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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e064058, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235059

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) were at high risk of infection due to their exposure to COVID infections. HCWs were the backbone of our healthcare response to this pandemic; every HCW withdrawn or lost due to infection had a substantial impact on our capacity to deliver care. Primary prevention was a key approach to reduce infection. Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in Canadians and worldwide. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to significantly decrease the risk of respiratory infections. Whether this risk reduction would apply to COVID-19 infections remained to be determined. This study aimed to determine the impact of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on incidence of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection rate and severity in HCWs working in high COVID incidence areas. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PROTECT was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group multicentre trial of vitamin D supplementation in HCWs. Participants were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio in variable block size to intervention (one oral loading dose of 100 000 IU vitamin D3+10 000 IU weekly vitamin D3) or control (identical placebo loading dose+weekly placebo). The primary outcome was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection, documented by RT-qPCR on salivary (or nasopharyngeal) specimens obtained for screening or diagnostic purposes, as well as self-obtained salivary specimens and COVID-19 seroconversion at endpoint. Secondary outcomes included disease severity; duration of COVID-19-related symptoms; COVID-19 seroconversion documented at endpoint; duration of work absenteeism; duration of unemployment support; and adverse health events. The trial was terminated prematurely, due to recruitment difficulty. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study involves human participants and was approved by the Research Ethics Board (REB) of the Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine serving as central committee for participating institutions (#MP-21-2021-3044). Participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study before taking part. Results are being disseminated to the medical community via national/international conferences and publications in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04483635.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
2.
Nutrients ; 15(11)2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242223

ABSTRACT

Over the last few years, we have experienced the infection generated by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) often resulting in an exaggerated immune reaction and systemic inflammation. The preferred treatments against SARS-CoV-2 were those that mitigated immunological/inflammatory dysfunction. A variety of observational epidemiological studies have reported that vitamin D deficiency is often a crucial factor in many inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases, as well as the susceptibility to contract infectious diseases, including acute respiratory infections. Similarly, resveratrol regulates immunity, modifying the gene expression and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in the immune cells. Therefore, it plays an immunomodulatory role that can be beneficial in the prevention and development of non-communicable diseases associated with inflammation. Since both vitamin D and resveratrol also act as immunomodulators in inflammatory pathologies, many studies have paid particular attention to an integrated treatment of either vitamin D or resveratrol in the immune reaction against SARS-CoV-2 infections. This article offers a critical evaluation of published clinical trials that have examined the use of vitamin D or resveratrol as adjuncts in COVID-19 management. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties linked to the modulation of the immune system, along with antiviral properties of both vitamin D and resveratrol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy
3.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 26(4): 309-315, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316218

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Marked inter-individual differences in the clinical manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has initiated studies in the field of genetics. This review evaluates recent genetic evidence (predominantly in the last 18 months) related to micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements) and COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: In patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), altered circulating levels of micronutrients may serve as prognostic markers of disease severity. Mendelian randomization (MR) studies did not find significant effect of variable genetically predicted levels of micronutrients on COVID-19 phenotypes, however, recent clinical studies on COVID-19 point out to vitamin D and zinc supplementation as a nutritional strategy to reduce disease severity and mortality. Recent evidence also points to variants in vitamin D receptor ( VDR ) gene, most notably rs2228570 (FokI) "f" allele and rs7975232 (ApaI) "aa" genotype as poor prognostic markers. SUMMARY: Since several micronutrients were included in the COVID-19 therapy protocols, research in the field of nutrigenetics of micronutrients is in progress. Recent findings from MR studies prioritize genes involved in biological effect, such as the VDR gene, rather than micronutrient status in future research. Emerging evidence on nutrigenetic markers may improve patient stratification and inform nutritional strategies against severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trace Elements , Humans , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(8)2023 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298498

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is a group of lipophilic hormones with pleiotropic actions. It has been traditionally related to bone metabolism, although several studies in the last decade have suggested its role in sarcopenia, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, insulin-resistance and diabetes, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases and infections. In the pandemic era, by considering the response of the different branches of the immune system to SARS-CoV-2 infection, our aims are both to analyse, among the pleiotropic effects of vitamin D, how its strong multimodal modulatory effect on the immune system is able to affect the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease and to emphasise a possible relationship between the well-known circannual fluctuations in blood levels of this hormone and the epidemiological trend of this infection, particularly in the elderly population. The biologically active form of vitamin D, or calcitriol, can influence both the innate and the adaptive arm of the immune response. Calcifediol levels have been found to be inversely correlated with upper respiratory tract infections in several studies, and this activity seems to be related to its role in the innate immunity. Cathelicidin is one of the main underlying mechanisms since this peptide increases the phagocytic and germicidal activity acting as chemoattractant for neutrophils and monocytes, and representing the first barrier in the respiratory epithelium to pathogenic invasion. Furthermore, vitamin D exerts a predominantly inhibitory action on the adaptive immune response, and it influences either cell-mediated or humoral immunity through suppression of B cells proliferation, immunoglobulins production or plasma cells differentiation. This role is played by promoting the shift from a type 1 to a type 2 immune response. In particular, the suppression of Th1 response is due to the inhibition of T cells proliferation, pro-inflammatory cytokines production (e.g., INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17) and macrophage activation. Finally, T cells also play a fundamental role in viral infectious diseases. CD4 T cells provide support to B cells antibodies production and coordinate the activity of the other immunological cells; moreover, CD8 T lymphocytes remove infected cells and reduce viral load. For all these reasons, calcifediol could have a protective role in the lung damage produced by COVID-19 by both modulating the sensitivity of tissue to angiotensin II and promoting overexpression of ACE-2. Promising results for the potential effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the severity of COVID-19 disease was demonstrated in a pilot clinical trial of 76 hospitalised patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection where oral calcifediol administration reduced the need for ICU treatment. These interesting results need to be confirmed in larger studies with available information on vitamin D serum levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Aged , Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Calcifediol , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Vitamins/pharmacology
5.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 11(4): e844, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide health issue with widespread hospitalization and dependence on the intensive care unit (ICU). Vitamin D has a key role in modulating immune cells and modulating the inflammatory responses. This study aimed to investigate the association of vitamin D supplementation with inflammatory, biochemical, and mortality indices in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted on critically ill COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the ICU including the survived >30 day patients as the case group and dead patients as the control group. The status of vitamin D supplementation and inflammatory and biochemical indices of the patients were retrieved from the medical records. Logistic regression method was used to assess the association between 30 days survival and vitamin D supplement intake. RESULTS: Compared to the group of COVID-19 patients who died in <30 day, the survived patients had a lower eosinophile level (2.2 ± 0.5 vs. 6 ± 0.0, p < .001) and higher vitamin D supplementation duration (9 ± 4.4 vs. 3.3 ± 1.9 day, p = .001). Vitamin D supplementation had a positive association with survival in COVID-19 patients (OR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.15-3.40, p < .05). The association remained significant after adjustments fot age, sex, underlying diseases, and smoking. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D supplementation in critically ill patients with COVID-19 has the potential to increase survivability within the first 30 days of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Critical Illness , Case-Control Studies , Vitamin D , Vitamins/therapeutic use
6.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 11(5): 362-374, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295278

ABSTRACT

Over the past 100 years, many major breakthroughs and discoveries have occurred in relation to vitamin D research. These developments include the cure of rickets in 1919, the discovery of vitamin D compounds, advances in vitamin D molecular biology, and improvements in our understanding of endocrine control of vitamin D metabolism. Furthermore, recommended daily allowances for vitamin D have been established and large clinical trials of vitamin D, aimed at clarifying the effect of Vitamin D in the prevention of multiple diseases, have been completed. However, disappointingly, these clinical trials have not fulfilled the expectations many had 10 years ago. In almost every trial, various doses and routes of administration did not show efficacy of vitamin D in preventing fractures, falls, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, asthma, and respiratory infections. Although concerns about side-effects of long-term high-dose treatments, such as hypercalcaemia and nephrocalcinosis, have been around for four decades, some trials from the past 5 years have had new and unexpected adverse events. These adverse events include increased fractures, falls, and hospitalisations in older people (aged >65 years). Several of these clinical trials were powered appropriately for a primary outcome but did not include dose response studies and were underpowered for secondary analyses. Furthermore, more attention should be paid to the safety of high doses of vitamin D supplementation, particularly in older people. In addition, despite universal recommendations by osteoporosis societies for combining calcium supplements with vitamin D there remains insufficient data about their efficacy and effect on fracture risk in the highest risk groups. More trials are needed for people with severe vitamin D deficiency (ie, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <25nmol/L [10ng/mL]). In this Personal View, we summarise and discuss some of the major discoveries and controversies in the field of vitamin D.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fractures, Bone , Osteoporosis , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Osteoporosis/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements
7.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 133(1): 6-15, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294942

ABSTRACT

The single-stranded RNA virus, SARS-CoV-2, causing the COVID-19 pandemic, has severely impacted daily life globally. It has been suggested to supplement the general population with vitamin D to reduce the impact of COVID-19. Nevertheless, no clear consensus can be found as to whether vitamin D affects COVID-19 disease burden. Some studies found that vitamin D levels and/or vitamin D supplementation alleviated COVID-19 disease severity and mortality. Contrarily, other studies found no such effects of vitamin D. To understand this lack of consensus, it is relevant to investigate molecular studies of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), as such studies might explain apparent controversies. We have investigated recent studies of how transcriptional regulation by the VDR affects the immune response against SARS-CoV-2. One study found that cells from severe COVID-19 patients displayed a dysregulated vitamin D response. Contrarily, another study observed a normal immune response towards SARS-CoV-2 in a patient with a non-functional VDR. These observations indicate that hypovitaminosis D is not a prerequisite for an efficient immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and therefore not a driving factor for developing severe COVID-19. However, should a patient develop severe COVID-19, vitamin D seems to be beneficial potentially by dampening the cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 108(5): 1034-1042, 2023 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This work aims to review and discuss controversial topics in the field of vitamin D, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19. METHODS: The International Conferences "Controversies in Vitamin D" are a series of workshops that started in 2017 featuring international experts and leaders in vitamin D research and clinical practice. The fifth annual conference was held in Stresa, Italy, September 15 to 18, 2021. EVIDENCE: Before the event, participants reviewed available studies on their assigned topic, drafted a related abstract, and presented their findings at the time of the conference. Relevant literature that became available since was also discussed within the panel and updated accordingly. CONSENSUS: Before the event, the drafted abstracts had been merged to prepare a preliminary document. After the conference presentations, in-depth discussions in open sessions led to consensus. The document was subsequently modified according to discussions and up-to-date literature inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: There is quite consistent evidence for an association between low 25 OH vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and poor COVID-19 outcomes, despite heterogeneous publications of variable quality. However, the low vitamin D status in COVID-19 patients might also reflect reverse causality. Vitamin D supplementation might have a positive role in COVID-19 prevention. The evidence supporting a beneficial effect of vitamin D treatment in decreasing the risk of COVID-19 complications is conflicting. Conclusive statements regarding the beneficial effect of vitamin D in this context await high-quality, randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Consensus , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
9.
J Intern Med ; 292(4): 604-626, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282812

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D, when activated to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, is a steroid hormone that induces responses in several hundred genes, including many involved in immune responses to infection. Without supplementation, people living in temperate zones commonly become deficient in the precursor form of vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, during winter, as do people who receive less sunlight exposure or those with darker skin pigmentation. Studies performed pre-COVID-19 have shown significant but modest reduction in upper respiratory infections in people receiving regular daily vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency, like the risk of severe COVID-19, is linked with darker skin colour and also with obesity. Greater risk from COVID-19 has been associated with reduced ultraviolet exposure. Various studies have examined serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, either historical or current, in patients with COVID-19. The results of these studies have varied but the majority have shown an association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of COVID-19 illness or severity. Interventional studies of vitamin D supplementation have so far been inconclusive. Trial protocols commonly allow control groups to receive low-dose supplementation that may be adequate for many. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on disease severity in patients with existing COVID-19 are further complicated by the frequent use of large bolus dose vitamin D to achieve rapid effects, even though this approach has been shown to be ineffective in other settings. As the pandemic passes into its third year, a substantial role of vitamin D deficiency in determining the risk from COVID-19 remains possible but unproven.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Dietary Supplements , Hormones , Humans , Sunlight , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
10.
Nutrition ; 109: 112000, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274462

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition characterized by multiorgan dysfunction due to an exaggerated host response to infection associated with a homeostatic failure. In sepsis, different interventions, aimed at improving clinical outcomes, have been tested over the past decades. Among these most recent strategies, intravenous high-dose micronutrients (vitamins and/or trace elements) have been investigated. According to current knowledge, sepsis is characterized by low thiamine levels, which are associated with illness severity, hyperlactatemia, and poor clinical outcomes. However, caution is needed about the clinical interpretation of thiamine blood concentration in critically ill patients, and the inflammatory status, based on C-reactive protein levels, should always be measured. In sepsis, parenteral thiamine has been administered as monotherapy or in combination with vitamin C and corticosteroids. Nevertheless, most of those trials failed to report clinical benefits with high-dose thiamine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the biological properties of thiamine and to examine current knowledge regarding the safety and efficacy of high-dose thiamine as pharmaconutrition strategy when administering singly or in combination with other micronutrients in critically ill adult patients with sepsis or septic shock. Our examination of the most up-to-date evidence concludes that Recommended Daily Allowance supplementation is relatively safe for thiamine-deficient patients. However, current evidence does not support pharmaconutrition with high-dose thiamine as a single therapy or as combination therapy aimed at improving clinical outcomes in critically ill septic patients. The best nutrient combination still needs to be determined, based on the antioxidant micronutrient network and the multiple interactions among different vitamins and trace elements. In addition, a better understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of intravenous thiamine is needed. Future well-designed and powered clinical trials are urgently warranted before any specific recommendations can be made regarding supplementation in the critical care setting.


Subject(s)
Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Trace Elements , Adult , Humans , Thiamine/therapeutic use , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Critical Illness/therapy , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/diagnosis , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/therapeutic use
11.
J Nutr ; 153(5): 1420-1426, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recognition of the role of vitamin D in immune function has led to interest in its relationship with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although clinical studies to date have had conflicting results, many individuals currently take high doses of vitamin D to prevent infection. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and vitamin D supplement use with incident SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 250 health care workers were enrolled at a single institution and observed for 15 mo. Participants completed questionnaires every 3 mo regarding new SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccination, and supplement use. Serum was drawn at baseline, 6, and 12 mo for 25OHD and SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 40 y, BMI 26 kg/m2, 71% were Caucasian, and 78% female. Over 15 mo, 56 participants (22%) developed incident SARS-CoV-2 infections. At baseline, ∼50% reported using vitamin D supplements (mean daily dose 2250 units). Mean serum 25OHD was 38 ng/mL. Baseline 25OHD did not predict incident SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.20). Neither the use of vitamin D supplements (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.65, 2.14) or supplement dose was associated with incident infection (OR: 1.01 per 100-units increase; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.02). CONCLUSION: In this prospective study of health care workers, neither serum 25OHD nor the use of vitamin D supplements was associated with the incident SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our findings argue against the common practice of consuming high-dose vitamin D supplements for the presumed prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Female , Male , Prospective Studies , Vitamin D , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Hospitals
12.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2022 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245980

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence of acute respiratory infections in populations at risk. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of preventing viral infections in healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to assess the hypothesis that vitamin D3 supplementation at 5000 IU daily reduces influenza-like illness (ILI), including COVID-19, in healthcare workers. We conducted a prospective, controlled trial at a tertiary university hospital. A random group of healthcare workers was invited to receive 5000 IU daily vitamin D3 supplementation for nine months, while other random healthcare system workers served as controls. All healthcare workers were required to self-monitor and report to employee health for COVID-19 testing when experiencing symptoms of ILI. COVID-19 test results were retrieved. Incidence rates were compared between the vitamin D and control groups. Workers in the intervention group were included in the analysis if they completed at least 2 months of supplementation to ensure adequate vitamin D levels. The primary analysis compared the incidence rate of all ILI, while secondary analyses examined incidence rates of COVID-19 ILI and non-COVID-19 ILI. Between October 2020 and November 2021, 255 healthcare workers (age 47 ± 12 years, 199 women) completed at least two months of vitamin D3 supplementation. The control group consisted of 2827 workers. Vitamin D3 5000 IU supplementation was associated with a lower risk of ILI (incidence rate difference: -1.7 × 10-4/person-day, 95%-CI: -3.0 × 10-4 to -3.3 × 10-5/person-day, p = 0.015) and a lower incidence rate for non-COVID-19 ILI (incidence rate difference: -1.3 × 10-4/person-day, 95%-CI -2.5 × 10-4 to -7.1 × 10-6/person-day, p = 0.038). COVID-19 ILI incidence was not statistically different (incidence rate difference: -4.2 × 10-5/person-day, 95%-CI: -10.0 × 10-5 to 1.5 × 10-5/person-day, p = 0.152). Daily supplementation with 5000 IU vitamin D3 reduces influenza-like illness in healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Virus Diseases , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vitamin D , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method
13.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0279830, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hmong men in Minnesota exhibit a high prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia. Although evidence of vitamin C's effectiveness as a treatment for gout is mixed, analysis of therapeutic benefit based on an individual's multiomic signature may identify predictive markers of treatment success. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the Hmong Microbiome ANd Gout, Obesity, Vitamin C (HMANGO-C) study was to assess the effectiveness of vitamin C on serum urate in Hmong adults with and without gout/hyperuricemia. The secondary objectives were to assess if 1) vitamin C impacts the taxonomic and functional patterns of microbiota; 2) taxonomic and functional patterns of microbiota impact vitamin C's urate-lowering effects; 3) genetic variations impact vitamin C's urate-lowering effects; 4) differential microbial biomarkers exist for patients with or without gout; and 5) there is an association between obesity, gut microbiota and gout/hyperuricemia. METHODS: This prospective open-labelled clinical trial was guided by community-based participatory research principles and conducted under research safety restrictions for SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to enroll a convenient sample of 180 Hmong adults (120 with gout/hyperuricemia and 60 without gout/hyperuricemia) who provided medical, demographic, dietary and anthropometric information. Participants took vitamin C 500mg twice daily for 8 weeks and provided pre-and post- samples of blood and urine for urate measurements as well as stool samples for gut microbiome. Salivary DNA was also collected for genetic markers relevant to uric acid disposition. EXPECTED RESULTS: We expected to quantify the impact of vitamin C on serum urate in Hmong adults with and without gout/hyperuricemia. The outcome will enhance our understanding of how gut microbiome and genomic variants impact the urate-lowering of vitamin C and associations between obesity, gut microbiota and gout/hyperuricemia. Ultimately, findings may improve our understanding of the causes and potential interventions that could be used to address health disparities in the prevalence and management of gout in this underserved population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04938024 (first posted: 06/24/2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gout , Hyperuricemia , Microbiota , Male , Adult , Humans , Uric Acid , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Gout/drug therapy , Gout/epidemiology , Gout/genetics , Gout Suppressants/therapeutic use , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/complications , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Microbiota/genetics , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic
14.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2022 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229363

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic represents a global health challenge, particularly considering concomitant diseases. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) can be considered a population at risk. On the other hand, the risk of developing IBD and COVID-19 have both been described as modulated by vitamin D (VD) levels. In this work, a cohort of 106 adult patients affected by IBD was prospectively enrolled, during the second wave of the pandemic in Italy. In these patients, VD plasma levels, demographic, and clinical characteristics were tested for a correlation/an association with the risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the study period (anti-spike IgG positivity) and the severity of COVID-19 symptoms. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, VD supplementation (Odds Ratio; OR 0.116, p = 0.002), therapy with monoclonal antibodies (OR 0.227, p = 0.007), and the use of mesalazine (OR 2.968, p = 0.046) were found to be independent predictors of SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Moreover, hypertension was associated with severe disease (p = 0.019), while a VD level higher than 30 ng/mL (p = 0.031, OR 0.078) was associated with asymptomatic infection. No interplay between IBD activity and COVID-19 risk of infection or symptoms was observed. These results confirm the importance of VD levels in defining the risk of COVID-19 and give encouraging data about the safety of maintaining immunomodulatory treatments for IBD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements
16.
Ann Afr Med ; 22(1): 117-123, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217225

ABSTRACT

Background: Many factors have been proposed to be associated with the severity of disease and mortality in COVID-19. Vitamin D had recently been reviewed as one of these factors. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the association between Vitamin D and the disease severity and mortality in COVID-19. Materials and Methods: After approval from Institutional Ethics Committee, this prospective cohort study was carried out in selected tertiary care teaching medical institutes of Central India. Participants were COVID-19 patients of the age group of 18 years and above admitted during the study period. They were categorized into four groups as asymptomatic (Group A), mild (Group B), moderate (Group C), and severe (Group D) based on clinical symptoms, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and chest imaging. Serum level of Vitamin 25(OH) D was measured using chemiluminescent immunoassay. The outcome of the disease was classified as recovery and death during hospitalization. The association of sociodemographic and medical characteristics with treatment outcome was studied using an appropriate statistical test. A full logistic regression model was built for the assessment of the relationship between treatment outcomes with Vitamin D level. Further, one receiver operating characteristic curve was developed to examine the prognostic significance of Vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients. Results: Out of 748 enrolled patients, 44 (5.88%), had severe disease (Group D). A total of 721 cases (96.39%) recovered and were discharged, whereas 27 (3.61%) died during hospitalization. Mean Vitamin D level was found to be significantly different in discharged patients compared to those who were deceased. Increasing age-adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07 [1.02-1.12]), known hypertension AOR (95%CI) = 3.38 (1.13-10.08), and diabetes mellitus AOR (95%CI) =28.5 (6.04-134.13) were found to be significant predictors of death among COVID-19 patients. Increasing Vitamin D level was found to be protective against COVID-19-related death (AOR (95% CI = 0.87 [0.80-0.94]). Conclusion: Vitamin D was significantly associated with the disease severity and mortality in COVID-19.


Résumé Contexte: Il a été proposé que de nombreux facteurs soient associés à la gravité de la maladie et de la mortalité dans le Covid - 19. La vitamine D avait récemment été examinée comme l'un de ces facteurs. Objectif et objectifs: évaluer l'association entre la vitamine D et la gravité de la maladie et la mortalité dans le Covid-19. Matériel et méthodes: Après l'approbation du comité d'éthique institutionnel, cette étude de cohorte prospective a été réalisée dans des instituts médicaux d'enseignement des soins tertiaires de l'Inde centrale. Les participants étaient des patients Covid-19 du groupe d'âge de 18 ans et plus admis au cours de la période d'étude. Ils ont été classés en quatre groupes comme asymptomatiques (groupe A), légers (groupe B), modérés (groupe C) et sévères (groupe D) sur la base des symptômes cliniques, de la fréquence respiratoire, de la saturation en oxygène et de l'imagerie thoracique. Niveau sérique de la vitamine 25 (OH) DWAS mesuré en utilisant l'immunodosage chimioluminescent. L'issue de la maladie a été classée comme récupération et décès pendant l'hospitalisation. L'association des caractéristiques sociodémographiques et médicales avec les résultats du traitement a été étudiée à l'aide d'un test statistique approprié. Un modèle de régression logistique complet a été construit pour l'évaluation de la relation entre les résultats du traitement au niveau de la vitamine D. De plus, une courbe caractéristique de fonctionnement du récepteur a été développée pour examiner la signification pronostique des niveaux de vitamine D chez les patients COVID-19. Résultats: Sur 748 patients inscrits, 44 (5,88%), avaient une maladie grave (groupe D). Un total de 721 cas (96,39%) ont récupéré et ont été libérés, tandis que 27 (3,61%) sont décédés pendant l'hospitalisation. Le niveau moyen de la vitamine D s'est révélé significativement différent chez les patients libérés par rapport à ceux qui ont été décédés. Augmentation du rapport de cotes ajusté à l'âge (AOR) (intervalle de confiance à 95% [IC] = 1,07 [1,02­1,12]), hypertension connue AOR (IC à 95%) = 3,38 (1,13­10,08) et diabète mellite aor (IC 95% ) = 28,5 (6,04­134.13) se sont révélés être des prédicteurs significatifs de la mort chez les patients COVID-19. L'augmentation du niveau de vitamine D s'est avérée protectrice contre la mort liée au Covid - 19 (AOR (IC à 95% = 0,87 [0,80­0,94]). Conclusion: La vitamine D était significativement associée à la gravité de la maladie et à la mortalité dans le Covid - 19. Mots clés: Covid - 19, tempête de cytokines, mortalité, gravité, vitamine D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Humans , Adolescent , Prospective Studies , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 23(2): 293-297, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174753

ABSTRACT

Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at high risk for adverse outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Further, COVID-19 infection is associated with numerous cardiovascular (CV) complications including arrhythmia, myocardial injury, cardiomyopathy, and thrombotic events. Increased susceptibility to COVID-19 and CV complications related to COVID-19 may be in part related to immune dysregulation and inflammation associated with CV disease which is exacerbated with viral infection. Vitamin D plays a major role in immune function and exerts anti-inflammatory effects, which may prove important in the context of CVD and COVID-19. To date, studies have shown minimal benefit for vitamin D supplementation in patients with COVID-19, though there are no studies specific to patients with CVD and related complications. Further, given that vitamin D has important protective effects on the CV system, including augmentation of myocardial contractility and anti-thrombotic effects, it is unknown if supplementation with vitamin D can mitigate CVD complications associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Vitamin D Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Vitamin D/physiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200271

ABSTRACT

The genomic activity of vitamin D is associated with metabolic effects, and the hormone has a strong impact on several physiological functions and, therefore, on health. Among its renowned functions, vitamin D is an immunomodulator and a molecule with an anti-inflammatory effect, and, recently, it has been much studied in relation to its response against viral infections, especially against COVID-19. This review aims to take stock of the correlation studies between vitamin D deficiency and increased risks of severe COVID-19 disease and, similarly, between vitamin D deficiency and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Based on this evidence, supplementation with vitamin D has been tested in clinical trials, and the results are discussed. Finally, this study includes a biochemical analysis on the effects of vitamin D in the body's defense mechanisms against viral infection. In particular, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions are considered in relation to energy metabolism, and the potential, beneficial effect of vitamin D in COVID-19 is described, with discussion of its influence on different biochemical pathways. The proposed, broader view of vitamin D activity could support a better-integrated approach in supplementation strategies against severe COVID-19, which could be valuable in a near future of living with an infection becoming endemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
19.
Complement Ther Med ; 72: 102917, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2177969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 causes moderate to severe illness and is spreading globally. During a pandemic, vitamins and minerals are vital to health. Therefore, the prevalence and epidemiology of supplement use in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic must be known. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Saudi Arabia using an online survey. The study was conducted from June to March 2022 on both adults and children. The link to the survey was shared on social media platforms. The survey included questions on participants' demographics, vaccination status, supplements they used, and side effects of supplements. Participation in this study was optional, and there was no obligation to participate. There was a declaration about the aim of the study and different objectives before starting the survey. RESULTS: The present study reported that most of the participants reported that they used vitamin C (64.6 %), zinc (51.9 %), multivitamins (46.1 %), black seeds (26.7 %), garlic (Allium sativum) (15.4 %), omega-3 (22.1 %), vitamin D (22.2 %), echinacea (10.1 %), manuka honey (26.0 %), curcumin (13.6 %), ginger (22.5 %), royal jelly (12.9 %), and propolis (7.5 %) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic period. These supplements were used more frequently by subjects during the pandemic than before. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The respondents' risk of these supplements' use may partially reflect the public's behavioral response during a pandemic. Future studies can document the health beliefs and motivations of nutritional supplement users.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Dietary Supplements , Vitamins/therapeutic use
20.
Nutrients ; 14(23)2022 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123779

ABSTRACT

Vitamin C, (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and zinc (zinc sulfate monohydrate) supplements are important in immunity against coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, a limited number of studies have been conducted on the association of vitamins and supplements with the reduced risks of COVID-19 infection. This study aims to evaluate the association of vitamins and supplements as treatment options to reduce the severity of COVID-19. Data were collected from 962 participants from 13 December 2020 to 4 February 2021. The presence of COVID-19 was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The Chi-square test and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. The ratio of uptake of vitamin C:vitamin D:zinc was 1:1:0.95. Uptake of vitamin C, vitamin D and zinc were significantly associated with the reduced risk of infection and severity of COVID-19 (OR: 0.006 (95% CI: 0.03-0.11) (p = 0.004)) and (OR: 0.03 (95% CI: 0.01-0.22) (p = 0.005)). The tendency of taking supplements was associated with the presence of infection of COVID-19 (p = 0.001), age (p = 0.02), sex (p = 0.05) and residence (p = 0.04). The duration of supplementation and medication was significantly associated with reduced hospitalization (p = 0.0001). Vitamins C, D and zinc were not significantly (p = 0.9) associated with a reduced risk of severity when taken through the diet. Hospitalization (p = 0.000001) and access to health facilities (p = 0.0097) were significantly associated with the survival period of the participants. Participants with better access to health facilities recovered early (OR: 6.21, 95% CI 1.56-24.7). This study will add knowledge in the field of treatment of COVID-19 by using vitamins and zinc supplements.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , COVID-19 , Humans , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Vitamin A , Dietary Supplements , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
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