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1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0266328, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822266

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: During the COVID-19 pandemic, restrictions were imposed on visits in hospitals in the province of Quebec, Canada in an effort to reduce the risk of viral exposure by minimizing face-to-face contact in order to protect patients, visitors and staff. These measures led to social isolation for patients. In order to reduce this isolation, CHUM (the Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, a teaching hospital) shifted from in-person visits to courtesy telephone calls delivered by volunteers from CHUM's Volunteers, Recreation and Leisure Department. OBJECTIVES: To study: (1) the contribution made by these calls to reducing isolation and their limitations, (2) how the calls can be improved, and (3) whether they should be maintained, based on the views of patients and volunteers. METHODOLOGY: This study examined two populations. The first one consisted of 189 adult patients hospitalized at CHUM who received a courtesy phone call from a volunteer and the second one consisted of the 25 CHUM volunteers who made these calls. Quantitative data were collected from patients and volunteers through questionnaires and a Smartsheet. The patient questionnaire evaluated isolation, the courtesy phone calls, the relationship of trust with the volunteer and sociodemographic questions. The volunteer questionnaire evaluated the appropriateness of the technology for the intervention, the support and training received, the impacts of the courtesy phone call on both the patients and the volunteers, an experience report and sociodemographic information. In addition, a focus group was held with 7 volunteers. Then the verbatim were transcribed and analyzed using QDA miner software. RESULTS: From April 27, 2020 to September 5, 2020 more than 11,800 calls were made, mainly concerning hospitalization conditions or home follow-ups (n = 83), and relationships with relatives, friends, and family (n = 79). For 73.6% of hospitalized patients, the courtesy calls from volunteers were a good response to their needs, and 72% of volunteers agreed. 64.5% of patients felt less isolated and 40% of volunteers felt useful. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that patients felt less isolated during their hospitalization because of the courtesy calls made by the volunteers, that smartphones could also be used for video calls and, finally, that maintaining this type of service seems as relevant after as during a pandemic to provide social interactions to people isolated for medical reasons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Telephone , Volunteers
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809893

ABSTRACT

Volunteering has been found to be not only beneficial to the well-being of recipients but also to the volunteers themselves, particularly from the life course perspective. Although previous studies have identified key factors of volunteering motivation, the literature is less focused on the interplay of public interest and private gains in volunteering motivation. This study used 1871 college students across China to examine how the interplay between public interest and private gains affects general and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-specific volunteering during the pandemic. The results show that the interplay of these two factors constitutes a dynamic process, depending on the volunteering and time-specific context. Overall, undergraduate students with greater concern for public interest and less preference in private gains had the highest rate of overall volunteering, followed by students with high concern for both public interest and private gains. It is crucial to take both public interest and private gains into account when discussing volunteering opportunities among Chinese college students, which may increase the well-being of students in the long run.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Students , Volunteers
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760545

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the closure of all Polish medical universities. Simultaneously, due to staff shortages and the Polish health-care system being seriously challenged, many students were eager to contribute to the fight against the outbreak. This study explores medial student volunteers' (MSV) perspectives and their lived experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-one students. RESULTS: A total of seven major themes emerged from the interviews: 1. students' reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic, 2. students' experiences of the outbreak, 3. motivations for volunteering, 4. students' perceptions of the COVID-19 volunteering, 5. organization of students' volunteering, 6. benefits and costs of volunteering during COVID-19, and 7. social perception of MSVs. Although students volunteering was an example of civic responsibility and created new learning opportunities, many students felt unprepared for the pandemic, lacked social skills and access to psychological support, and were the target of stigmatization and discrimination. DISCUSSION: Because during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic medical universities were closed and classes were held online, students' volunteering became an important part of service learning and created an opportunity for education. Consequently, while it benefited students, patients and the healthcare system, students' involvement reinforced such important values of medical ethos as: altruism, public service, and (professional) solidarity. However, some systemic approach should be undertaken that would prepare students better for future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Volunteers
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 565, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization declared the rapid spread of COVID-19 around the world to be a global public health emergency. The spread of the disease is influenced by people's willingness to adopt preventative public health behaviours, such as participation in testing programmes, and risk perception can be an important determinant of engagement in such behaviours. METHODS: In this study, we present the first assessment during the first wave of the pandemic and the early stages of the first UK lockdown in April & May 2020 of how the UK public (N = 778) perceived the usefulness of testing for coronavirus and the factors that influence a person's willingness to test for coronavirus. RESULTS: None of the key demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, disability, vulnerability status, or professional expertise) were significantly related to the respondents' willingness to be tested for coronavirus. However, closely following the news media was positively related to willingness to be tested. Knowledge and perceptions about coronavirus significantly predicted willingness to test, with three significantly contributing factors: worry about the health and social impacts to self and family; personal susceptibility; and concerns about the impacts of coronavirus on specific demographic groups. Views on testing for coronavirus predicted willingness to test, with the most influential factors being importance of testing by need; negative views about widespread testing; and mistrust in doctor's advice about testing. CONCLUSIONS: Implications for effective risk communication and localised public health approaches to encouraging public to put themselves forward for testing are discussed. We strongly advocate for effective communications and localised intervention by public health authorities, using media outlets to ensure that members of the public get tested for SARs-CoV2 when required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Volunteers
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742464

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 outbreak in March 2020, restrictive measures (e.g., prohibiting physical visits and group activities) were introduced in nursing homes to protect older residents. Although the importance of social contacts and social activities to fulfill social needs and avoid loneliness is known, these were challenged during the pandemic. This qualitative study specifically focused on how residents, close relatives, and volunteers in nursing homes experienced the restrictive measures in retrospect and gained insights into the impact of the restrictive measures on social needs and loneliness, and the lessons that could be learned. Thirty semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with residents and close relatives, and one online focus group with ten volunteers, were conducted. Recruitment took place at psychogeriatric and somatic units in the Northern, Eastern and Southern regions of the Netherlands and Flanders, Belgium. The interviews and focus group were transcribed verbatim, and an open, inductive approach was used for analysis. Alternative ways of social contact could not fully compensate for physical visits. Generally, participants reported that it was a difficult time, indicated by feelings of loneliness, fear, sadness, and powerlessness. A great diversity in loneliness was reported. The most important reasons for feeling lonely were missing close social contacts and social activities. The diversity in the impact of restrictive measures depended on, e.g., social needs, coping strategies, and character. Restrictive COVID-19 measures in nursing homes resulted in negative emotions and unmet social needs of residents, close relatives, and volunteers. During future outbreaks of the COVID-19 virus or another virus or bacterium, for which restrictive measures may be needed, nursing homes should actively involve residents, close relatives, and volunteers to balance safety, self-determination, and well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Nursing Homes , Volunteers
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 780139, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large number of nurses across China joined the anti-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) front-line in Hubei province, where the local healthcare system faced unprecedented challenges in the early 2020. Few studies have reported the psychological experiences of nurses from other regions who voluntarily participated in the response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Hubei province. AIM: To describe the psychological experiences of nurses who were involved in the anti-COVID-19 pandemic battle in Hubei province from January to April 2020. METHODS: This was a qualitative descriptive study using purposive and snowball sampling strategies for participant recruitment. Twenty-four nurses were approached and twenty-one of them completed telephone interviews in April 2020. The interviews took an average of 75 min (range 34-140 min). Data were analyzed thematically after verbatim transcription of the interviews. RESULTS: Our analysis generated three primary themes: (I) Contexts; (II) Psychological responses; and (III) Coping strategies (most participants identified suitable coping strategies including relaxing activities and seeking social support). Participants' psychological responses varied in four phases of the journey through the experience: (i) initiation phase: obligations and concerns/fears; (ii) transition phase: from overwhelmed to increased confidence; (iii) adaptation phase: a sense of achievement and exhaustion; and (iv) completion phase: professional and personal growth. CONCLUSION: Nurses had concerns, fears, and faced challenges working on the COVID-19 front-line. However, they were motivated by a strong sense of professional commitment. Most nurses successfully achieved personal and professional growth as they identified a range of coping strategies. Future research is needed to explore the long-term impact of the COVID-19 related working experiences on these nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Motivation , Pandemics , Professionalism , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Volunteers/psychology
7.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 69(4): 284-296, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716148

ABSTRACT

Objective Although volunteer activities of providing meals have been conducted as measures to prevent isolation and loneliness and to secure meals, evidence is lacking regarding how to implement such activities. In this study, we describe the activities process at a community cafeteria located within a housing complex and operated by resident volunteers during the COVID-19 pandemic to provide inexpensive meals. We also report the preliminary results of the impact of such activities on the residents.Method This case study was conducted at the community cafeteria Tate Kitchen 'Sakura' located within a Tokyo housing complex with a high ageing population. We collected data on the cafeteria activities during February to May, 2020. The data sources were daily activity records of the cafeteria, dialogues between volunteers and residents, and photos of activities. We qualitatively assessed the effects of the activities on the residents by classifying interviews with ten users and six volunteer staff based on the Kawakita Jiro (KJ) method.Results During the observation period, regular meetings were held among board members and volunteers, and operations of the cafeteria were verified and modified by referring to the COVID-19 prevention guide for citizens, advice from health professionals, and residents' opinions. It was determined that activities would continue without cessation; the cafeteria, managed mainly by volunteers under the food hygiene control system required for commercial restaurants, was open five days a week to maintain food security and ensure the health of the residents. The number of meals sold at the cafeteria was halved in May (n = 2,149) as a result of the modification in operations. However, the number of meals delivered to each household increased from March because of increased demand. Qualitative analyses using KJ method showed that users perceived that these continued activities were effective in securing food, maintaining social interaction and promoting health, and health promotion, while volunteers perceived that the activities were effective in promoting social interaction and health.Conclusion The resident volunteers continually confirmed their commitment to the principle of protecting food security and health within the community. They continued to operate the cafeteria by referring to available information on COVID-19 preventive measures, adopting the COVID-19 preventive measures, and involving all stakeholders. Qualitative analyses suggested that these continued efforts were useful for securing food and supporting health of the residents, looking after one other, and maintaining ties among residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Meals , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Volunteers
8.
J Nurs Manag ; 30(4): 864-871, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714249

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore the motivation and lived experience of nurses responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea. BACKGROUND: Identifying motivation, barriers and facilitators to nurses' willingness to work during a pandemic is necessary to prepare for future pandemic responses. METHODS: Ten individual interviews were conducted. Interviews were analysed and synthesized following Colaizzi's method. RESULTS: Six major themes identified: Decision to participate in the COVID-19 response; Facing hardship; Distress due to the nature of COVID-19; Overcoming hardship; Growing through the COVID-19 response; and The need for reciprocity. CONCLUSION: The increased demands for nursing care during the pandemic highlight the need for strong organisational support and effective workforce strategies. Our study results can inform the development of programmes and policies that are proactive, rather than reactive, to prepare for future pandemic situations. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: To recruit and manage nurses during a pandemic effectively, a safe work environment with proper resources should be established. Additionally, adequate education, training and compensation are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Volunteers
9.
Vaccine ; 40(12): 1761-1767, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700486

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The CoronaVac vaccine is widely used in Thailand to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The limited immunogenicity of this vaccine is a concern, especially because of expanding delta variant outbreaks. A third boost may enhance antiviral immune responses. METHODS: This non-inferiority randomized controlled trial evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of an intradermal (ID) fractional third dose of AZD1222 vaccine compared with those of a standard intramuscular (IM) third dose. Participants were enrolled from August 9, 2021 to August 13, 2021 at Chulabhorn Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. The eligibility criteria were age 18 years or older and prior two-dose Coronavac vaccination completed at least 2 months previously. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups by block randomization: (i) standard dose by IM administration (IM), (ii) 20% of the standard dose ID (ID1), or (iii) 40% of the standard dose ID (ID2). The primary endpoint was the geometric mean ratio of anti-receptor binding domain antibody in the ID1/ID2 vs. the IM groups 14 days post-vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 125 participants were randomized (IM, n = 41; ID1, n = 41; and ID2, n = 43). One participant was lost to follow-up by day 14 post-vaccination in the ID1 group. The geometric mean ratio (95% confidence interval) of anti-receptor binding domain antibody was 0.94 (0.80-1.09) in the ID1 group and 1.28 (0.95-1.74) in the ID2 group. Immunogenicity in both ID groups met the non-inferiority criteria. Local adverse events were more common in the ID groups than in the IM group but were mostly mild to moderate in severity. CONCLUSION: An ID fractional third dose of AZD1222 was non-inferior to a standard IM third dose among individuals previously vaccinated with CoronaVac. Adverse events associated with the ID fractional third dose included mild to moderate local site reactions. This vaccination strategy may help conserve vaccine supply.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand , Volunteers
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 111, 2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Considering evidence on competency-based curricula and the benefits of volunteering, this study highlights innovative ideas to improve medical education during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated the motivations and perceptions of competencies developed as leadership and management skills in medical students who joined the COVID-19 Volunteering Program in a Brazilian medical school. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional, qualitative study involving medical students from the University of São Paulo, Brazil. They were invited to participate in an institutional Volunteering Program during the pandemic and filled out online application forms, including sociodemographic fields and two open-ended questions about their motivation to volunteer and perceptions of their own competencies. At the end of the program, students who were involved in management-related activities were also invited to participate in focus group interviews to track their perceptions about volunteering in this area. Data were submitted to descriptive and content analysis methods. All participants provided informed consent with electronic signatures. RESULTS: A total of 286 medical students subscribed to the Volunteering Program: 171 (60%) were men, 152 (53%) were enrolled in their 5th year of medical school, and 158 (55%) were 23-25 years old. One hundred and twelve (44%) students reported that they were motivated by altruistic reasons, 95 (37%) reported duty and 47 (19%) prioritized academic interests. Concerning CanMEDS competencies, 91 (36%) students' responses matched the Scholar component, followed by 51 (20%) with Collaborator, 49 (20%) with Professional, 32 (13%) with Communicator, 17 (7%) with Leader and 11 (4%) with Health Advocate. In focus groups, students reported the importance of management and leadership skills as a curricular component, motivations to volunteer, and acquired skills from volunteering in management and leadership-related activities, thereby indicating the development of resilient attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Students who participated in the School of Medicine of University of Sao Paulo (FMUSP) Volunteering Program reported being motivated to help others (altruistic reasons) and to serve society as future health professionals (duty). Knowledge and work-related competencies prevailed over leadership or soft skills, emphasizing the importance of including such activities in the curriculum. Participating in management-related activities could help develop a more resilient attitude toward medical training. Volunteering programs offer students opportunities to develop competencies essential for their roles as future health professionals. Thus, we should think about including such activities in the curricular structure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Curriculum , Humans , Male , Motivation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Volunteers , Young Adult
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686742

ABSTRACT

Volunteering is associated with greater mental, physical and social wellbeing. However, less is known about whether the health benefits of volunteering vary with two sets of factors known to shape population health and health-related behaviours: (1) age and birth cohort, and (2) place of residence. This study examined how these factors influence the relationship between volunteering and self-reported mental health using five waves of data from Understanding Society: The UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) enriched with information on neighbourhood deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015). Two self-reported mental health and wellbeing outcomes were examined: mental distress (GHQ-12) and health-related quality of life (SF-12). The sample was stratified by cohort: pre-1945 (born before 1945), Baby Boomers (born 1945-1964), Gen X (born 1965-1979), and Millennials (born from 1980). Fixed-effects regressions revealed that volunteering was associated with reduced levels of mental distress and greater levels of health-related quality of life in older generations, but not amongst younger generations. No moderating effect of area deprivation was found. This study suggests that generational social attitudes and changes in how volunteering is portrayed and delivered could influence not only whether people volunteer, but also whether doing so bolsters health.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Aged , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Volunteers/psychology
13.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 213-219, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643031

ABSTRACT

From May through July 2020, Arizona was a global hotspot for new COVID-19 cases. In response to the surge of cases, local public health departments looked for innovative ways to form external partnerships to address their staffing needs. In collaboration with the Maricopa County Department of Public Health, the Arizona State University Student Outbreak Response Team (SORT) created and implemented a virtual call center to conduct public health case investigations for COVID-19. SORT officially launched a dedicated COVID-19 case investigation program after 3 weeks of program design and training. From June 29 through November 8, 2020, SORT recruited and trained 218 case investigators, completed 5000 case patient interviews, and closed 10 000 cases. Our team also developed process improvements to address disparities in case investigation timeliness. A strong infrastructure designed to accommodate remote case investigations, paired with a large workforce, enabled SORT to provide additional surge capacity for the county's high volume of cases. University-driven multidisciplinary case investigator teams working in partnership with state, tribal, and local public health staff members can be an effective tool for supporting a diverse and growing public health workforce. We discuss the essential design factors involved in building a university program to complement local COVID-19 response efforts, including workflows for case management, volunteer case investigator recruitment and training, secure technology platforms for conducting case investigations remotely, and robust data-tracking procedures for maintaining quality control and timely case reporting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Call Centers/organization & administration , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Intersectoral Collaboration , Program Development , Program Evaluation , Arizona/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health Practice , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities , Volunteers , Workforce/organization & administration
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 1, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic Imperial College School of Medicine developed a structured volunteering programme involving 398 medical students, across eight teaching hospitals. This case study aims to explore the relationship between the processes, context, participant experiences and impacts of the programme so that lessons can be learned for future emergencies and service-learning programmes. METHODS: Using an illuminative approach to evaluation we invited all volunteers and supervisors to complete a mixed-methods survey. This explored differences in experience across demographics and contextual factors, correlations between aspects of induction, supervision and overall experience, and reviewed the impacts of the programme. Quantitative responses were statistically analysed and qualitative reflections were thematically coded to triangulate and explain quantitative findings. Follow up interviews were carried out to check back findings and co-create conclusions. RESULTS: We received responses from 61 students and 17 supervisors. Student participants described predominantly altruistic motivations and transformational changes to their professional identity driven by feeling included, having responsibility, and engaging in authentic workplace-based learning afforded by freedom from the assessed curriculum. They reported new perspectives on their future professional role within the multidisciplinary team and the value of workplace-based learning. They reported increases in wellbeing and self-esteem related to feeling included and valued, and positively contributing to service provision at a time of need. Significantly higher overall satisfaction was associated with a personalised induction, active supervision, earlier stage of training, and male gender. Gender-related differences were not explained through our data but have been reported elsewhere and warrant further study. The duration, intensity and type of role that volunteers performed was similar across demographics and did not appear to modulate their overall experience. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst acknowledging the uniqueness of emergency volunteering and the survey response rate of 15% of volunteers, we suggest the features of a successful service-learning programme include: a learner-centred induction, regular contact with engaged and appreciative supervisors, and roles where students feel valued. Programmes in similar settings may find that service learning is most impactful earlier in medical students' training and that students with altruistic motivations and meaningful work may flourish without formal outcomes and assessments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Volunteers
15.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261787, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) is an example of a historic event involving nurses, with the participation of professional and volunteer nurses from Spain and other countries. In this context, nurses were trained over short periods of time and recruited to work at hospitals serving the two warring camps. OBJECTIVES: To identify the characteristics of the training received by volunteer nurses on both sides in the Spanish Civil War and compare it with previous experiences in the history. DESIGN: Historical research. METHODS: Heuristic and hermeneutical analysis of nurse training manuals and news articles from 1936 to 1939. Spanish primary sources were consulted at the Red Cross Documentation Centre Archive in Madrid, the General Military Archive in Ávila, the Municipal Newspaper Archive in Madrid, and the archives of Spanish daily newspapers ABC and La Vanguardia. The following variables were analysed: duration, entry requirements, and theoretical content of the training courses. Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) has been used. FINDINGS: Both sides in the conflict offered a varied training programme, which was supported by official institutions and private initiatives. The courses lasted between one week and two months. Entry requirements were influenced by education level, age, moral conduct, health status, and social and political background. Training content focused on the techniques needed in conflict settings and covered specific moral values. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the different social and political characteristics of the two warring factions, the variety of training programmes on offer, the entry requirements, and the theoretical content of volunteer nurse training were similar on both sides. At the end of the Spanish Civil War, volunteer nurses on the Republican side suffered reprisals or had to go into exile. We now know that some countries involved in World War II provided training courses for volunteer nurses. It would therefore be interesting to ascertain whether Spanish volunteer nurses contributed their experience to these courses.


Subject(s)
Armed Conflicts , Volunteers , Spain , World War II
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e055001, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In March 2020, the WHO declared SARS-CoV-2 a pandemic. Hospitals across the world faced staff, bed and supply shortages, with some European hospitals calling on medical students to fill the staffing gaps. This study aimed to document the impact of volunteering during the COVID-19 pandemic on students' professional development, resilience and future perceived career choices. DESIGN: This is a retrospective, qualitative study of student reflections, using purposive sampling.The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) University of Medicine and Health Sciences recruited 26 medical student volunteers to assist in pronation and supination of ventilated patients affected by SARS-CoV-2. These students were invited to complete an anonymous survey based on their experiences as volunteers. Thematic analysis was performed on these written reflections. RESULTS: The results showed that volunteering during the COVID-19 pandemic developed key skills from RCSI's medical curriculum, significantly fostered medical students' resilience and guided their career choices. Major areas of development included communication, teamwork, compassion and altruism, which are not easily developed through the formal curriculum. A further area that was highlighted was the importance of evidence-based health in a pandemic. Finally, our respondents were early stage medical students with limited clinical exposure. Some found the experience difficult to cope with and therefore supports should be established for students volunteering in such a crisis. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that clinical exposure is an important driver in developing students' resilience and that volunteering during a pandemic has multiple benefits to students' professional development and professional identity formation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Volunteers
17.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 208-212, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582750

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic created unprecedented strain on the personal protective equipment (PPE) supply chain. Given the dearth of PPE and consequences for transmission, GetMePPE Chicago (GMPC) developed a PPE allocation framework and system, distributing 886 900 units to 274 institutions from March 2020 to July 2021 to address PPE needs. As the pandemic evolved, GMPC made difficult decisions about (1) building reserve inventory (to balance present and future, potentially higher clinical acuity, needs), (2) donating to other states/out-of-state organizations, and (3) receiving donations from other states. In this case study, we detail both GMPC's experience in making these decisions and the ethical frameworks that guided these decisions. We also reflect on lessons learned and suggest which values may have been in conflict (eg, maximizing benefits vs duty to mission, defined in the context of PPE allocation) in each circumstance, which values were prioritized, and when that prioritization would change. Such guidance can promote a values-based approach to key issues concerning distribution of PPE and other scarce medical resources in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and related future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organizational Case Studies , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Resource Allocation/ethics , Chicago , Decision Making, Organizational , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Medical , Volunteers
18.
BMJ ; 375: n2995, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1558568
20.
Disasters ; 45 Suppl 1: S48-S75, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555894

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has challenged the resilience of care organisations (and those dependent on them), especially when services are stopped or restricted. This study focuses on the experiences of care organisations that offer services to individuals in highly precarious situations in 10 European countries. It is based on 32 qualitative interviews and three workshops with managers and staff. The four key types of organisations reviewed largely had the same adaptation patterns in all countries. The most drastic changes were experienced by day centres, which had to suspend or digitise services, whereas night shelters and soup kitchens had to reorganise broadly their work; residential facilities were minimally affected. Given the drastic surge in demand for services, reliance on an overburdened (volunteer) workforce, and a lack of crisis plans, the care organisations with long-term trust networks with clients and intra-organisational cooperation adapted easier. The outcomes were worse for new clients, migrants, psychologically vulnerable people, and those with limited communicative abilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Volunteers
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