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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 717816, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595671

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vitamin C has been reported to have beneficial effects on patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin C supplementation on pathological parameters and survival duration of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 120 hospitalized critically ill patients infected with COVID-19. The intervention group (n = 31) received one capsule of 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 14 days. The control group (n = 69) received the same nutrition except for vitamin C supplements. Measurement of pathological and biochemical parameters was performed at baseline and after 2 weeks of the intervention. Results: Following 2 weeks of vitamin C supplementation, the level of serum K was significantly lower in the patients compared with the control group (3.93 vs. 4.21 mEq/L, p < 0.01). Vitamin C supplementation resulted in a higher mean survival duration compared with that of the control group (8 vs. 4 days, p < 0.01). There was a linear association between the number of days of vitamin C intake and survival duration (B = 1.66, p < 0.001). The vitamin C supplementation had no effect on blood glucose, mean arterial pressure, arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), kidney function, cell blood count (CBC), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (Plt), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), albumin, hematocrit (Hct), and other serum electrolytes including sodium (Na), calcium, and phosphorus (P). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the potential of vitamin C supplementation in enhancing the survival duration of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.irct.ir/trial/55074, identifier IRCT20151226025699N5.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/therapeutic use
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554816

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are the only way to reduce the morbidity associated to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The appearance of new mutations urges us to increase the effectiveness of vaccines as a complementary alternative. In this context, the use of adjuvant strategies has improved the effectiveness of different vaccines against virus infections such as dengue, influenza, and common cold. Recent reports on patients infected by COVID-19 reveal that low levels of circulating vitamin D correlate with a severe respiratory insufficiency. The immunomodulatory activity of this micronutrient attenuates the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and at the same time, increases antibody production. Therefore, the present review proposes the use of vitamin D as adjuvant micronutrient to increase the efficacy of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vitamin D , Vitamins/therapeutic use
3.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(5): 672-682, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493295

ABSTRACT

While the use of vitamin C as a therapeutic agent has been investigated since the 1950s, there has been substantial recent interest in the role of vitamin C supplementation in critical illness and particularly, sepsis and septic shock. Humans cannot synthesize vitamin C and rely on exogenous intake to maintain a plasma concentration of approximately 70 to 80 µmol/L. Vitamin C, in healthy humans, is involved with antioxidant function, wound healing, endothelial function, and catecholamine synthesis. Its function in the human body informs the theoretical basis for why vitamin C supplementation may be beneficial in sepsis/septic shock.Critically ill patients can be vitamin C deficient due to low dietary intake, increased metabolic demands, inefficient recycling of vitamin C metabolites, and loss due to renal replacement therapy. Intravenous supplementation is required to achieve supraphysiologic serum levels of vitamin C. While some clinical studies of intravenous vitamin C supplementation in sepsis have shown improvements in secondary outcome measures, none of the randomized clinical trials have shown differences between vitamin C supplementation and standard of care and/or placebo in the primary outcome measures of the trials. There are some ongoing studies of high-dose vitamin C administration in patients with sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019; the majority of evidence so far does not support the routine supplementation of vitamin C in patients with sepsis or septic shock.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Ascorbic Acid Deficiency/physiopathology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Critical Illness , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/adverse effects
4.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021451, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Vitamin D is known to modulate immune response and its deficiency was associated with respiratory distress in patients hospitalized for pneumonia. Nevertheless, numerous reviews on vitamin D in COVID-19 patients have shown conflicting results, as previously reported also for other respiratory diseases (e.g., influenza). METHODS: This umbrella review aims to assess whether low serum 25-OHD is associated with susceptibility to COVID 19, their severity, and mortality. A total of 1559 studies were excluded after the title, abstract and full-text articles screening and 9 papers were included in this review: 2 systematic reviews and 7 metanalysis. RESULTS: The findings of this review that summarized studies from 5 WHO regions (European Region, Region of the Americas, South-East Asia Region, Eastern Mediterranean Region, Western Pacific Region) to exclusion only African region, show that low serum 25-OHD levels are associated with higher infection risks for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Although the umbrella findings indicate a potential role of vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 severity in hospitalized patients and showing an association between Vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19 severity, however, more robust data from randomized controlled trials are further needed to confirm a possible association with the mortality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Vitamins/therapeutic use
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444231

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) has progressed rapidly from an outbreak to a global pandemic, with new variants rapidly emerging. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection, can lead to multiorgan damage. Due to the extremely contagious and fatal nature of the virus, it has been a priority of medical research to find effective means of treatment. Amid this search, the role of vitamin D in modulating various aspects of the innate and adaptive immune system has been discussed. This review aims to consolidate the research surrounding the role of vitamin D in the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. While there are some conflicting results reported, the consensus is that vitamin D has a host of immunomodulatory effects which may be beneficial in the context of COVID-19 and that low levels of vitamin D can result in dysfunction of crucial antimicrobial effects, potentially contributing to poor prognosis. Studies also show that the effects of low vitamin D can be mitigated via supplementation, although the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of COVID-19 remain controversial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology
8.
JAMA ; 325(14): 1436-1442, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323838

ABSTRACT

Importance: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that performs an important role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism and also affects many other cellular regulatory functions outside the skeletal system. Vitamin D requirements may vary by individual; thus, no one serum vitamin D level cutpoint defines deficiency, and no consensus exists regarding the precise serum levels of vitamin D that represent optimal health or sufficiency. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on screening for vitamin D deficiency, including the benefits and harms of screening and early treatment. Population: Community-dwelling, nonpregnant adults who have no signs or symptoms of vitamin D deficiency or conditions for which vitamin D treatment is recommended. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the overall evidence on the benefits of screening for vitamin D deficiency is lacking. Therefore, the balance of benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults cannot be determined. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults. (I statement).


Subject(s)
Mass Screening , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Humans , Mass Screening/adverse effects , Mass Screening/methods , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 582556, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311372

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Several months ago, Chinese authorities identified an atypical pneumonia in Wuhan city, province of Hubei (China) caused by a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2). The WHO announced this new disease was to be known as "COVID-19". Evidence Acquisition: Several approaches are currently underway for the treatment of this disease, but a specific cure remains to be established. Evidence Synthesis: This review will describe how the use of selected nutraceuticals could be helpful, in addition to pharmacological therapy, in preventing some COVID-19-related complications in infected patients. Conclusions: Even if a specific and effective cure for COVID-19 still has some way to go, selected nutraceuticals could be helpful, in addition to pharmacological therapy, in preventing some COVID-19-related complications in infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , SARS-CoV-2 , Berberine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Fungal Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Humans , Lactoferrin/therapeutic use , Minerals/therapeutic use , Plant Lectins/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Soy Foods , Vitamins/therapeutic use
10.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211026193, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES AND SETTING.: As the lethal COVID-19 pandemic enters its second year, the need for effective modalities of alleviation remains urgent. This includes modalities that can readily be used by the public to reduce disease spread and severity. Such preventive measures and early-stage treatments may temper the immediacy of demand for advanced anti-COVID measures (drugs, antibodies, vaccines) and help relieve strain also on other health system resources. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS.: We present results of a clinical study with a multi-component OTC "core formulation" regimen used in a multiply exposed adult population. Analysis of clinical outcome data from our sample of over 100 subjects - comprised of roughly equal sized regimen-compliant (test) and non-compliant (control) groups meeting equivalent inclusion criteria - demonstrates a strong statistical significance in favor of use of the core formulations. RESULTS.: While both groups were moderate in size, the difference between them in outcomes over the 20-week study period was large and stark: Just under 4% of the compliant test group presented flu-like symptoms, but none of the test group was COVID-positive; whereas 20% of the non-compliant control group presented flu-like symptoms, three-quarters of whom (15% overall of the control group) were COVID-positive. CONCLUSIONS.: Offering a low cost, readily implemented anti-viral approach, the study regimen may serve, at the least, as a stopgap modality and, perhaps, as a useful tool in combatting the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Dietary Supplements , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Cinchona , Female , Humans , Ionophores/therapeutic use , Lysine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Nonprescription Drugs , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use
11.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 30(4): 387-396, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297432

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the emerging studies analyzing the association between vitamin D and risk of COVID-19 infection and severity, as well as the early interventional studies investigating the protective effect of vitamin D supplementation against COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies investigating the association between vitamin D levels and risk of COVID-19 infection and risk of severe disease and mortality among those infected have yielded mixed results. Thus far, the majority of studies investigating the association between vitamin D and COVID-19 have been observational and rely on vitamin D levels obtained at the time of admission, limiting causal inference. Currently, clinical trials assessing the effects of vitamin D supplementation in individuals with COVID-19 infection are extremely limited. Randomized, interventional trials may offer more clarity on the protective effects of vitamin D against COVID-19 infection and outcomes. SUMMARY: Decreased levels of vitamin D may amplify the inflammatory effects of COVID-19 infection, yet, data regarding the mortality benefits of vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19-infected individuals are still limited. Current observational data provides the impetus for future studies to including randomized controlled trials to determine whether vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19-infected individuals with kidney disease can improve mortality outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Kidney/physiopathology , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
12.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295888

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, much attention is paid to issues such as ecology and sustainability. Many consumers choose "green cosmetics", which are environmentally friendly creams, makeup, and beauty products, hoping that they are not harmful to health and reduce pollution. Moreover, the repeated mini-lock downs during the COVID-19 pandemic have fueled the awareness that body beauty is linked to well-being, both external and internal. As a result, consumer preferences for makeup have declined, while those for skincare products have increased. Nutricosmetics, which combines the benefits derived from food supplementation with the advantages of cosmetic treatments to improve the beauty of our body, respond to the new market demands. Food chemistry and cosmetic chemistry come together to promote both inside and outside well-being. A nutricosmetic optimizes the intake of nutritional microelements to meet the needs of the skin and skin appendages, improving their conditions and delaying aging, thus helping to protect the skin from the aging action of environmental factors. Numerous studies in the literature show a significant correlation between the adequate intake of these supplements, improved skin quality (both aesthetic and histological), and the acceleration of wound-healing. This review revised the main foods and bioactive molecules used in nutricosmetic formulations, their cosmetic effects, and the analytical techniques that allow the dosage of the active ingredients in the food.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/therapeutic use , Cosmetics/chemistry , Cosmetics/therapeutic use , Food Ingredients , Green Chemistry Technology/methods , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Biological Products/pharmacology , Drug Compounding , Humans , Phytochemicals/analysis , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Skin/drug effects , Vitamins/analysis , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
13.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253890, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During COVID-19, the public actively sought non-pharmacological and self-management approaches to prevent infection. Little is known on the use of traditional, complementary and integrative medicine (TCIM) by the public as preventive measures. This study investigated the prevalence and patterns of TCIM use during the pandemic, and identified factors associated with its use among the general population in Hong Kong. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted from November to December 2020. The survey solicited information on the respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, risk perception of the pandemic, and use of TCIM before and during the pandemic. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine predictors of TCIM use. RESULTS: In total, 632 responses (completion rate = 88.1%) were analyzed. TCIM was used by 44.0% of respondents during the pandemic. The most popular forms of TCIM were vitamins or other dietary supplements (n = 160, 25.3%) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 122, 19.3%) during the pandemic. The most frequently reported indication was strengthening the immune system, especially for vitamins or other dietary supplements (n = 142/160, 88.8%). Respondents who reported using TCIM were more likely to be female (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-2.59), had higher education attainment (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.39-3.59), and older-aged (age >55 years: aOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.04-3.02). Respondents who resided in districts with moderate to high number of confirmed COVID-19 cases (aOR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.07-2.42) and had a higher level of risk perception (aOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07) were also more likely to use TCIM. CONCLUSION: TCIM was used commonly in Hong Kong during the COVID-19 pandemic. While vaccination and social distancing remain the mainstay of controlling the pandemic, professional bodies should proactively consider public preferences and provide information regarding the effectiveness and safety of TCIM for COVID-19 prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Complementary Therapies , Integrative Medicine , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Young Adult
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288966

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infects the respiratory tract and leads to the disease entity, COVID-19. Accordingly, the lungs bear the greatest pathologic burden with the major cause of death being respiratory failure. However, organs remote from the initial site of infection (e.g., kidney, heart) are not spared, particularly in severe and fatal cases. Emerging evidence indicates that an excessive inflammatory response coupled with a diminished antiviral defense is pivotal in the initiation and development of COVID-19. A common finding in autopsy specimens is the presence of thrombi in the lungs as well as remote organs, indicative of immunothrombosis. Herein, the role of SARS-CoV-2 in lung inflammation and associated sequelae are reviewed with an emphasis on immunothrombosis. In as much as vitamin D is touted as a supplement to conventional therapies of COVID-19, the impact of this vitamin at various junctures of COVID-19 pathogenesis is also addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Pneumonia/virology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Extracellular Traps , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lung/pathology , Mice , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/virology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
15.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 27(4): 378-384, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286614

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent evidence on the role of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients and emerging data claiming a role of vitamin D in COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D is a strong predictor for worse outcomes in critically ill patients, and as well in COVID-19. The vitamin D content in typical nutrition regimes is lower than what is recommended for the general population. Although its supplementation has been shown to reduce respiratory tract infections, asthma exacerbations and mortality risk in noncritically ill patients, its role in the acute setting is not yet clear. Several small intervention trials have shown interesting results in COVID-19, and larger studies are ongoing. SUMMARY: Although research on this topic is still ongoing, it appears reasonable to recommend at least the standard vitamin dose for the healthy population (600--800 IU of native vitamin D3). Many questions remain on the actual role, the best metabolite, regime, and so forth. However, the role for vitamin D in bone health is clear. Elderly ICU survivors have a high risk for osteoporosis/fractures, so at least in this population, an optimal vitamin D status should be targeted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Aged , Critical Care , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use
16.
Infection ; 49(6): 1133-1147, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279505

ABSTRACT

The escalating prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality, highlights an urgent need to develop more effective therapeutic interventions. Despite the authorized treatment against COVID-19 by the European Union (EU), the safety and effectiveness of this therapeutic strategy for a wide variety of patients have remained a significant challenge. In this respect, micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals, as essential factors, can be considered for improving the function of the immune system and accelerating the treatment procedure. Dietary supplements can attenuate vascular and inflammatory manifestations related to infectious diseases in large part due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, it has been revealed that poor nutritional status may be one of the notable risk factors in severe COVID-19 infections. In the current review, we focus on the micronutrient therapy of COVID-19 patients and provide a comprehensive insight into the essential vitamins/minerals and their role in controlling the severity of the COVID-19 infection. We also discuss the recent advancements, challenges, negative and positive outcomes in relevance to this approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Micronutrients , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25876, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients infected with a virus usually lack vitamin C. High-dose vitamin C has an antiviral effect, and has been used by several researchers to treat COVID-19 by intravenous infusion, achieving good results. However, the efficacy and safety of vitamin C in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 remain unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of high-dose vitamin C infusion in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Chinese Wanfang database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database. The aim was to collect randomized controlled trials of high-dose vitamin C infusion in the treatment of patients with COVID-19, with the retrieval time being from the establishment of the database to March 2021. In accordance with the pre-designed inclusion/exclusion criteria, all data were extracted independently by 2 researchers. To assess the risk bias in the studies, the Cochrane collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used to assess the risk bias in the studies, while meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.3 software. RESULTS: In the present study, a high-quality comprehensive evaluation is provided of high-dose vitamin C infusion in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Further convincing evidence for the clinical treatment of COVID-19 is provided, in addition to evidence-based guidance for clinical practice. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021246342.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Interleukin-6/blood , Length of Stay , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/adverse effects
19.
Biochimie ; 187: 94-109, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252495

ABSTRACT

Despite the development of a number of vaccines for COVID-19, there remains a need for prevention and treatment of the virus SARS-CoV-2 and the ensuing disease COVID-19. This report discusses the key elements of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 that can be readily treated: viral entry, the immune system and inflammation, and the cytokine storm. It is shown that the essential nutrients zinc, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D and magnesium provide the ideal combination for prevention and treatment of COVID-19: prevention of SARS-CoV-2 entry to host cells, prevention of proliferation of SARS-CoV-2, inhibition of excessive inflammation, improved control of the regulation of the immune system, inhibition of the cytokine storm, and reduction in the effects of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and associated non-communicable diseases. It is emphasized that the non-communicable diseases associated with COVID-19 are inherently more prevalent in the elderly than the young, and that the maintenance of sufficiency of zinc, ω-3 PUFAs, vitamin D and magnesium is essential for the elderly to prevent the occurrence of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases and cancer. Annual checking of levels of these essential nutrients is recommended for those over 65 years of age, together with appropriate adjustments in their intake, with these services and supplies being at government cost. The cost:benefit ratio would be huge as the cost of the nutrients and the testing of their levels would be very small compared with the cost savings of specialists and hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Magnesium/therapeutic use , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , Lung Diseases/prevention & control , Lung Diseases/therapy , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Neoplasms/therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use
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