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1.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 7(2): 172-175, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) features continuous dizziness and may result from a benign inner ear disorder or stroke. The head impulse-nystagmus-test of skew (HINTS) bedside assessment is more sensitive than brain MRI in identifying stroke as the cause of AVS within the first 24 hours. Clinicians' perspectives of the test in UK secondary care remains unknown. Here, we explore front-line clinicians' perspectives of use of the HINTS for the diagnosis of AVS. METHODS: Clinicians from two large UK hospitals who assess AVS patients completed a short online survey, newly designed with closed and open questions. RESULTS: Almost half of 73 total responders reported limited (n=33), or no experience (n=19), reflected in low rates of use of HINTS (n=31). While recognising the potential utility of HINTS, many reported concerns about subjectivity, need for specialist skills and poor patient compliance. No clinicians reported high levels of confidence in performing HINTS, with 98% identifying training needs. A lack of formalised training was associated with onward specialist referrals and neuroimaging (p=0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Although the low sample size in this study limits the generalisability of findings to wider sites, our preliminary data identified barriers to the application of the HINTS in AVS patients and training needs to improve rapid, cost-effective and accurate clinical diagnosis of stroke presenting with vertigo.


Subject(s)
Nystagmus, Pathologic , Stroke , Acute Disease , Head Impulse Test , Humans , Nausea , Nystagmus, Pathologic/complications , Nystagmus, Pathologic/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnosis , United Kingdom , Vertigo/diagnosis , Vertigo/etiology , Vomiting
2.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(2): 168-176, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831515

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Studies have suggested that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appears to be more serious in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. This meta-analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Embase, and Google Scholar on 16 October 2020, to identify observational studies that provided data on gastrointestinal symptoms and severity of COVID-19. Gastrointestinal symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. The severe rate and the odds ratio (OR) were pooled. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. RESULTS: A total of 21 studies with 5285 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The severe rate of COVID-19 patients with diarrhea was 41.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 31.0-51.5%], and the OR of association between diarrhea and severe COVID-19 was 1.41 (95% CI: 1.05-1.89); sensitivity analysis showed that the results for the OR and 95% CI were unstable. For abdominal pain, the severe rate and OR of association with severe COVID-19 were 59.3% (95% CI: 41.3-76.4%) and 2.76 (95% CI: 1.59-4.81), respectively; for nausea, 41.4% (95% CI: 23.2-60.7%) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.59-1.43), respectively; for vomiting, 51.3% (95% CI: 36.8-65.8%) and 1.68 (95% CI: 0.97-2.92), respectively. CONCLUSION: The severe rate was more than 40% in COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Abdominal pain was associated with a near 2.8-fold increased risk of severe COVID-19; the relationship between diarrhea and the severity of COVID-19 was regionally different; nausea and vomiting were limited in association with an increased risk of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology
3.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 106, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms have been reported in patients with COVID-19. Several clinical investigations suggested that gastrointestinal symptoms were associated with disease severity of COVID-19. However, the relevance of gastrointestinal symptoms and mortality of COVID-19 remains largely unknown. We aim to investigate the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of science and Cochrane for studies published between Dec 1, 2019 and May 1, 2021, that had data on gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Additional literatures were obtained by screening the citations of included studies and recent reviews. Only studies that reported the mortality of COVID-19 patients with/without gastrointestinal symptoms were included. Raw data were pooled to calculate OR (Odds Ratio). The mortality was compared between patients with and without gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as between patients with and without individual symptoms (diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain). RESULTS: Fifty-three literatures with 55,245 COVID-19 patients (4955 non-survivors and 50,290 survivors) were included. The presence of GI symptoms was not associated with the mortality of COVID-19 patients (OR=0.88; 95% CI 0.71-1.09; P=0.23). As for individual symptoms, diarrhea (OR=1.01; 95% CI 0.72-1.41; P=0.96), nausea/vomiting (OR=1.16; 95% CI 0.78-1.71; P=0.46) and abdominal pain (OR=1.55; 95% CI 0.68-3.54; P=0.3) also showed non-relevance with the death of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal symptoms are not associated with higher mortality of COVID-19 patients. The prognostic value of gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID-19 requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Nausea/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/etiology
5.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(12): e1009629, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581906

ABSTRACT

Identifying order of symptom onset of infectious diseases might aid in differentiating symptomatic infections earlier in a population thereby enabling non-pharmaceutical interventions and reducing disease spread. Previously, we developed a mathematical model predicting the order of symptoms based on data from the initial outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in China using symptom occurrence at diagnosis and found that the order of COVID-19 symptoms differed from that of other infectious diseases including influenza. Whether this order of COVID-19 symptoms holds in the USA under changing conditions is unclear. Here, we use modeling to predict the order of symptoms using data from both the initial outbreaks in China and in the USA. Whereas patients in China were more likely to have fever before cough and then nausea/vomiting before diarrhea, patients in the USA were more likely to have cough before fever and then diarrhea before nausea/vomiting. Given that the D614G SARS-CoV-2 variant that rapidly spread from Europe to predominate in the USA during the first wave of the outbreak was not present in the initial China outbreak, we hypothesized that this mutation might affect symptom order. Supporting this notion, we found that as SARS-CoV-2 in Japan shifted from the original Wuhan reference strain to the D614G variant, symptom order shifted to the USA pattern. Google Trends analyses supported these findings, while weather, age, and comorbidities did not affect our model's predictions of symptom order. These findings indicate that symptom order can change with mutation in viral disease and raise the possibility that D614G variant is more transmissible because infected people are more likely to cough in public before being incapacitated with fever.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Cough/etiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mutation , Nausea/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 74, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547719

ABSTRACT

Boerhaave's syndrome is an uncommon syndrome characterized by spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus with a high mortality rate. While excessive alcohol intake and binge-eating are the classic precipitants of this syndrome, medication-induced vomiting causing Booerhave's is quite uncommon. Traditionally managed operatively, conservative management is being increasingly reported in selected cases. We report the case of 21-year-old male with who developed sudden onset chest pain and dyspnoea after pentazocine induced vomiting. He was referred after lack of response to initial treatment for acute severe asthma. A chest CT scan showed pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and oesophageal tear. He was managed conservatively with oxygen therapy, nil per mouth and antibiotics with improvement of symptoms and discharge after 8 days.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Perforation/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pentazocine/adverse effects , Vomiting/complications , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/therapy , Chest Pain/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Esophageal Perforation/etiology , Esophageal Perforation/therapy , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Diseases/etiology , Mediastinal Diseases/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pentazocine/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vomiting/chemically induced , Young Adult
7.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 326-328, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517342

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infection which can present with various clinical manifestations. While it affects respiratory tract primarily, several other manifestations including gastrointestinal involvements have been reported. The prevalence of all gastrointestinal complaints is approximately 17 percent and diarrhea, nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain are the most common symptoms. In COVID-19, acute abdominal pain requiring surgical evaluation and abdominal imaging is uncommon and there is also a lack of knowledge about COVID-19 related gastrointestinal complications. Here, we report a case of mild COVID-19 infection complicated by omental infarction during the course of the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Infarction/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting
8.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(2): 98-103, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504110

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly contagious new ß-coronavirus that primarily affects the lungs. Because of its unprecedented spread, in a relatively short interval, it is declared a global pandemic. Binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors, SARS-CoV-2 is easily disseminated through air. Apart from the established clinical panel, individuals exposed to prolonged chronic stress also manifest gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms similar to those exhibited by SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.The present study aims to assess the incidence of GI deficiencies and prevalence of anxiety among healthy medical staff by applying the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) during this global crisis.We found significant differences on several items of the VAS-IBS: regarding the incidence of diarrhea (p = 0.04), bloating/gases (p = 0.02), and nausea/vomiting (p = 0.01) from the physical spectrum. After stratification based on age of the participants and after we applied Kruskal-Wallis test because of heterogeneity between groups, we noted two situations in which the null hypothesis is rejected: nausea/vomiting in women between 20 and 30 years, and between 30 and 40, and between 40 and 50 years, respectively (p = 0.026/0.029). Anxiety was prevalent among young and middle-class people after the centralization of HAM-A data, where 40.4% of the participants had various forms of anxiety: mild (n = 13; 13.82%), severe (n = 13; 13.82%), and moderate (n = 12; 12.76%).This study demonstrates that VAS-IBS is a reliable tool for assessing the incidence of GI deficiencies, as well as HAM-A for anxiety.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Constipation/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Nausea/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Vomiting/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychometrics , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
9.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(1): e62-e71, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential effects of SARS-CoV-2 and Plasmodium falciparum co-infection on host susceptibility and pathogenesis remain unknown. We aimed to establish the prevalence of malaria and describe the clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and P falciparum co-infection in a high-burden malaria setting. METHODS: This was an exploratory prospective, cohort study of patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital in Uganda. Patients of all ages with a PCR-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection who had provided informed consent or assent were consecutively enrolled from treatment centres in eight hospitals across the country and followed up until discharge or death. Clinical assessments and blood sampling were done at admission for all patients. Malaria diagnosis in all patients was done by rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and molecular methods. Previous P falciparum exposure was determined with serological responses to a panel of P falciparum antigens assessed using a multiplex bead assay. Additional evaluations included complete blood count, markers of inflammation, and serum biochemistries. The main outcome was overall prevalence of malaria infection and malaria prevalence by age (including age categories of 0-20 years, 21-40 years, 41-60 years, and >60 years). The frequency of symptoms was compared between patients with COVID-19 with P falciparum infection versus those without P falciparum infection. The frequency of comorbidities and COVID-19 clinical severity and outcomes was compared between patients with low previous exposure to P falciparum versus those with high previous exposure to P falciparum. The effect of previous exposure to P falciparum on COVID-19 clinical severity and outcomes was also assessed among patients with and those without comorbidities. FINDINGS: Of 600 people with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection enrolled from April 15, to Oct 30, 2020, 597 (>99%) had complete information and were included in our analyses. The majority (502 [84%] of 597) were male individuals with a median age of 36 years (IQR 28-47). Overall prevalence of P falciparum infection was 12% (95% CI 9·4-14·6; 70 of 597 participants), with highest prevalence in the age groups of 0-20 years (22%, 8·7-44·8; five of 23 patients) and older than 60 years (20%, 10·2-34·1; nine of 46 patients). Confusion (four [6%] of 70 patients vs eight [2%] of 527 patients; p=0·040) and vomiting (four [6%] of 70 patients vs five [1%] of 527 patients; p=0·014] were more frequent among patients with P falciparum infection than those without. Patients with low versus those with high previous P falciparum exposure had a increased frequency of severe or critical COVID-19 clinical presentation (16 [30%] of 53 patients vs three [5%] of 56 patients; p=0·0010) and a higher burden of comorbidities, including diabetes (12 [23%] of 53 patients vs two [4%] of 56 patients; p=0·0010) and heart disease (seven [13%] of 53 patients vs zero [0%] of 56 patients; p=0·0030). Among patients with no comorbidities, those with low previous P falciparum exposure still had a higher proportion of cases of severe or critical COVID-19 than did those with high P falciparum exposure (six [18%] of 33 patients vs one [2%] of 49 patients; p=0·015). Multivariate analysis showed higher odds of unfavourable outcomes in patients who were older than 60 years (adjusted OR 8·7, 95% CI 1·0-75·5; p=0·049). INTERPRETATION: Although patients with COVID-19 with P falciparum co-infection had a higher frequency of confusion and vomiting, co-infection did not seem deleterious. The association between low previous malaria exposure and severe or critical COVID-19 and other adverse outcomes will require further study. These preliminary descriptive observations highlight the importance of understanding the potential clinical and therapeutic implications of overlapping co-infections. FUNDING: Malaria Consortium (USA).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Malaria/complications , Malaria, Falciparum/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiology , Vomiting , Young Adult
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19713, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454811

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents with non-specific clinical features. This may result in misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis, and lead to further transmission in the community. We aimed to derive early predictors to differentiate COVID-19 from influenza and dengue. The study comprised 126 patients with COVID-19, 171 with influenza and 180 with dengue, who presented within 5 days of symptom onset. All cases were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests. We used logistic regression models to identify demographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory markers in classifying COVID-19 versus influenza, and COVID-19 versus dengue. The performance of each model was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Shortness of breath was the strongest predictor in the models for differentiating between COVID-19 and influenza, followed by diarrhoea. Higher lymphocyte count was predictive of COVID-19 versus influenza and versus dengue. In the model for differentiating between COVID-19 and dengue, patients with cough and higher platelet count were at increased odds of COVID-19, while headache, joint pain, skin rash and vomiting/nausea were indicative of dengue. The cross-validated area under the ROC curve for all four models was above 0.85. Clinical features and simple laboratory markers for differentiating COVID-19 from influenza and dengue are identified in this study which can be used by primary care physicians in resource limited settings to determine if further investigations or referrals would be required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Dengue/pathology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Adult , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Dengue/complications , Dengue/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/virology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vomiting/etiology , Young Adult
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5836-5842, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Functional gastrointestinal disorders are common gastrointestinal diseases. The pathophysiology is multifactorial and psychosocial distress worsens symptoms severity. Since the end of 2019 the world has been facing COVID-19 pandemic. The associated control measures have affected the psychological health of people. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders among Italian children and adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study sample is composed of 407 patients (187 males, 220 females), aged from 10 to 17 years. The mean age is 14.27 ± 2.24 years. The study was conducted through the Italian version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version.  The prevalence of each disorder has been calculated as the ratio of affected subjects for each disease and the total number of effective cases for that specific disease. RESULTS: The study demonstrates that the prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder in Italian children, during the COVD-19 pandemic, is higher, compared with the one reported in the previous studies. The most frequent disorders are Abdominal Migraine and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first one which provides data of the prevalence of Functional gastrointestinal disorders in sample of Italian adolescents, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study underlines the need to focus on stress management, in order to reduce the effects of the lockdown on the psychological wellness of the youngest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Abdominal Pain/psychology , Adolescent , Aerophagy/epidemiology , Aerophagy/etiology , Aerophagy/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Constipation/epidemiology , Constipation/etiology , Constipation/psychology , Dyspepsia/epidemiology , Dyspepsia/etiology , Dyspepsia/psychology , Fecal Incontinence/epidemiology , Fecal Incontinence/etiology , Fecal Incontinence/psychology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/etiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/psychology , Italy , Male , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Migraine Disorders/etiology , Migraine Disorders/psychology , Prevalence , Rumination Syndrome/epidemiology , Rumination Syndrome/etiology , Rumination Syndrome/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology , Vomiting/psychology
13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210036, 2021.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients treated by the remote care service "Telessaúde-COVID" and the factors associated with positive results for COVID-19. METHODS: an exploratory and analytical study, carried out based on the analysis of patient records treated by a remote care service called "Telessaúde-COVID". Characteristics of the patients treated and variables related to the service's functioning were evaluated. A descriptive, inferential analysis was performed by logistic regression. RESULTS: 1,854 new patients were evaluated and an estimate of 8,630 visits. Female patients were predominant (60.9%), aged between 20 and 59 years (75.9%). The most frequent signs and symptoms were: headache (41.8%), cough (33.3%) and runny nose (30.0%). Of the total number of patients, 66.4% were reported as suspected case of COVID-19 and 14.5% tested positive for COVID-19. The age of 60 years or more was more common among confirmed cases (26.6%). Most patients (80.4%) did not require face-to-face assistance. Confirmed cases of COVID-19 were associated with the age of the patients (OR 1,020; IC95% 1,007 - 1,032); home contact with a confirmed/suspected case (OR 1,902; IC95% 1,178 - 3,070); presence of nausea/vomiting (OR 2,403; IC95% 1,148 - 5,029) and changes in smell (OR 2,827; IC95% 1,294 - 6,176). CONCLUSION: "Telessaúde-COVID" was relevant in the management and notification of cases, avoiding the search for face-to-face consultations without clinical indication. Among the suspected cases, positivity for COVID-19 was associated with aging, history of home contact, gastrointestinal and olfactory symptoms.


OBJETIVOS: Analisar o perfil sociodemográfico e clínico dos pacientes atendidos pelo serviço de atendimento remoto "Telessaúde-COVID" e os fatores associados aos resultados positivos para COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório e analítico, realizado com base na análise dos registros de pacientes atendidos por um serviço de atendimento remoto intitulado "Telessaúde-COVID". Foram avaliadas características dos pacientes atendidos e variáveis relacionadas ao funcionamento do serviço. Realizou-se análise descritiva e inferencial, com utilização da regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 1.854 novos pacientes e estimados 8.630 atendimentos. Houve predomínio de pacientes do sexo feminino (60,9%) e da faixa etária de 20 a 59 anos (75,9%). Os sinais e sintomas mais frequentes foram: cefaleia (41,8%), tosse (33,3%) e coriza (30,0%). Do total de pacientes, 66,4% foram notificados como casos suspeitos de COVID-19 e 14,5% apresentaram resultado positivo para COVID-19. A idade igual ou superior a 60 anos foi mais frequente entre os casos confirmados (26,6%). A maioria dos pacientes (80,4%) não necessitou de atendimento presencial. Os resultados positivos para COVID-19 estiveram associados à idade dos pacientes (Odds Ratio - OR 1.020; intervalo de confiança - IC95% 1.007 - 1.032); contato domiciliar com caso positivo ou suspeito (OR 1.902; IC95% 1.178 - 3.070); presença de náuseas/vômitos (OR 2.403; IC95% 1.148 - 5.029) e alterações no olfato (OR 2.827; IC95% 1.294 - 6.176). CONCLUSÕES: O Telessaúde-COVID foi relevante na condução e notificação dos casos atendidos, evitando a procura por consultas presenciais sem indicação clínica. Entre os casos suspeitos, a positividade para COVID-19 associou-se a idosos, história de contato domiciliar, sintomas gastrointestinais e olfatórios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Female , Headache , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting , Young Adult
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(16): 5310-5317, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the treatment of cancer patients, with particular regard to the management of both chemotherapy and side effects. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are amongst the most troublesome side effects that impair patients' adherence to treatments and their quality of life (QoL). NEPA (Akynzeo®), is an oral fixed-dose combination of netupitant [a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1RA), 300 mg] and palonosetron [(5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin or 5HT) type3 receptor antagonist (5HT3RA), 0.5 mg] which has been shown to be effective in preventing CINV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study started before the outbreak of COVID-19 and was carried out during the pandemic period. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single oral dose NEPA plus 12 mg of dexamethasone (DEX) in patients treated with Folfoxiri plus Bevacizumab and Folfirinox. The patients were diagnosed with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) or advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). They were divided into two groups: naïve patients and patients previously treated with serotonin receptor antagonists (5HT3-RA) and neurokin-1 receptor antagonists (NK1-RA). RESULTS: During the overall phase, the complete response (CR) rate was 96.8% in naïve patients treated with Folfoxiri plus Bevacizumab, and 94.6% in patients treated with Folfirinox. During the acute and delayed phases, the CR rate was 92.8% and 94.2%, with Folfoxiri and Bevacizumab, as well as 96.2% and 94.6%, with Folfirinox. There was no adequate control of CINV events in patients on antiemetic prophylaxis with 5HT3-RA or NK1-RA associated with cortisone. During the overall phase, the CR rate was 74.6% with Folfoxiri plus Bevacizumab and 75.8% with Folfirinox. During the acute and delayed phases, the CR rate was 72.5% and 74.8% with Folfoxiri plus Bevacizumab, as well as 75.2% and 74.6% with Folfirinox. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown the therapeutic benefits of NEPA in the management and prophylaxis of CINV events, both in naive patients and patients previously treated with 5HT3-RA and NK1-RA. In addition, NEPA has been shown to be safe, both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiemetics/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Palonosetron/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Aged , Antiemetics/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Bevacizumab/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Female , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Humans , Irinotecan/administration & dosage , Irinotecan/therapeutic use , Leucovorin/administration & dosage , Leucovorin/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/prevention & control , Oxaliplatin/administration & dosage , Oxaliplatin/therapeutic use , Palonosetron/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Vomiting/prevention & control
17.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256429, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367707

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic since its outbreak in Wuhan, China. It is an urgent task to prevent and treat COVID-19 effectively early. In China's experience combating the COVID-19 pandemic, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has played an indispensable role. A large number of epidemiological investigations have shown that mild to moderate COVID-19 accounts for the largest proportion of cases. It is of great importance to treat such COVID-19 cases, which can help control epidemic progression. Many trials have shown that CHM combined with conventional therapy in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 was superior to conventional therapy alone. This review was designed to evaluate the add-on effect of CHM in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. METHODS: Eight electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Clinical Trials.gov website, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), Wanfang Database and China Biology Medicine (CBM) were searched from December 2019 to March 2021 without language restrictions. Two reviewers searched and selected studies, and extracted data according to inclusion and exclusion criteria independently. Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included RCTs. Review Manager 5.3.0 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Twelve eligible RCTs including 1393 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analyses found that lung CT parameters [RR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.15, 1.38), P<0.00001] and the clinical cure rate [RR = 1.26, 95%CI (1.16, 1.38), P<0.00001] of CHM combined with conventional therapy in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 were better than those of conventional therapy. The rate of conversion to severe cases [RR = 0.48, 95%CI (0.32, 0.73), P = 0.0005], TCM symptom score of fever [MD = -0.62, 95%CI (-0.79, -0.45), P<0.00001], cough cases [RR = 1.43, 95%CI (1.16, 1.75), P = 0.0006], TCM symptom score of cough[MD = -1.07, 95%CI (-1.29, -0.85), P<0.00001], TCM symptom score of fatigue[MD = -0.66, 95%CI (-1.05, -0.28), P = 0.0007], and CRP[MD = -5.46, 95%CI (-8.19, -2.72), P<0.0001] of combination therapy was significantly lower than that of conventional therapy. The WBC count was significantly higher than that of conventional therapy[MD = 0.38, 95%CI (0.31, 0.44), P<0.00001]. Our meta-analysis results were robust through sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine combined with conventional therapy may be effective and safe in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. More high-quality RCTs are needed in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/etiology , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/virology , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Nausea/chemically induced , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Vomiting/chemically induced
18.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(2): 267-278, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To better inform clinical practice, we summarized the findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antivirals for COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched for literature up to September 2020, and included English-language publications of RCTs among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We conducted network meta-analysis combining results of both the direct and indirect comparisons of interventions. The efficacy outcomes were clinical progression, all-cause mortality, and viral clearance, and safety outcomes were diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. We generated treatment rankings (best to worst) and summarized rank probabilities using rankogram. RESULTS: We included 15 RCTs (14,418 patients) from 7,237 retrieved citations. There was no evidence for efficacy of the assessed antivirals compared with placebo/no treatment or with another antiviral for all efficacy outcomes. Lopinavir (400 mg)/ritonavir (100 mg) significantly increased diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting compared with placebo/no treatment and other antivirals, and was ranked worst for these outcomes, while triazavirin (250 mg), baloxavir marboxil (80 mg), and remdesivir (100 mg - 10 days) ranked best, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The available evidence does not support the use of any antiviral drugs for COVID-19. Cautious interpretations of the findings are, however, advised considering the paucity of the evidence. More RCTs are needed for a stronger evidence base.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Humans , Nausea/drug therapy , Network Meta-Analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/drug therapy
19.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105126, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the global epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), China has made progress in the prevention and control of the epidemic, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a key role in dealing with the disease's effects on the respiratory system. This randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the clinical efficacy and prognosis of Huoxiang Zhengqi dropping pills and Lianhua Qingwen granules in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 283 patients participated in this clinical trial, and participants were randomly assigned to receive either 1) Huoxiang Zhengqi dropping pills and Lianhua Qingwen granules or 2) Linahua granules, both combined with western medicine, or 3) western medicine alone for 14 days. At the end of the trial, the improvement and resolution rates of clinical symptoms and the rate of patients who progressed to severe disease status were evaluated. RESULTS: After 14 days of treatment, there was no significant difference in the improvement rate of clinical symptoms among the three groups (P > 0.05). Huoxiang Zhengqi dropping pills combined with Lianhua Qingwen granules has advantages in the treatment of nausea, vomiting and limb soreness. During treatment, all participants were treated with western medicine, and there was a significant difference in the use of macrolides among the three groups (P < 0.05). Specifically, the utilization rate of antibiotics in the western medicine group was significantly greater than that of the other two groups. Among the 182 diagnosed patients who completed this clinical trial, 13 patients progressed to severe disease, including one case in the Huoxiang + Lianhua group (1.6 %), five cases in the Lianhua group (8.6 %), and seven cases in the western medicine group (11.1 %). There was no statistical differences in this rate among the three groups (P > 0.05). However, the proportion of patients who progressed to severe disease in the Huoxiang + Lianhua group was the lowest, suggesting that the combination of TCM with western medicine has a potential advantage in improving the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The use of Huoxiang Zhengqi dropping pills and Lianhua Qingwen granules combined with western medicine may have clinical advantages for COVID-19 patients in improving clinical symptoms, reducing utilization rate of anti-infective drugs, and improving patient prognosis, which could pave the way for the use of complementary medicine in treating this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , China , Disease Progression , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Myalgia/drug therapy , Myalgia/etiology , Nausea/drug therapy , Nausea/etiology , Powders , Tablets , Treatment Outcome , Vomiting/drug therapy , Vomiting/etiology
20.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(2)2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299608

ABSTRACT

Given the current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) and the development and implementation of mass vaccination, data are being obtained by analyzing vaccination campaigns. In the present study, 69 healthcare workers who were exposed to patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus­2 were monitored for specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA levels at different time periods. Prior to vaccination, after the first round of vaccination at 21 days (when the second dose of vaccine was administrated) and 24 days after the second round of vaccination, with an mRNA­based vaccine. The basal IgG and IgA levels in previously infected subjects and non­infected subjects notably differed. Vaccination increased the IgG and IgA levels after the first dose in most subjects from both groups, the levels of which further increased following the second round of vaccination. The associations between IgG and IgA levels following the first and second rounds of vaccination demonstrated that in the entire vaccination group, regardless of prior exposure to the infectious agent, the increment and levels of IgG and IgA were similar. Thus, the levels upon vaccination were statistically similar irrespective of the starting base line prior to vaccination. In the present study, seroconversion was achieved in all subjects following the second round of vaccination, with similar antibodies levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pain/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Vaccination , Vomiting/etiology
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