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1.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 32(2): 148-154, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have fever, dry cough, dyspnea, and fatigue. The disease has now become a global pandemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between COVID-19 and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. METHODS: We collected and analyzed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 by high-throughput sequencing or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We reviewed electronic medical records of 405 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the Third Hospital of Wuhan. RESULTS: Among the 405 confirmed patients, 210 had no GI symptoms, 195 had GI symptoms, and the first symptom of 155 patients was GI. The prevalence of vascular and digestive diseases in the group with GI symptoms was significantly higher than in the group without GI symptoms. In patients with GI symptoms, the proportion with fever, cough, dysphoria, chest tightness, poor appetite, chest pain, and pharyngeal pain was significantly higher than in those without GI symptoms. There was no significant difference in imaging between the 2 groups. In patients with GI symptoms, the proportion with increased procalcitonin (PCT) level and decreased lymphocyte count was significantly higher than in those without GI symptoms. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms had significantly more vascular and digestive system diseases and were more likely to have clinical manifestations of fever, cough, poor appetite, chest tightness, chest pain, insomnia, and pharyngeal pain. There were more patients with diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Patients with GI symptoms were more likely to have increased PCT and decreased lymphocyte count.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Diarrhea/blood , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/blood , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/virology , Procalcitonin/blood , Vomiting/blood , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/virology
2.
J Gastroenterol ; 56(5): 409-420, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147593

ABSTRACT

Although primarily a respiratory illness, several studies have shown that COVID-19 causes elevation of liver enzymes and various gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether the presence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms contributed toward COVID-19 severity, and identify the GI symptoms characteristic of severe COVID-19. We conducted a literature search of PubMed from December 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020, and identified all reports with GI symptoms reported. A meta-analysis comparing the severity of COVID-19 with the presence of liver enzyme elevation and GI symptoms was performed using RevMan version 5.4. Pooled data from 15,305 unique reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 patients from 44 studies were analyzed. We found that the severe COVID-19 patients significantly had abdominal pain compared to the non-severe COVID-19 patients (OR = 2.70, 95% CI 1.17-6.27, Z = 2.32, p = 0.02, I2 = 0%) by analyzed 609 patients of 4 studies who reported both abdominal pain and COVID-19 severity. However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting between the two groups. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated that abdominal pain could be characteristic of severe COVID-19 infections. Compared with other viral infections that primarily infect the respiratory system, patients with COVID-19 have a slightly lower frequency of diarrheal symptoms with abdominal pain. However, to confirm this, further studies with COVID-19 patients across various countries and ethnicities are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Liver/enzymology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Liver/virology , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/virology
3.
CMAJ ; 193(5): E177-E185, 2021 02 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110112

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTE: La recherche sur les enfants atteints d'une infection à coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère 2 (SRAS-CoV-2) a principalement porté sur les enfants amenés aux services des urgences. Nous avons voulu identifier les symptômes plus souvent associés à un frottis SRAS-CoV-2-positif chez les enfants non hospitalisés. MÉTHODES: Nous avons procédé à une étude observationnelle chez des enfants soumis au dépistage et suivis pour une infection à SRAS-CoV-2 confirmée sur des prélèvements de sécrétions nasales, nasopharyngées, de la gorge et autres (p. ex., aspiration nasopharyngée, sécrétions trachéales ou non spécifiées) entre le 13 avril et le 30 septembre 2020 en Alberta. Nous avons calculé les rapports de vraisemblance (RV) positifs entre les symptômes autodéclarés et les frottis SRAS-CoV-2-positifs dans la cohorte entière et dans 3 analyses de sensibilité : tous les enfants présentant au moins 1 symptôme, tous les enfants, symptomatiques ou non, soumis au dépistage par suite d'une recherche de contacts, et tous les enfants de 5 ans et plus. RÉSULTATS: Nous avons analysé les résultats chez 2463 enfants soumis au dépistage de l'infection à SRAS-CoV-2; 1987 enfants se sont révélés positifs et 476 négatifs. Parmi les enfants SRAS-CoV-2-positifs, 714 (35,9 %) n'ont déclaré aucun symptôme. Même si la toux (24,5 %) et la rhinorrhée (19,3 %) étaient les 2 symptômes les plus fréquents chez les enfants ayant contracté le SRAS-CoV-2, elles étaient fréquentes également chez ceux dont les résultats étaient négatifs et ne permettaient pas de prédire un résultat positif (RV positif 0,96, intervalle de confiance [IC] à 95 % 0,81­1,14 et 0,87, IC à 95 % 0,72­1,06, respectivement). L'anosmie/agueusie (RV positif 7,33, IC à 95 % 3,03­17,76), les nausées et vomissements (RV positif 5,51, IC à 95 % 1,74­17,43), les céphalées (RV positif 2,49, IC à 95 % 1,74­3,57) et la fièvre (RV positif 1,68, IC à 95 % 1,34­2,11) ont été les symptômes les plus prédictifs d'un résultat SRAS-CoV-2-positif. Le RV positif pour la combinaison anosmie et agueusie, nausées et vomissements, et céphalées était de 65,92 (IC à 95 % 49,48­91,92). INTERPRÉTATION: Environ les deux tiers des enfants déclarés SRAS-CoV-2-positifs ont manifesté des symptômes, et les symptômes les plus étroitement associés à un frottis SRAS-CoV-2-positif étaient l'anosmie/agueusie, les nausées et les vomissements, les céphalées et la fièvre.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adolescent , Alberta , Anosmia/virology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Fever/virology , Headache/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nausea/virology , Vomiting/virology
4.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 72(3): 384-387, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072474

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a recently identified syndrome that appears to be temporally associated with novel coronavirus 2019 infection. MIS-C presents with fever and evidence of systemic inflammation, which can manifest as cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurologic, and gastrointestinal (GI) system dysfunction. Presenting GI symptoms are seen in the majority, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. Any segment of the GI tract may be affected; however, inflammation in the ileum and colon predominates. Progressive bowel wall thickening can lead to luminal narrowing and obstruction. Most will have resolution of intestinal inflammation with medical therapies; however, in rare instances, surgical resection may be required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intestinal Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Abdominal Pain/virology , Child , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Vomiting/virology
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200714, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1024439

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has greatly challenged public health worldwide. A growing number of studies have reported gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. We performed a systematic review of GI symptoms associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as well as of the serum levels of biomarkers related to liver function and lesion in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. METHODS: We surveyed relevant articles published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese up to July, 2020 in the PubMed, MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS, and BVS databases. Moreover, we surveyed potentially important articles in journals such as the NEJM, JAMA, BMJ, Gut, and AJG. RESULTS: This systematic review included 43 studies, including 18,246 patients. Diarrhea was the most common GI symptom, affecting 11.5% of the patients, followed by nausea and vomiting (6.3%) and abdominal pain (2.3%). With regard to clinical severity, 17.5% of the patients were classified as severely ill, whereas 9.8% of them were considered to have a non-severe disease. Some studies showed increased aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase levels in a portion of the 209 analyzed patients and two studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that digestive symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients. In addition, alterations in cytolysis biomarkers could also be observed in a lesser proportion, calling attention to the possibility of hepatic involvement in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Vomiting/virology , Abdominal Pain/virology , Diarrhea/virology , Pandemics , Nausea/virology
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(20): 10853-10859, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review paper was to discuss the gut microbiota-related aspects of COVID-19 patients. We presented the faecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2, gut microbiota imbalance, and fecal microbiota transplantation as a hidden source of this virus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the available literature (PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar databases) regarding COVID-19 and gut microbiota related aspects. RESULTS: The gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort/pain, may occur in these patients. Notably, these symptoms may contribute to the severity of COVID-19. Recent several studies have revealed a new SARS-CoV-2 transmission possibility, opening a fresh view on COVID-19. It is observed the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via faecal-oral route. Fecal microbiota transplantation may be a hidden source of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, the pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 and other factors may significantly alter the composition of gut microbiota. Among others, loss of bacterial diversity, the decrease of commensal microbes as well as the increase of opportunistic pathogens are observed. CONCLUSIONS: The alterations of gut microbiota in COVID-19 patients consequently may lead to the development of gut dysbiosis-related diseases even after recovery from COVID-19. Therefore, it is recommended to screen stool samples taken from recovered patients at least 35 days after clearance of virus from respiratory tract. Before 35 days period, SARS-CoV-2 may still be detected in feces. It is also recommended to screen the composition as well as the activity of gut microbiota to assess its balance. In the case of gut dysbiosis, there should be introduced an appropriate method of its modulation. Additionally, all the fecal samples which are prepared for fecal microbiota transplantation should be tested for SARS-CoV-2 to provide protection for its recipients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , COVID-19 , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/virology
9.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(4): 541-546, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866907

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an international public health emergency. Although respiratory symptoms predominate the clinical manifestations of COVID-19, gastrointestinal symptoms have been observed in a subset of patients. Notably, some patients have nausea/vomiting as the first clinical manifestation of COVID-19, which is often overlooked by people. It is now clear that not only the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract could also be attacked by SARS-CoV-2. Its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which acts as a gateway to infection, has been found to be highly expressed in the gastrointestinal epithelium and may lead to the development of nausea/vomiting. Raise awareness of these symptoms and take timely intervention would help people combat the pandemic. This review discussed epidemiology, mechanisms, management, and prevention of COVID-19 related nausea and vomiting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Nausea/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vomiting/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Nausea/epidemiology , Vomiting/epidemiology
10.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 51(9): 843-851, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is little published evidence on the gastrointestinal features of COVID-19. AIMS: To report on the gastrointestinal manifestations and pathological findings of patients with COVID-19, and to discuss the possibility of faecal transmission. METHODS: We have reviewed gastrointestinal features of, and faecal test results in, COVID-19 from case reports and retrospective clinical studies relating to the digestive system published since the outbreak. RESULTS: With an incidence of 3% (1/41)-79% (159/201), gastrointestinal symptoms of COVID-19 included anorexia 39.9% (55/138)-50.2% (101/201), diarrhoea 2% (2/99)-49.5% (146/295), vomiting 3.6% (5/138)-66.7% (4/6), nausea 1% (1/99)-29.4% (59/201), abdominal pain 2.2% (3/138)-6.0% (12/201) and gastrointestinal bleeding 4% (2/52)-13.7% (10/73). Diarrhoea was the most common gastrointestinal symptom in children and adults, with a mean duration of 4.1 ± 2.5 days, and was observed before and after diagnosis. Vomiting was more prominent in children. About 3.6% (5/138)-15.9% (32/201) of adult and 6.5% (2/31)-66.7% (4/6) of children patients presented vomiting. Adult and children patients can present with digestive symptoms in the absence of respiratory symptoms. The incidence of digestive manifestations was higher in the later than in the early stage of the epidemic, but no differences in digestive symptoms among different regions were found. Among the group of patients with a higher proportion of severe cases, the proportion of gastrointestinal symptoms in severe patients was higher than that in nonsevere patients (anorexia 66.7% vs 30.4%; abdominal pain 8.3% vs 0%); while in the group of patients with a lower severe rate, the proportion with gastrointestinal symptoms was similar in severe and nonsevere cases (nausea and vomiting 6.9% vs 4.6%; diarrhoea 5.8% vs 3.5%). Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and virus nucleocapsid protein were detected in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, and infectious virus particles were isolated from faeces. Faecal PCR testing was as accurate as respiratory specimen PCR detection. In 36% (5/14)-53% (39/73) faecal PCR became positive, 2-5 days later than sputum PCR positive. Faecal excretion persisted after sputum excretion in 23% (17/73)-82% (54/66) patients for 1-11 days. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with COVID-19, and had an increased prevalence in the later stage of the recent epidemic in China. SARS-CoV-2 enters gastrointestinal epithelial cells, and the faeces of COVID-19 patients are potentially infectious.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/virology
11.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(2): 306-310, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809644

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The most typical presentation of COVID-19 is an acute respiratory syndrome whose most common symptoms include fever, cough, and dyspnea. However, gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea and nausea/vomiting, are increasingly reported in patients affected by COVID-19. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and time of onset of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients affected by COVID-19 and to find potential associations between gastrointestinal symptoms and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We performed a prospective single-center cohort study, enrolling patients who received diagnosis of COVID-19 at our institution between March 23, 2020, and April 5, 2020. We collected patient demographics and medical history, laboratory data, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we used a specifically designed questionnaire, administered to patients at time of diagnosis, to obtain data on the presence and time of onset of fever, typical respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, and other symptoms (fatigue, headache, myalgia/arthralgia, anosmia, ageusia/dysgeusia, sore throat, and ocular symptoms). RESULTS: In our cohort, 138 (69%) of 190 patients showed at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom at diagnosis; if excluding hyporexia/anorexia, 93 patients (48.9%) showed at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom. Gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular diarrhea, were associated with a lower mortality. At multivariate analysis, diarrhea was confirmed as independent predictive factor of lower mortality. DISCUSSION: Gastrointestinal symptoms are very frequent in patients with COVID-19 and may be associated with a better prognosis. These data suggest that, in some patients, the gastrointestinal tract may be more involved than the respiratory system in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and this could account for the less severe course of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Italy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/diagnosis , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/physiopathology , Nausea/virology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/physiopathology , Vomiting/virology
12.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(3): 646-656, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780938

ABSTRACT

Exclusion of nausea (N) and vomiting (V) from detailed consideration as symptoms of COVID-19 is surprising as N can be an early presenting symptom. We examined the incidence of NV during infection before defining potential mechanisms. We estimate that the overall incidence of nausea (median 10.5%), although variable, is comparable with diarrhea. Poor definition of N, confusion with appetite loss, and reporting of N and/or V as a single entity may contribute to reporting variability and likely underestimation. We propose that emetic mechanisms are activated by mediators released from the intestinal epithelium by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) modulate vagal afferents projecting to the brainstem and after entry into the blood, activate the area postrema (AP) also implicated in anorexia. The receptor for spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin 2 converting enzyme (ACE2), and transmembrane protease serine (for viral entry) is expressed in upper gastrointestinal (GI) enterocytes, ACE2 is expressed on enteroendocrine cells (EECs), and SARS-CoV-2 infects enterocytes but not EECs (studies needed with native EECs). The resultant virus-induced release of epithelial mediators due to exocytosis, inflammation, and apoptosis provides the peripheral and central emetic drives. Additionally, data from SARS-CoV-2 show an increase in plasma angiotensin II (consequent on SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 interaction), a centrally (AP) acting emetic, providing a further potential mechanism in COVID-19. Viral invasion of the dorsal brainstem is also a possibility but more likely in delayed onset symptoms. Overall, greater attention must be given to nausea as an early symptom of COVID-19 and for the insights provided into the GI effects of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nausea/virology , Vomiting/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Incidence , Nausea/epidemiology , Vomiting/epidemiology
13.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100745, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741319

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by SARS-CoV-2 originated from China and spread across every corner of the world. The scientific interest on COVID-19 increased after WHO declared it a pandemic in the early February of 2020. In fact, this pandemic has had a worldwide impact on economy, health, and lifestyle like no other in the last 100 years. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Coronaviridae family and causes the deadliest clinical manifestations when compared to other viruses in the family. COVID-19 is an emerging zoonotic disease that has resulted in over 383,000 deaths around the world. Scientists are scrambling for ideas to develop treatment and prevention strategies to thwart the disease condition. In this review, we have attempted to summarize the latest information on the virus, disease, prevention, and treatment strategies. The future looks promising.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ataxia/diagnosis , Ataxia/physiopathology , Ataxia/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Nausea/diagnosis , Nausea/physiopathology , Nausea/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/organization & administration , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/physiopathology , Vomiting/virology
17.
Microbes Infect ; 22(9): 481-488, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599130

ABSTRACT

Clinical descriptions about influenza-like illnesses (ILI) in COVID-19 seem non-specific. We aimed to compare the clinical features of COVID-19 and influenza. We retrospectively investigated the clinical features and outcomes of confirmed cases of COVID-19 and influenza in Nord Franche-Comté Hospital between February 26th and March 14th 2020. We used SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and influenza virus A/B RT-PCR in respiratory samples to confirm the diagnosis. We included 124 patients. The mean age was 59 (±19 [19-98]) years with 69% female. 70 patients with COVID-19 and 54 patients with influenza A/B. Regarding age, sex and comorbidities, no differences were found between the two groups except a lower Charlson index in COVID-19 group (2 [±2.5] vs 3 [±2.4],p = 0.003). Anosmia (53% vs 17%,p < 0.001), dysgeusia (49% vs 20%,p = 0.001), diarrhea (40% vs 20%,p = 0.021), frontal headache (26% vs 9%,p = 0.021) and bilateral cracklings sounds (24% vs 9%,p = 0.034) were statistically more frequent in COVID-19. Sputum production (52% vs 29%,p = 0.010), dyspnea (59% vs 34%,p = 0.007), sore throat (44% vs 20%,p = 0.006), conjunctival hyperhemia (30% vs 4%,p < 0.001), tearing (24% vs 6%,p = 0.004), vomiting (22% vs 3%,p = 0.001) and rhonchi sounds (17% vs 1%,p = 0.002) were more frequent with influenza infection. We described several clinical differences which can help the clinicians during the co-circulation of influenza and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Influenza B virus/pathogenicity , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/virology , Dysgeusia/diagnosis , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/virology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , France , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/physiopathology , Headache/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/physiopathology , Vomiting/virology
18.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 7(1)2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-413074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 epidemic has affected over 2.6 million people across 210 countries. Recent studies have shown that patients with COVID-19 experience relevant gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the GI symptoms of COVID-19. METHODS: A literature search was conducted via electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar, from inception until 20 March 2020. Data were extracted from relevant studies. A systematic review of GI symptoms and a meta-analysis comparing symptoms in severe and non-severe patients was performed using RevMan V.5.3. RESULTS: Pooled data from 2477 patients with a reverse transcription-PCR-positive COVID-19 infection across 17 studies were analysed. Our study revealed that diarrhoea (7.8%) followed by nausea and/or vomiting (5.5 %) were the most common GI symptoms. We performed a meta-analysis comparing the odds of having GI symptoms in severe versus non-severe COVID-19-positive patients. 4 studies for nausea and/or vomiting, 5 studies for diarrhoea and 3 studies for abdominal pain were used for the analyses. There was no significant difference in the incidence of diarrhoea (OR=1.32, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.18, Z=1.07, p=0.28, I2=17%) or nausea and/or vomiting (OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.42 to 2.19, Z=0.10, p=0.92, I2=55%) between either group. However, there was seven times higher odds of having abdominal pain in patients with severe illness when compared with non-severe patients (OR=7.17, 95% CI 1.95 to 26.34, Z=2.97, p=0.003, I2=0%). CONCLUSION: Our study has reiterated that GI symptoms are an important clinical feature of COVID-19. Patients with severe disease are more likely to have abdominal pain as compared with patients with non-severe disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Abdominal Pain/virology , COVID-19 , Diarrhea/virology , Humans , Nausea/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/virology
19.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(7): 645-649, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-336444

ABSTRACT

Since human coronavirus (HCoV)-like particles were detected in the stool specimens of acute gastroenteritis and necrotizing enterocolitis children with electron microscopy, the relationship between HCoV and the pediatric gastrointestinal illness had been recognized. In recent years, the overall detection rates have been low and have varied by region. HCoVs have not been considered as the major pathogens in pediatric acute gastroenteritis. HCoVs detected in children with acute gastroenteritis have included 229E, OC43, HKU1, NL63, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 have also been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in children. Although digestive tract has been recognized as an infection route, it has not been possible to fully investigate the association between HCoVs infection and the gastrointestinal symptoms because of the limited number of pediatric cases. Furthermore, pathologic features have not been clear. Till now, our knowledge of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is limited. However, diarrhea and vomiting have been seen in pediatric cases, particularly in newborns and infants. It has been necessary to pay more attention on gastrointestinal transmission to identify the infected children early and avoid the children without apparent or mild symptoms becoming the sources of infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diarrhea/virology , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/virology , Gastroenteritis/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/virology
20.
J Clin Virol ; 128: 104386, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-227004

ABSTRACT

There is an increasing number of confirmed cases and deaths caused by the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contributing to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. At this point, the need for further disease characterization is critical. COVID-19 is well established as a respiratory tract pathogen; however, recent studies have shown an increasing number of patients reporting gastrointestinal manifestations such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. The time from onset of gastrointestinal symptoms to hospital presentation is often delayed compared to that of respiratory symptoms. It has been noted that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in fecal matter for an extended period of time, even after respiratory samples have tested negative and patients are asymptomatic. In this article, SARS-CoV-2 and its disease COVID-19 will be reviewed with consideration of the latest literature about gastrointestinal symptomatology, the mechanisms by which the virus may inflict damage, and the possibility of viral replication contributing to a fecal-oral route of transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Digestive System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Digestive System Diseases/prevention & control , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Liver/virology , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pancreas/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication , Vomiting/virology
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