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1.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273307, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054320

ABSTRACT

Disasters, from hurricanes to pandemics, tremendously impact human lives and behaviors. Physical closeness to family post-disaster plays a critical role in mental healing and societal sustainability. Nonetheless, little is known about whether and how family colocation alters after a disaster, a topic of immense importance to a post-disaster society. We analyze 1 billion records of population-scale, granular, individual-level mobile location data to quantify family colocation, and examine the magnitude, dynamics, and socioeconomic heterogeneity of the shift in family colocation from the pre- to post-disaster period. Leveraging Hurricane Florence as a natural experiment, and Geographic Information System (GIS), machine learning, and statistical methods to investigate the shift across the landfall (treated) city of Wilmington, three partially treated cites on the hurricane's path, and two control cities off the path, we uncover dramatic (18.9%), widespread (even among the partially treated cities), and enduring (over at least 3 months) escalations in family colocation. These findings reveal the powerful psychological and behavioral impacts of the disaster upon the broader populations, and simultaneously remarkable human resilience via behavioral adaptations during disastrous times. Importantly, the disaster created a gap across socioeconomic groups non-existent beforehand, with the disadvantaged displaying weaker lifts in family colocation. This sheds important lights on policy making and policy communication to promote sustainable family colocation, healthy coping strategies against traumatic experiences, social parity, and societal recovery.


Subject(s)
Cyclonic Storms , Disasters , Family , Adaptation, Psychological , Family/psychology , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Resilience, Psychological , Socioeconomic Factors , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16484, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050551

ABSTRACT

The Austrian government imposed multiple major lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the relevant measures and their perceptions varied over time. The aim of this study was to compare the over-time impacts of the three COVID-19 lockdowns between March 2020 and December 2021 for (capability) wellbeing and mental health in Austria. Adult Austrian residents (n = 87) completed an online survey about their experiences during three COVID-19 lockdowns, including capabilities (OxCAP-MH), depression and anxiety (HADS), and general wellbeing (WHO-5). Differences across the baseline and follow-up scores of these instruments were summarised by demographic/socioeconomic characteristics. Longitudinal comparisons of the impacts of the lockdowns were conducted using random effect models on panel data for overall instrument scores and individual capability items. The levels of (capability) wellbeing and mental health decreased for most respondents across the three lockdowns: average 2.4% reduction in OxCAP-MH scores, 18.8% and 9% increases in HADS depression and anxiety subscale scores respectively, and 19.7% reduction in WHO-5 score between the first and third lockdowns. Mental health treatment prior to the pandemic, social support and satisfaction with government measures were the most influential characteristics that determine the association with impacts of the chain of lockdowns. Our study is the first to assess the differential capability limiting aspects of lockdowns over time alongside their impacts on mental health and general wellbeing and calls for special attention for mental health patients, isolation and satisfaction with government measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Vulnerable Populations , Adult , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): e67-e69, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a new pandemic, and its impact by HIV status is unknown. National reporting does not include gender identity; therefore, data are absent on the impact of COVID-19 on transgender people, including those with HIV. Baseline data from the American Cohort to Study HIV Acquisition Among Transgender Women in High Risk Areas (LITE) Study provide an opportunity to examine pre-COVID factors that may increase vulnerability to COVID-19-related harms among transgender women. SETTING: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Miami, New York City, Washington, DC. METHODS: Baseline data from LITE were analyzed for demographic, psychosocial, and material factors that may affect vulnerability to COVID-related harms. RESULTS: The 1020 participants had high rates of poverty, unemployment, food insecurity, homelessness, and sex work. Transgender women with HIV (n = 273) were older, more likely to be Black, had lower educational attainment, and were more likely to experience material hardship. Mental and behavioral health symptoms were common and did not differ by HIV status. Barriers to health care included being mistreated, provider discomfort serving transgender women, and past negative experiences; as well as material hardships, such as cost and transportation. However, most reported access to material and social support-demonstrating resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Transgender women with HIV may be particularly vulnerable to pandemic harms. Mitigating this harm would benefit everyone, given the highly infectious nature of this coronavirus. Collecting gender identity in COVID-19 data is crucial to inform an effective public health response. Transgender-led organizations' response to this crisis serve as an important model for effective community-led interventions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Boston , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mid-Atlantic Region , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Psychosocial Deprivation , Social Support , Socioeconomic Factors , Southeastern United States
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2447-2456, 2020 Jun.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725047

ABSTRACT

The scope of this work is to explore the feelings and expectations that COVID-19 has generated in Argentina during the first stage of the pandemic. A survey of the World Health Organization adapted to the local context was applied. Open-ended questions were included to study people's feelings about COVID-19, and content analysis was subsequently conducted. In terms of results, it is revealed that the population surveyed feels uncertainty, fear and anguish, albeit a feeling of responsibility and care in the face of COVID-19 also emerges. Moreover, positive feelings regarding society stand out as an achievement of social interdependence. The results obtained show that the impact on mental health differs in accordance with gender, educational level, and perceived comfort in the home. The study concludes that the emotional and bonding dimensions of people are central to confronting the COVID-19 pandemic in Argentina. It is recommended that these dimensions, as well as their subjective and differential social impact among the different population groups, should be considered in the planning of policies to address the COVID-19 pandemic.


El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar los sentimientos y expectativas que genera el COVID-19 en Argentina durante la primera etapa de la pandemia. Se aplicó una encuesta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud adaptada al contexto local. Se incluyeron preguntas abiertas para indagar sentimientos de las personas frente al COVID-19, y se realizó un análisis de contenido. Como resultados se advierte que la población encuestada siente incertidumbre, miedo y angustia, pero también emerge un sentimiento de responsabilidad y cuidado frente al COVID-19. Así mismo se destacan sentimientos positivos para la sociedad como una valoración de la interdependencia social. Los resultados arribados señalan que el impacto en la salud mental es desigual según el género, el nivel educativo alcanzado y el confort percibido en el hogar. El estudio permite concluir que las dimensiones emocionales y vinculares de las personas resultan aspectos centrales ante la pandemia del COVID-19 en Argentina. Es recomendable que estas dimensiones, así como y su impacto subjetivo y social diferencial entre los diversos grupos poblacionales, sean consideradas en la planificación de políticas para afrontar el COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Emotions , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Fear , Female , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Health Impact Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Uncertainty , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
6.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 351-356, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions have uniquely and disproportionately affected vulnerable populations. This review summarizes recent evidence on the relationship between psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders and COVID-19, highlighting acute and long-term risks, pharmacotherapy interactions and implications regarding appropriate and timely evidence-based treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence points to a complex relationship between psychiatric and substance use disorders and COVID-19. A range of risk factors associated with psychiatric and substance use disorders increases the risk of exposure to, and complications arising from, the COVID-19 virus. COVID-19 infection has been indicated as having acute and potential long-term impacts on both psychiatric and substance use disorders. Social disruption associated with restrictions imposed to curb transmission has also been identified as a risk factor for new onset of disorders and recurrence and exacerbation of existing conditions. SUMMARY: Early recognition and intervention are key to preventing chronic disability associated with psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and their co-occurrence. It is critical that those most in need of services do not fall through the cracks of our healthcare systems. The pandemic has fast tracked the opportunity for widespread implementation of digital health interventions but ensuring these are accessible and available to all, including our most vulnerable, will be a critical task for our future health and social ecosystems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Drug Interactions , Humans , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260613, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638334

ABSTRACT

There is widespread recognition that stressors related to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) jeopardize the development of emerging adults, more particularly those living in disadvantaged communities. What is less well understood is what might support emerging adult resilience to COVID-19-related stressors. In response, this article reports a 5-week qualitative study with 24 emerging adults (average age: 20) living in a South African township. Using digital diaries and repeated individual interviews, young people shared their lived experiences of later (i.e., month 4 and 7) lockdown-related challenges (i.e., contagion fears; livelihood threats; lives-on-hold) and how they managed these challenges. An inductive thematic analysis showed that personal and collective compliance, generous ways-of-being, and tolerance-facilitators enabled emerging adult resilience to said challenges. Importantly, these resilience-enablers drew on resources associated with multiple systems and reflected the situational and cultural context of the township in question. In short, supporting emerging adult resilience to COVID-19-related stressors will require contextually aligned, multisystemic responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adolescent , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, African Traditional , South Africa/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Young Adult
8.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(1): e86-e92, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562177

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented. The pandemic not only induced a public health crisis, but has led to severe economic, social, and educational crises. Across economies and societies, the distributional consequences of the pandemic have been uneven. Among groups living in vulnerable conditions, the pandemic substantially magnified the inequality gaps, with possible negative implications for these individuals' long-term physical, socioeconomic, and mental wellbeing. This Viewpoint proposes priority, programmatic, and policy recommendations that governments, resource partners, and relevant stakeholders should consider in formulating medium-term to long-term strategies for preventing the spread of COVID-19, addressing the virus's impacts, and decreasing health inequalities. The world is at a never more crucial moment, requiring collaboration and cooperation from all sectors to mitigate the inequality gaps and improve people's health and wellbeing with universal health coverage and social protection, in addition to implementation of the health in all policies approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Policy , Universal Health Insurance , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Global Health , Humans , Public Health
10.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(5): 444-450, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537216

ABSTRACT

Psychiatric disorders, and especially severe mental illness, are associated with an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. People with severe mental illness should therefore be prioritised in vaccine allocation strategies. Here, we discuss the risk for worse COVID-19 outcomes in this vulnerable group, the effect of severe mental illness and psychotropic medications on vaccination response, the attitudes of people with severe mental illness towards vaccination, and, the potential barriers to, and possible solutions for, an efficient vaccination programme in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization Programs/ethics , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Mental Disorders/psychology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
11.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249098, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing homes (NH) for the elderly have been particularly affected by the Covid-19 pandemic mainly due to their hosted vulnerable populations and poor outbreak preparedness. In Belgium, the medical humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) implemented a support project for NH including training on infection prevention and control (IPC), (re)-organization of care, and psychosocial support for NH staff. As psychosocial and mental health needs of NH residents in times of Covid-19 are poorly understood and addressed, this study aimed to better understand these needs and how staff could respond accordingly. METHODS: A qualitative study adopting thematic content analysis. Eight focus group discussions with direct caring staff and 56 in-depth interviews with residents were conducted in eight purposively and conveniently selected NHs in Brussels, Belgium, June 2020. RESULTS: NH residents experienced losses of freedom, social life, autonomy, and recreational activities that deprived them of their basic psychological needs. This had a massive impact on their mental well-being expressed in feeling depressed, anxious, and frustrated as well as decreased meaning and quality of life. Staff felt unprepared for the challenges posed by the pandemic; lacking guidelines, personal protective equipment and clarity around organization of care. They were confronted with professional and ethical dilemmas, feeling 'trapped' between IPC and the residents' wellbeing. They witnessed the detrimental effects of the measures imposed on their residents. CONCLUSION: This study revealed the insights of residents' and NH staff at the height of the early Covid-19 pandemic. Clearer outbreak plans, including psychosocial support, could have prevented the aggravated mental health conditions of both residents and staff. A holistic approach is needed in NHs in which tailor-made essential restrictive IPC measures are combined with psychosocial support measures to reduce the impact on residents' mental health impact and to enhance their quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Nursing Staff/psychology , Quality of Life , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Depression/etiology , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , Personal Autonomy , Protective Devices/supply & distribution , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 36(2): 79-89, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458552

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Toxic Stress Schema (TSS) is an ecological framework with a social justice lens for identifying and alleviating stress and strengthening social determinants of health for children and families of color impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and the cumulative effects of racism and generational, systemic inequities. METHOD: Relevant literature is reviewed, and examples were provided to illustrate the differential impacts of the "stress superstorm" of 2020 had on children of color based on their family's position on the advantage-disadvantage continuum. RESULTS: The utility of the TSS framework as a model for advanced nursing practice is demonstrated, and recommendations are formulated for the pediatric nurse practitioner's role in health policy. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 pandemic elucidated the historical inequities experienced by children and families of color. The TSS framework provides a model for recognizing, organizing, and implementing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Stress, Psychological , Vulnerable Populations , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatric Nursing , Racism/psychology , Stress, Psychological/ethnology , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
16.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254821, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341500

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although most countries and healthcare systems worldwide have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, some groups of the population may be more vulnerable to detrimental effects of the pandemic on mental health than others. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise evidence currently available from systematic reviews on the impact of COVID-19 and other coronavirus outbreaks on mental health for groups of the population thought to be at increased risk of detrimental mental health impacts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of reviews on adults and children residing in a country affected by a coronavirus outbreak and belonging to a group considered to be at risk of experiencing mental health inequalities. Data were collected on symptoms or diagnoses of any mental health condition, quality of life, suicide or attempted suicide. The protocol for this systematic review was registered in the online PROSPERO database prior to commencing the review (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=194264). RESULTS: We included 25 systematic reviews. Most reviews included primary studies of hospital workers from multiple countries. Reviews reported variable estimates for the burden of symptoms of mental health problems among acute healthcare workers, COVID-19 patients with physical comorbidities, and children and adolescents. No evaluations of interventions were identified. Risk- and protective factors, mostly for healthcare workers, showed the importance of personal factors, the work environment, and social networks for mental health. CONCLUSIONS: This review of reviews based on primary studies conducted in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic shows a lack of evidence on mental health interventions and mental health impacts on vulnerable groups in the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Vulnerable Populations , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
17.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253648, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280639

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to assess the fear of COVID-19 and its associates among older Rohingya (Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals or FDMNs) in Bangladesh. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 416 older FDMNs aged 60 years and above living in camps of Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on participants' socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, pre-existing non-communicable chronic conditions, and COVID-19 related information. Level of fear was measured using the seven-item Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) with the cumulative score ranged from 7 to 35. A multiple linear regression examined the factors associated with fear. RESULTS: Among 416 participants aged 60 years or above, the mean fear score was 14.8 (range 8-28) and 88.9% of the participants had low fear score. Participants who were concerned about COVID-19 (ß: 0.63, 95% CI: -0.26 to 1.53) and overwhelmed by COVID-19 (ß: 3.54, 95% CI: 2.54 to 4.55) were significantly more likely to be fearful of COVID-19. Other factors significantly associated with higher level of fear were lesser frequency of communication during COVID-19, difficulty in obtaining food during COVID-19, perception that older adults are at highest risk of COVID-19 and receiving COVID-19 related information from Radio/television and friends/family/neighbours. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlighted that currently there little fear of COVID-19 among the older Rohingya FDMNs. This is probably due to lack of awareness of the severity of the disease in. Dissemination of public health information relevant to COVID-19 and provision of mental health services should be intensified particularly focusing on the individual who were concerned, overwhelmed or fearful of COVID-19. However, further qualitative research is advised to find out the reasons behind this.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Refugees/psychology , Aged , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myanmar , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
18.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(9): 1904-1912, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258772

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Media sources have consistently described older adults as a medically vulnerable population during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, yet a lack of concern over their health and safety has resulted in dismissal and devaluation. This unprecedented situation highlights ongoing societal ageism and its manifestations in public discourse. This analysis asks how national news sources performed explicit and implicit ageism during the first month of the pandemic. METHOD: Using content and critical discourse analysis methods, we analyzed 287 articles concerning older adults and COVID-19 published between March 11 and April 10, 2020, in 4 major U.S.-based newspapers. RESULTS: Findings indicate that while ageism was rarely discussed explicitly, ageist bias was evident in implicit reporting patterns (e.g., frequent use of the term "elderly," portrayals of older adults as "vulnerable"). Infection and death rates and institutionalized care were among the most commonly reported topics, providing a limited portrait of aging during the pandemic. The older "survivor" narrative offers a positive alternative by suggesting exceptional examples of resilience and grit. However, the survivor narrative may also implicitly place blame on those unable to survive or thrive in later life. DISCUSSION: This study provides insight for policy makers, researchers, and practitioners exploring societal perceptions of older adults and how these perceptions are disseminated and maintained by the media.


Subject(s)
Ageism , Aging , COVID-19 , Information Dissemination/ethics , Social Media , Social Perception , Aged , Ageism/ethics , Ageism/legislation & jurisprudence , Ageism/prevention & control , Ageism/psychology , Aging/ethics , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Data Mining/ethics , Data Mining/statistics & numerical data , Geriatrics/trends , Humans , Newspapers as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Environment , Social Media/ethics , Social Media/trends , Social Perception/ethics , Social Perception/psychology , United States , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
19.
J Psychosom Res ; 146: 110504, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219301

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to provide information on changes in mental health among disadvantaged immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa in the Greater Paris area and their level of information about Covid-19. METHODS: Prior to the Covid-19 epidemic, the Makasi community-based cohort followed 850 immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa in the Greater Paris area. Between the 1st of April and the 7th of June 2020, all participants scheduled for a follow-up survey were systematically included into an additional COVID-19-related wave of data collection (N = 100). We compared participants' type of housing, level of food insecurity, work and mental health (PHQ9) before and during the first COVID-19-related lockdown, using paired-Mc Nemar chi-2 tests. We next described their level of information on Covid-19 and policy measures, broken down by sex. RESULTS: Among the 100 participants, 68% had no legal residence permit. Food insecurity was more often reported during lockdown than before (62% vs 52%). 9% of participants had a score indicative of severe depression (PHQ9) before lockdown and 17% afterwards (p = 0.17). Only 51% knew about the possibility of asymptomatic transmission of the COVID-19 virus. CONCLUSIONS: This study brings original information on a hard-to-reach population group. Our results suggest that the lockdown had a detrimental impact on various economic and mental health aspects among disadvantaged migrants residing in the Greater Paris area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Consumer Health Information/statistics & numerical data , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Adult , Africa South of the Sahara/ethnology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Paris/epidemiology , Quarantine/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
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