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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 686, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Associations between community-level risk factors and COVID-19 incidence have been used to identify vulnerable subpopulations and target interventions, but the variability of these associations over time remains largely unknown. We evaluated variability in the associations between community-level predictors and COVID-19 case incidence in 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts from March to October 2020. METHODS: Using publicly available sociodemographic, occupational, environmental, and mobility datasets, we developed mixed-effect, adjusted Poisson regression models to depict associations between these variables and town-level COVID-19 case incidence data across five distinct time periods from March to October 2020. We examined town-level demographic variables, including population proportions by race, ethnicity, and age, as well as factors related to occupation, housing density, economic vulnerability, air pollution (PM2.5), and institutional facilities. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) associated with these predictors and compared these values across the multiple time periods to assess variability in the observed associations over time. RESULTS: Associations between key predictor variables and town-level incidence varied across the five time periods. We observed reductions over time in the association with percentage of Black residents (IRR = 1.12 [95%CI: 1.12-1.13]) in early spring, IRR = 1.01 [95%CI: 1.00-1.01] in early fall) and COVID-19 incidence. The association with number of long-term care facility beds per capita also decreased over time (IRR = 1.28 [95%CI: 1.26-1.31] in spring, IRR = 1.07 [95%CI: 1.05-1.09] in fall). Controlling for other factors, towns with higher percentages of essential workers experienced elevated incidences of COVID-19 throughout the pandemic (e.g., IRR = 1.30 [95%CI: 1.27-1.33] in spring, IRR = 1.20 [95%CI: 1.17-1.22] in fall). Towns with higher proportions of Latinx residents also had sustained elevated incidence over time (IRR = 1.19 [95%CI: 1.18-1.21] in spring, IRR = 1.14 [95%CI: 1.13-1.15] in fall). CONCLUSIONS: Town-level COVID-19 risk factors varied with time in this study. In Massachusetts, racial (but not ethnic) disparities in COVID-19 incidence may have decreased across the first 8 months of the pandemic, perhaps indicating greater success in risk mitigation in selected communities. Our approach can be used to evaluate effectiveness of public health interventions and target specific mitigation efforts on the community level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Social Environment , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Incidence , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Movement/physiology , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18117, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406408

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination is being rapidly rolled out in the US and many other countries, and it is crucial to provide fast and accurate assessment of vaccination coverage and vaccination gaps to make strategic adjustments promoting vaccine coverage. We reported the effective use of real-time geospatial analysis to identify barriers and gaps in COVID-19 vaccination in a minority population living in South Texas on the US-Mexico Border, to inform vaccination campaign strategies. We developed 4 rank-based approaches to evaluate the vaccination gap at the census tract level, which considered both population vulnerability and vaccination priority and eligibility. We identified areas with the highest vaccination gaps using different assessment approaches. Real-time geospatial analysis to identify vaccination gaps is critical to rapidly increase vaccination uptake, and to reach herd immunity in the vulnerable and the vaccine hesitant groups. Our results assisted the City of Brownsville Public Health Department in adjusting real-time targeting of vaccination, gathering coverage assessment, and deploying services to areas identified as high vaccination gap. The analyses and responses can be adopted in other locations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Geography , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Mexico/ethnology , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Minority Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Texas/ethnology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination Coverage/methods , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
7.
CMAJ ; 193(31): E1203-E1212, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated disparities in poverty and illness for people in vulnerable circumstances in ethnocultural communities. We sought to understand the evolving impacts of COVID-19 on ethnocultural communities to inform intersectoral advocacy and community action. METHODS: The Illuminate Project used participatory action research, with cultural health brokers as peer researchers, from Sept. 21 to Dec. 31, 2020, in Edmonton, Alberta. Twenty-one peer researchers collected narratives from members of ethnocultural communities and self-interpreted them as they entered the narratives into the SenseMaker platform, a mixed-method data collection tool. The entire research team analyzed real-time, aggregate, quantitative and qualitative data to identify emerging thematic domains, then visualized these domains with social network analysis. RESULTS: Brokers serving diverse communities collected 773 narratives. Identified domains illuminate the evolving and entangled impacts of COVID-19 including the following: COVID-19 prevention and management; care of acute, chronic and serious illnesses other than COVID-19; maternal care; mental health and triggers of past trauma; financial insecurity; impact on children and youth and seniors; and legal concerns. We identified that community social capital and cultural brokering are key assets that facilitate access to formal health and social system supports. INTERPRETATION: The Illuminate Project has illustrated the entangled, systemic issues that result in poor health among vulnerable members of ethnocultural communities, and the exacerbating effects of COVID-19, which also increased barriers to mitigation. Cultural brokering and community social capital are key supports for people during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings can inform policy to reduce harm and support community resiliency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Pandemics , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Alberta/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Consumer Health Information , Female , Financial Stress , Health Services Research , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Male , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Capital , Social Network Analysis , Social Support
8.
Indian J Med Ethics ; V(4): 1-14, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239247

ABSTRACT

The spread of Covid-19 and the lockdown have brought in acute deprivation for rural, marginalised communities with loss of wages, returnee migrants and additional state-imposed barriers to accessing facilities and public provisions. Patriarchal norms amplified in such a crisis along with gender-blind state welfare policies have rendered women in these communities "invisible". This has impacted their access to healthcare, nutrition and social security, and significantly increased their unpaid work burden. Several manifestations of violence, and mental stress have surfaced, diminishing their bare minimum agency and rights and impacting their overall health and wellbeing. This article looks at these gendered implications in the context of rural, tribal and high migrant areas of South Rajasthan. We have adopted an intersectional approach to highlight how intersections of several structures across multiple sites of power: the public, the private space of the home and the woman's intimate space, have reduced them to ultra-vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Rural Population , Social Marginalization , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Women , Female , Humans , India/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Health Secur ; 18(6): 473-482, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217794

ABSTRACT

Mass vaccination is a crucial public health intervention during outbreaks or pandemics for which vaccines are available. The US government has sponsored the development of medical countermeasures, including vaccines, for public health emergencies; however, federally supported programs, including the Public Health and Emergency Preparedness program and Cities Readiness Initiative, have historically emphasized antibiotic pill dispensing over mass vaccination. While mass vaccination and pill dispensing programs share similarities, they also have fundamental differences that require dedicated preparedness efforts to address. To date, only a limited number of public assessments of local mass vaccination operational capabilities have been conducted. To fill this gap, we interviewed 37 public health and preparedness officials representing 33 jurisdictions across the United States. We aimed to characterize their existing mass vaccination operational capacities and identify challenges and lessons learned in order to support the efforts of other jurisdictions to improve mass vaccination preparedness. We found that most jurisdictions were not capable of or had not planned for rapidly vaccinating their populations within a short period of time (eg, 1 to 2 weeks). Many also noted that their focus on pill dispensing was driven largely by federal funding requirements and that preparedness efforts for mass vaccination were often self-motivated. Barriers to implementing rapid mass vaccination operations included insufficient personnel qualified to administer vaccinations, increased patient load compared to pill-dispensing modalities, logistical challenges to maintaining cold chain, and operational challenges addressing high-risk populations, including children, pregnant women, and non-English-speaking populations. Considering the expected availability of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine for distribution and dispensing to the public, our findings highlight critical considerations for planning possible future mass vaccination events, including during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Defense/trends , Mass Vaccination/trends , Medical Countermeasures , Public Health , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Disaster Planning/trends , Humans , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Vaccination
11.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 81, 2021 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emory Dialysis serves an urban and predominantly African American population at its four outpatient dialysis facilities. We describe COVID-19 infection control measures implemented and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in the Emory Dialysis facilities. METHODS: Implementation of COVID-19 infection procedures commenced in February 2020. Subsequently, COVID-19 preparedness assessments were conducted at each facility. Patients with COVID-19 from March 1-May 31, 2020 were included; with a follow-up period spanning March-June 30, 2020. Percentages of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were calculated, and characteristics of COVID-19 patients were summarized as medians or percentage. Baseline characteristics of all patients receiving care at Emory Dialysis (i.e. Emory general dialysis population) were presented as medians and percentages. RESULTS: Of 751 dialysis patients, 23 (3.1%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The median age was 67.0 years and 13 patients (56.6%) were female. Eleven patients (47.8%) were residents of nursing homes. Nineteen patients (82.6%) required hospitalization and 6 patients (26.1%) died; the average number of days from a positive SARS-CoV-2 (COVID) test to death was 16.8 days (range 1-34). Two patients dialyzing at adjacent dialysis stations and a dialysis staff who cared for them, were diagnosed with COVID-19 in a time frame that may suggest transmission in the dialysis facility. In response, universal masking in the facility was implemented (prior to national guidelines recommending universal masking), infection control audits and re-trainings of PPE were also done to bolster infection control practices. CONCLUSION: We successfully implemented recommended COVID-19 infection control measures aimed at mitigating the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Most of the patients with COVID-19 required hospitalizations. Dialysis facilities should remain vigilant and monitor for possible transmission of COVID-19 in the facility.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Ambulatory Care Facilities/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Renal Dialysis/standards , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Georgia , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Urban Population
12.
Breastfeed Med ; 16(2): 156-164, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085365

ABSTRACT

Background: Although breastfeeding is optimal infant nutrition, disparities in breastfeeding persist in the African American population. AMEN (Avondale Moms Empowered to Nurse) launched a Peer-to-Peer support group to increase breastfeeding initiation and duration in an under-resourced African American urban community with low breastfeeding rates. Materials and Methods: A Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR)-guided project was developed in partnership with a neighborhood church. Using modified Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) peer counseling materials, Avondale neighborhood breastfeeding moms were trained and designated Breastfeeding Champions. Community organizations and partnering agencies helped recruit local mothers. Support groups included childcare, transportation, refreshments, and incentives, plus stipends for Champions. A mixed-methods approach captured participation, feeding intention and practices, and program evaluation using electronic data capture. After adding another neighborhood with low breastfeeding rates, AMEN was modified to "All Moms Empowered to Nurse." Additional Champion moms were trained as Reaching Our Sisters Everywhere (ROSE) Community Transformers. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the group has met weekly by virtual platform. Results: Since May 2017, 67 AMEN support meetings have included 158 participants, with average attendance of 10 (range 5-19) per meeting. In addition to 8 Champions, 110 moms have attended, including 24% expecting mothers. Additional attendees include 13 family support persons, 23 guest speakers, and 12 from community outreach programs. Qualitative feedback from participants has been uniformly positive. Breastfeeding initiation rates have increased 12% in the initial neighborhood. Conclusions: Harnessing strength within the local community, Champion Breastfeeding Moms have successfully launched AMEN breastfeeding support groups in under-resourced African American urban neighborhoods, helping more mothers reach their breastfeeding goals.


Subject(s)
African Americans/ethnology , Breast Feeding , Community-Based Participatory Research , Mothers/education , Mothers/psychology , Peer Group , Program Evaluation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Postnatal Care , Protestantism , Social Support , United States , Urban Population , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology
15.
Am Surg ; 86(12): 1615-1622, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health disparities are prevalent in many areas of medicine. We aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on racial/ethnic groups in the United States (US) and to assess the effects of social distancing, social vulnerability metrics, and medical disparities. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted utilizing data from the COVID-19 Tracking Project and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Demographic data were obtained from the US Census Bureau, social vulnerability data were obtained from the CDC, social distancing data were obtained from Unacast, and medical disparities data from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. A comparison of proportions by Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate differences between death rates stratified by age. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to predict COVID-19 deaths based on social distancing scores, social vulnerability metrics, and medical disparities. RESULTS: COVID-19 cumulative infection and death rates were higher among minority racial/ethnic groups than whites across many states. Older age was also associated with increased cumulative death rates across all racial/ethnic groups on a national level, and many minority racial/ethnic groups experienced significantly greater cumulative death rates than whites within age groups ≥ 35 years. All studied racial/ethnic groups experienced higher hospitalization rates than whites. Older persons (≥ 65 years) also experienced more COVID-19 deaths associated with comorbidities than younger individuals. Social distancing factors, several measures of social vulnerability, and select medical disparities were identified as being predictive of county-level COVID-19 deaths. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted many racial/ethnic minority communities across the country, warranting further research and intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Age Distribution , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Healthcare Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology
16.
Ethn Dis ; 30(3): 429-432, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937791

ABSTRACT

The randomized clinical trial (RCT) has long been recognized as the 'gold standard' for developing evidence for clinical treatments and vaccines; however, the successful implementation and translation of these findings is predicated upon external validity. The generalization of RCT findings are jeopardized by the lack of participation of at-risk groups such as African Americans, with long-recognized disproportional representation. Distinct factors that deter participation in RCTs include distrust, access, recruitment strategies, perceptions of research, and socioeconomic factors. While strategies have been implemented to improve external validity with greater participation among all segments of the population in RCTs, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may exacerbate disparities in RCT participation with the potential impact of delaying treatment development and vaccine interventions that are applicable and generalizable. Thus, it is essential to include diverse populations in such strategies and RCTs. This Perspective aims to direct attention to the additional harm from the pandemic as well as a refocus on the unresolved lack of inclusion of diverse populations in conducting RCTs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Patient Selection , Pneumonia, Viral , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , African Americans , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Patient Participation , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology
17.
Fam Process ; 59(3): 865-882, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751729

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus has added new anxieties and forms of grieving to the myriad practical and emotional burdens already present in the lives of underserved and uninsured immigrant families and communities. In this article, we relate our experiences since the COVID-19 crisis to the lessons we have learned over time as mental health professionals working with families in no-cost, student-managed community comprehensive health clinics in academic-community partnerships. We compare and contrast the learnings of flexibility of time, space, procedures, or attendance we acquired in this clinical community setting during regular times, with the new challenges families and therapists face, and the adaptations needed to continue to work with our clients in culturally responsive and empowering ways during the COVID-19 pandemic. We describe families, students, professionals, promotoras (community links), and IT support staff joining together in solidarity as the creative problem solvers of new possibilities when families do not have access to Wi-Fi, smartphones, or computers, or suffer overcrowding and lack of privacy. We describe many anxieties related to economic insecurity or fear of facing death alone, but also how to visualize expanding possibilities in styles of parenting or types of emotional support among family members as elements of hope that may endure beyond these unprecedented tragic times of loss and uncertainty.


El novedoso coronavirus ha agregado nuevas ansiedades y formas de duelo a la infinidad de cargas emocionales y prácticas ya presentes en las vidas de las familias y las comunidades de inmigrantes marginados que no tienen seguro. En este artículo, relacionamos nuestras experiencias desde la crisis de la COVID-19 con las lecciones que hemos aprendido en el transcurso del tiempo como profesionales de salud mental que trabajamos con familias en clínicas comunitarias de atención integral de la salud gratuitas y administradas por estudiantes en asociaciones académico-comunitarias. Comparamos y contrastamos los conocimientos de flexibilidad del tiempo, del espacio, de los procedimientos o de la asistencia que adquirimos en este entorno clínico comunitario durante momentos habituales con los nuevos desafíos que enfrentan las familias y los terapeutas, y las adaptaciones necesarias para continuar trabajando con nuestros pacientes de maneras que respondan a sus necesidades culturales y los empoderen durante la pandemia de la COVID-19. Describimos a las familias, a los alumnos, a los profesionales, a las promotoras (vínculos comunitarios) y al personal de asistencia en tecnologías informáticas que se han unido en solidaridad como solucionadores creativos de problemas ofreciendo nuevas posibilidades cuando las familias no tienen acceso a wifi, a teléfonos inteligentes o a computadoras, o sufren el hacinamiento y la falta de privacidad. Describimos muchas ansiedades relacionadas con la inseguridad económica o con el miedo de enfrentar la muerte solos, y también cómo visualizar la ampliación de posibilidades en los estilos de crianza o los tipos de apoyo emocional entre familiares como elementos de esperanza que pueden perdurar luego de estos tiempos trágicos de pérdida e incertidumbre sin precedentes.


Subject(s)
Community Mental Health Services/methods , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Family Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Young Adult
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(8)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic calls for precision public health reflecting our improved understanding of who is the most vulnerable and their geographical location. We created three vulnerability indices to identify areas and people who require greater support while elucidating health inequities to inform emergency response in Kenya. METHODS: Geospatial indicators were assembled to create three vulnerability indices; Social VulnerabilityIndex (SVI), Epidemiological Vulnerability Index (EVI) and a composite of the two, that is, Social Epidemiological Vulnerability Index (SEVI) resolved at 295 subcounties in Kenya. SVI included 19 indicators that affect the spread of disease; socioeconomic deprivation, access to services and population dynamics, whereas EVI comprised 5 indicators describing comorbidities associated with COVID-19 severe disease progression. The indicators were scaled to a common measurement scale, spatially overlaid via arithmetic mean and equally weighted. The indices were classified into seven classes, 1-2 denoted low vulnerability and 6-7, high vulnerability. The population within vulnerabilities classes was quantified. RESULTS: The spatial variation of each index was heterogeneous across Kenya. Forty-nine northwestern and partly eastern subcounties (6.9 million people) were highly vulnerable, whereas 58 subcounties (9.7 million people) in western and central Kenya were the least vulnerable for SVI. For EVI, 48 subcounties (7.2 million people) in central and the adjacent areas and 81 subcounties (13.2 million people) in northern Kenya were the most and least vulnerable, respectively. Overall (SEVI), 46 subcounties (7.0 million people) around central and southeastern were more vulnerable, whereas 81 subcounties (14.4 million people) were least vulnerable. CONCLUSION: The vulnerability indices created are tools relevant to the county, national government and stakeholders for prioritisation and improved planning. The heterogeneous nature of the vulnerability indices underpins the need for targeted and prioritised actions based on the needs across the subcounties.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health , Vulnerable Populations , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Spatial Analysis , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
19.
Acad Med ; 95(12): 1827-1830, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-389964

ABSTRACT

The epicenter of the COVID-19 crisis since March 17, 2020-the New York metropolitan area-is home to some of the largest Latino immigrant communities in the nation. These communities have long faced barriers to health care access, challenges due to immigration status, and financial and labor instability. The COVID-19 pandemic has aggravated these existing issues in a vulnerable, often forgotten, immigrant community. It has been challenging for this population to access public information regarding COVID-19 testing, treatment, and assistance programs because this information has seldom been disseminated in Spanish and even less frequently in Portuguese. While long-term solutions will require time and changes to policy, some short-term measures can mitigate the current situation. The authors share their experience from Newark, New Jersey, where partnerships of public and private community-based organizations (CBOs) have been successful in establishing trust between the health care system and a fearful Latino community. The Ironbound Initiative, a student group at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School in Newark, New Jersey, has partnered with Mantena Global Care, a Brazilian CBO in Newark, to facilitate dissemination of COVID-19-relevant information. Medical student volunteers, removed from their clinical duties, serve as virtual patient navigators, using social media to reach community members with the goals of improving awareness of precautions to take during the pandemic and of increasing access to needed medical care. These students have collaborated with colleagues in other disciplines to provide necessary legal guidance to community members fearful of seeking care because of their immigration status. The authors urge other academic institutions across the country to recruit multidisciplinary teams of medical, health professions, and law students invested in their local communities and to empower students to partner with CBOs, immigrant community leaders, faith-based organizations, hospitals, and local authorities to support these vulnerable communities during this crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Fear/psychology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , New Jersey/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust/psychology , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology
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