood , Renin/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Adult , Blood Pressure , Female , Humans , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamins/blood , Young Adult
6.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438687

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D and zinc are important components of nutritional immunity. This study compared the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and zinc in COVID-19 outpatients with those of potentially non-infected participants. The association of clinical symptoms with vitamin D and zinc status was also examined. A checklist and laboratory examination were applied to collect data in a cross-sectional study conducted on 53 infected outpatients with COVID-19 and 53 potentially non-infected participants. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D were not significantly lower in patients with moderate illness (19 ± 12 ng/mL) than patients with asymptomatic or mild illness (29 ± 18 ng/mL), with a trend noted for a lower serum concentration of 25(OH)D in moderate than asymptomatic or mild illness patients (p = 0.054). Infected patients (101 ± 18 µg/dL) showed a lower serum concentration of zinc than potentially non-infected participants (114 ± 13 µg/dL) (p = 0.01). Patients with normal (odds ratio (OR), 0.19; p ≤ 0.001) and insufficient (OR, 0.3; p = 0.007) vitamin D status at the second to seventh days of disease had decreased OR of general symptoms compared to patients with vitamin D deficiency. This study revealed the importance of 25(OH)D measurement to predict the progression of general and pulmonary symptoms and showed that infected patients had significantly lower zinc concentrations than potentially non-infected participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Zinc/blood , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Trace Elements/blood , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamins/blood
7.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 66, 2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304405

ABSTRACT

There are limited proven therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. We underwent an observational study with the aim of measure plasma vitamin C levels in a population of critically ill COVID-19 adult patients who met ARDS criteria according to the Berlin definition. This epidemiological study brings to light that up to 82% had low Vitamin C values. Notwithstanding the limitation that this is a single-center study, it nevertheless shows an important issue. Given the potential role of vitamin C in sepsis and ARDS, there is gathering interest of whether supplementation could be beneficial in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/blood , COVID-19/blood , Adult , Aged , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/blood
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282544

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Vitamin D, a well-established regulator of calcium and phosphate metabolism, also has immune-modulatory functions. An uncontrolled immune response and cytokine storm are tightly linked to fatal courses of COVID-19. The present retrospective study aimed to inves-tigate vitamin D status markers and vitamin D degradation products in a mixed cohort of 148 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with various clinical courses of COVID-19. (2) Methods: The serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, 24,25(OH)2D3, and 25,26(OH)2D3 were determined by a validated liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method in leftover serum samples from 148 COVID-19 patients that were admitted to the University Hospital of the Medical Uni-versity of Graz between April and November 2020. Anthropometric and clinical data, as well as outcomes were obtained from the laboratory and hospital information systems. (3) Results: From the 148 patients, 34 (23%) died within 30 days after admission. The frequency of fatal outcomes did not differ between males and females. Non-survivors were significantly older than survivors, had higher peak concentrations of IL-6 and CRP, and required mechanical ventilation more frequently. The serum concentrations of all vitamin D metabolites and the vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR) did not differ significantly between survivors and non-survivors. Additionally, the need for res-piratory support was unrelated to the serum concentrations of 25(OH)D vitamin D and the two vitamin D catabolites, as well as the VMR. (4) Conclusion: The present results do not support a relevant role of vitamin D for the course and outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Vitamin D/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Ergocalciferols/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins/blood
10.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(1): 92-100, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979792

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) continues to spread worldwide, it has become evident that the morbidity and mortality rates clearly vary across nations. Although several factors may account for this disparity, striking differences within and between populations indicate that ethnicity might impact COVID­19 clinical outcomes, reflecting the 'color of disease'. Therefore, the role of key biological variables that could interplay with viral spreading and severity indices has attracted increasing attention, particularly among non­Caucasian populations. Although the links between vitamin D status and the incidence and severity of COVID-19 remain elusive, several lines of emerging evidence suggest that vitamin D signaling, targeting several immune­mediated pathways, may offer potential benefits at different stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given that the vitamin D status is modulated by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including skin type (pigmentation), melanin polymers may also play a role in variable COVID­19 outcomes among diverse population settings. Moreover, apart from the well­known limiting effects of melanin on the endogenous production of vitamin D, the potential crosstalk between the pigmentary and immune system may also require special attention concerning the current pandemic. The present review article aimed to shed light on a range of mostly overlooked host factors, such as vitamin D status and melanin pigments, that may influence the course and outcome of COVID­19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Melanins/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Signal Transduction , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamins/blood
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 390-393, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959800

ABSTRACT

The relationship between immunity and nutrition is well known and its role in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is also being paid great attention. However, the nutritional status of COVID-19 patients is unknown. Vitamin B1, B6, B12, vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D), folate, selenium, and zinc levels were measured in 50 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Overall, 76% of the patients were vitamin D deficient and 42% were selenium deficient. No significant increase in the incidence of deficiency was found for vitamins B1, B6, and B12, folate, and zinc in patients with COVID-19. The COVID-19 group showed significantly lower vitamin D values than the healthy control group (150 people, matched by age/sex). Severe vitamin D deficiency (based on a cut-off of ≤10 ng/dl) was found in 24.0% of the patients in the COVID-19 group and 7.3% in the control group. Among 12 patients with respiratory distress, 11 (91.7%) were deficient in at least one nutrient. However, patients without respiratory distress showed a deficiency in 30/38 cases (78.9%; p = 0.425). These results suggest that a deficiency of vitamin D or selenium may decrease the immune defenses against COVID-19 and cause progression to severe disease. However, more precise and large-scale studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Nutritional Status , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Selenium/deficiency , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins/blood , Zinc/blood
14.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760945

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the new coronavirus has caused shock waves in many countries, producing a global health crisis worldwide. Lack of knowledge of the biological mechanisms of viruses, plus the absence of effective treatments against the disease (COVID-19) and/or vaccines have pulled factors that can compromise the proper functioning of the immune system to fight against infectious diseases into the spotlight. The optimal status of specific nutrients is considered crucial to keeping immune components within their normal activity, helping to avoid and overcome infections. Specifically, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) evaluated and deems six vitamins (D, A, C, Folate, B6, B12) and four minerals (zinc, iron, copper and selenium) to be essential for the normal functioning of the immune system, due to the scientific evidence collected so far. In this report, an update on the evidence of the contribution of nutritional factors as immune-enhancing aspects, factors that could reduce their bioavailability, and the role of the optimal status of these nutrients within the COVID-19 pandemic context was carried out. First, a non-systematic review of the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of an optimal nutritional status of these nutrients on the proper functioning of the immune system as well as their potential role in COVID-19 prevention/treatment was carried out by searching for available scientific evidence in PubMed and LitCovid databases. Second, a compilation from published sources and an analysis of nutritional data from 10 European countries was performed, and the relationship between country nutritional status and epidemiological COVID-19 data (available in the Worldometers database) was evaluated following an ecological study design. Furthermore, the potential effect of genetics was considered through the selection of genetic variants previously identified in Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAs) as influencing the nutritional status of these 10 considered nutrients. Therefore, access to genetic information in accessible databases (1000genomes, by Ensembl) of individuals from European populations enabled an approximation that countries might present a greater risk of suboptimal status of the nutrients studied. Results from the review approach show the importance of maintaining a correct nutritional status of these 10 nutrients analyzed for the health of the immune system, highlighting the importance of Vitamin D and iron in the context of COVID-19. Besides, the ecological study demonstrates that intake levels of relevant micronutrients-especially Vitamins D, C, B12, and iron-are inversely associated with higher COVID-19 incidence and/or mortality, particularly in populations genetically predisposed to show lower micronutrient status. In conclusion, nutrigenetic data provided by joint assessment of 10 essential nutrients for the functioning of the immune system and of the genetic factors that can limit their bioavailability can be a fundamental tool to help strengthen the immune system of individuals and prepare populations to fight against infectious diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nutrigenomics , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Male , Metals, Heavy/blood , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status/genetics , Nutritional Status/immunology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Selenium/blood , Vitamins/blood , Young Adult
16.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 39(8): 694-699, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641763

ABSTRACT

Early reports indicate an association between the severity of the COVID-19 infection and the widespread 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency known to exist in populations around the world. Vitamin D deficiency is extremely common among African American (AA) communities, where the COVID-19 infection rate is three-fold higher, and the mortality rate nearly six-fold higher, compared with rates in predominantly white communities. COVID-19 infection primarily affects the lungs and airways. Previous reports have linked 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency with subclinical interstitial lung disease. AA are at risk for lower cellular glutathione (GSH) levels, and GSH deficiency epigenetically impairs VD biosynthesis pathway genes. Compared with vitamin D alone, co-supplementation of vitamin D and L-cysteine (a GSH precursor) showed a better efficacy in improving levels of GSH and VD-regulatory genes at the cellular/tissue level, increasing 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and reducing inflammation biomarkers in the blood in mice studies. We propose that randomized clinical trials are needed to examine the potential of co-supplementation with anti-inflammatory antioxidants, vitamin D and L-cysteine in correcting the 25(OH)VD deficiency and preventing the 'cytokine storm,' one of the most severe consequences of infection with COVID-19, thereby preventing the adverse clinical effects of COVID-19 infection in the vulnerable AA population.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cysteine/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Glutathione/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Cysteine/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Epigenesis, Genetic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/prevention & control , Mice , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D Deficiency/ethnology , Vitamin D Deficiency/metabolism , Vitamins/blood , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
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