Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9659, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984407

ABSTRACT

Traditionally the diagnosis of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is binary (present/absent). The goal of this work is to propose a sex-specific continuous score to measure the severity of MetS in Mexican adults using waist circumference and body mass index as adiposity measures. MetSx-WC and MetSx-BMI indexes by sex were derived by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using data for 6567 adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2018. The overall fit of the two proposed CFA models was excellent. We then validated these scores using a community-based health study of 862 university participants and determined that the reliability and strength of agreement between the MetSx-WC and MetSx-BMI scores were excellent. The ROC analysis of the resulting indexes indicates that they have excellent ability to discriminate a MetS classification according to the different criteria. The correlations of MetSx scores and surrogate markers of insulin resistance and obesity ranged from weak to strong. Subsequently, a retrospective study of 310 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was used to determined that MetSx-BMI score was associated with the mortality of patients with COVID-19. The proposed indices provide a continuous measure in the identification of MetS risk in Mexican adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metabolic Syndrome , Adult , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Waist Circumference
2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(7): 102564, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Implementation of COVID restrictions following lockdown led to changes in routines of subjects with type 1 diabetes due to closure of schools and outdoor activities. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of decreased physical activity due to COVID restrictions on cardio-metabolic risk parameters (waist circumference, laboratory and body composition parameters) in Indian children and youth with T1D. METHODS: This observational study included 312 participants (2-21 years) with T1DM having disease duration of ≥6 months. Demographic, anthropometric, body composition data and investigations were recorded at two time points (during COVID restrictions when children came for follow up, pre COVID restriction data from medical and electronic records). RESULTS: Glycemic control improved during COVID restrictions (Hba1c: 9.8 ± 2.0%) as compared to pre COVID restrictions (Hba1C: 10.0 ± 1.9%) (p < 0.05). However, due to significant reduction in physical activity (p < 0.05) there was significant increase in waist circumference z-scores (-0.9 ± 1.1 vs -1.6 ± 1.1), body fat percentage z-scores (-0.2 ± 1.0 vs -0.3 ± 0.9) and lipid parameters like cholesterol, low density lipid cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (p < 0.05) without any significant change in body mass index z-scores (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged COVID restrictions, although led to modest improvement in glycemic control, there was worsening of cardio-metabolic risk factors or indices of adiposity like waist circumference, body fat percentage and lipid parameters which could be attributed to decreased time spent in physical activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Cholesterol , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Risk Factors , Triglycerides , Waist Circumference , Young Adult
3.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801654

ABSTRACT

"Prevention is better than cure." This strategy cannot be overemphasized than in diabetes mellitus (DM). We utilized the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) questionnaire, with additional modifications, to assess the risk of DM to identify the population at risk, based on non-laboratory evaluation. MATERIAL: This study was conducted on the occasion of WDD 2021, a 3-day diabetes awareness program in the Department of General Medicine at a tertiary care hospital. All people aged ≥18 years were eligible to participate. Participants with history of a diagnosis of DM anytime or already on anti-diabetic medications and those who did not consent were excluded. We utilized the IDF questionnaire with 8 questions including non modifiable (age, gender, family history, gestational DM, hypertension) and modifiable risk factors (body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, high fiber diet). We added two more questions - willingness to participate (volunteered or easily convinced) and history of Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) infection. OBSERVATION: A total of 442 participants were screened; 319 (72.2%) participants were young (<45 years), 231 (52.3%) of them were females, 358 (81%) volunteered to participate in the study and 50 (11.3%) of them had COVID infection during the pandemic. Around 211 (47.7%) were obese (BMI >25 kg/m2). As per risk categories, 196 (44.3%) participants belonged to low (1 in 100) risk, 173 (39.1%) participants belonged to the slightly elevated (25 in 100) risk category, 46 (10.4%) moderate (1 in 6) risk and 27 (6.1) high (1 in 3) risk category, contributing totally to 246 (55.7%) participants. Risk factors were higher in higher risk categories; 67.9% (167/246; p < 0.001) of participants had obesity (BMI>25) and 79.2% (195/246; p < 0.001) had higher waist circumference (in both genders; p < 0.001). Favorable diet pattern was observed in 69.9% (137/196; p < 0.001) of low risk category participants and inclination to regular physical activity was observed in 73% (143/196; p < 0.001) of low risk category participants. CONCLUSION: Risk scoring system is a quick, cost effective, practical and non-invasive method, helpful to identify the population at risk for early intervention. It aids in primordial prevention of DM in low risk and primary prevention in categories with increased risk. It is apt for community screening as it does not involve laboratory tests and it can be implemented in primary health care centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes, Gestational , Adolescent , Adult , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Waist Circumference
4.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 66(6): 503-516, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although correlates of physical activity (PA) have been extensively examined in both children and adolescents who are typically developing, little is known about correlates of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Therefore, we examined intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental factors and their association with device-based MVPA and sedentary time in adolescents with IDD. METHODS: MVPA and sedentary time was assessed using a hip-worn ActiGraph model wGT3x-BT tri-axial accelerometer across a 7-day period in adolescents with IDD and one of their parents. Pearson and point-biserial correlations were calculated to inspect the associations of PA (MVPA, sedentary time) with intrapersonal factors (demographic characteristic, BMI, waist circumference, motor ability, muscle strength, grip strength, cardiovascular fitness and self-efficacy for PA), interpersonal factors (parent demographics, parent BMI, parent MVPA and sedentary time, family social support for PA, parent barriers and support for PA, parent's beliefs/attitudes towards PA and number of siblings), and environmental factors (meteorologic season and COVID-19). Ordinary least squares regression was used to estimate the unique contributions of key factors to PA after controlling for participants' age, sex, race, waist circumference and total wear time. RESULTS: Ninety-two adolescents (15.5 ± 3.0 years old, 21.7% non-White, 6.5% Hispanic, 56.5% female) provided valid accelerometer data. Average sedentary time was 494.6 ± 136.4 min/day and average MVPA was 19.8 ± 24.2 min/day. Age (r = 0.27, P = 0.01), diagnosis of congenital heart disease (r = -0.26, P = 0.01) and parent sedentary time (r = 0.30, P = 0.01) were correlated with sedentary time. BMI (r = -0.24, P = 0.03), waist circumference (r = -0.28, P = 0.01), identifying as White (r = -0.23, P = 0.03) and parent MVPA (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) were correlated with MVPA. After adjusting for the adolescent's age, sex, race, waist circumference, and total wear time, the association between parent and adolescent MVPA remained significant (b = 0.55, P < 0.01, partial η2  = 0.11). CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide evidence that race, waist circumference and parental MVPA may influence the amount of MVPA in adolescents with IDD. The limited available information and the potential health benefits of increased MVPA highlight the need to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-component interventions targeting both intrapersonal and interpersonal levels to promote increased PA in adolescents with IDD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , Child , Developmental Disabilities , Exercise/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Waist Circumference
5.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 46(6): 1155-1159, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between childhood obesity and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a cohort followed from 4 to 12 years of age. METHODS: The data were obtained from two independent sources: the Longitudinal Childhood Obesity Study (ELOIN) and the epidemiological surveillance system data from the Community of Madrid (Spain), which served to identify the population within the cohort with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 registry was cross-checked with the cohort population at 11-12 years of age. A total of 2018 eligible participants were identified in the cohort, who underwent physical examinations at 4, 6, and 9 years of age during which weight, height, and waist circumference were recorded. General obesity (GO) was determined according to the WHO-2007 criteria whereas abdominal obesity (AO) was defined based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. The relative risks (RRs) of infection were estimated using a Poisson regression model and adjusted by sociodemographic variables, physical activity, and perceived health reported by the parents. RESULTS: The accumulated incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.3-9.8). The estimated RR of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 2.53 (95% CI: 1.56-4.10) and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.55-4.21) for children 4-9 years old with stable GO and AO, respectively, compared with those who did not present GO. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood obesity is an independent risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study provides new evidence that indicates that obesity increases the vulnerability of the paediatric population to infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Obesity, Abdominal/complications , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Waist Circumference
6.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 64: 133-140, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683504

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between adolescents' nutritional attitudes, obesity awareness, and diet quality with their self-reported anthropometric measurements taken during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional type of study was conducted in a district in the south of Turkey. The research was carried out online with 907 adolescents who agreed to participate voluntarily. RESULTS: Among the adolescents, 28.5% considered themselves overweight, and 32.1% were currently trying to lose weight. According to BMI, 16.1% were affected by overweight/obesity. Adolescents' nutritional attitudes and obesity awareness levels were moderate, while their KIDMED nutritional habits were also moderate. In this study, a negative relationship was found between the adolescents' ASHN mean scores and their body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, neck circumference, waist/hip ratio and waist/height ratio measurements; and between their OAS mean scores and their body weight, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio and waist/height ratio measurements; and between their KIDMED index scores and their waist/height ratio measurements (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight is higher than the results obtained from the measurement values. BMI levels and other anthropometric measurement values of adolescents with positive nutrition attitudes and physical activity behaviours are also positively affected. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This study may have a significant impact on the formulation and implementation of interventions to prevent obesity and increase physical activity for school health nurses. Since the pandemic is still continuing, healthcare providers must stress the risk of obesity in adolescence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Overweight , Adolescent , Attitude , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Self Report , Waist Circumference
7.
Diabetes Metab J ; 46(3): 427-438, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is reportedly a crucial risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since the epidemiological studies that examine this association are few and include small samples, we investigated the relationship between MetS and COVID-19 severity and death using a larger sample in the Republic of Korea. METHODS: We analyzed 66,321 patients, 4,066 of whom had COVID-19. We used chi-square tests to examine patients' characteristics. We performed logistic regression analysis to analyze differences in COVID-19 infection and clinical outcomes according to the presence of MetS. RESULTS: Although MetS was not significantly associated with COVID-19 risk, acquiring MetS was significantly associated with the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34 to 2.91; P=0.001). The mortality risk was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with MetS (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.59; P=0.006). Patients with abnormal waist circumference were approximately 2.07 times more likely to develop severe COVID-19 (P<0.001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly associated with COVID-19; the mortality risk due to COVID-19 was 1.74 times higher in men with an HDL-C level of <40 mg/dL and in women with an HDL-C level of <50 mg/dL (P=0.012). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is likely associated with severity and death in patients with MetS or in patients with MetS risk factors. Therefore, patients with MetS or those with abnormal waist circumference and HDL-C levels need to be treated with caution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metabolic Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Waist Circumference
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e050096, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537950

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This non-inferiority study aimed to determine the burden of obesity in a hospital outpatient setting of a developing country, using three commonly employed metrics as predictors of hypertension (HTN). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design was adopted. SETTING: This study was conducted in Health Promotion and Risk Factor Screening Services of a tertiary hospital for eye and ear, nose, throat in a semiurban area of Nepal. PARTICIPANTS: 2256 randomly selected outpatients between 40 and 69 years old. OUTCOME MEASURES: The three obesity metrics and HTN were analysed for association using correlation, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and ORs. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity or overweight by body mass index (BMI) was 58.29%; by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was 85.95%, high waist circumference (WC) was observed among 66.76% of participants. Female participants had a greater prevalence of high WC (77.46%) than males (53.73%) (p<0.001). Prevalence of HTN and pre-HTN were 40.67% and 36.77%, respectively. The areas under the ROC curve were significantly higher than 0.5 for BMI (0.593), WHtR (0.602) and WC (0.610). CONCLUSION: This study showed that WHtR and WC measured were not inferior to BMI as a metric for obesity detection and HTN prediction. Because of its low cost, simplicity of measurement and better ability to predict HTN, it may become a more usable metric in health facilities of low-income and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Outpatients , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Waist Circumference , Waist-Height Ratio
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 736724, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533632

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity has been reported to be an important contributing factor for precocious puberty, especially in girls. The effect of green tea polyphenols on weight reduction in adult population has been shown, but few related studies have been conducted in children. This study was performed to examine the effectiveness and safety of decaffeinated green tea polyphenols (DGTP) on ameliorating obesity and early sexual development in girls with obesity. Design: This is a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Girls with obesity aged 6-10 years old were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg/day DGTP or isodose placebo orally for 12 weeks. During this period, all participants received the same instruction on diet and exercise from trained dietitians. Anthropometric measurements, secondary sexual characteristics, B-scan ultrasonography of uterus, ovaries and breast tissues, and related biochemical parameters were examined and assessed pre- and post-treatment. Results: Between August 2018 and January 2020, 62 girls with obesity (DGTP group n = 31, control group n = 31) completed the intervention and were included in analysis. After the intervention, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio significantly decreased in both groups, but the percentage of body fat (PBF), serum uric acid (UA), and the volumes of ovaries decreased significantly only within the DGTP group. After controlling confounders, DGTP showed a significantly decreased effect on the change of PBF (ß = 2.932, 95% CI: 0.214 to 5.650), serum UA (ß = 52.601, 95% CI: 2.520 to 102.681), and ovarian volumes (right: ß = 1.881, 95% CI: 0.062 to 3.699, left: ß = 0.971, 95% CI: 0.019 to 1.923) in girls with obesity. No side effect was reported in both groups during the whole period. Conclusion: DGTP have shown beneficial effects of ameliorated obesity and postponed early sexual development in girls with obesity without any adverse effects. Clinical Trial Registration: [https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03628937], identifier [NCT03628937].


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Pediatric Obesity/diagnostic imaging , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Puberty, Precocious/drug therapy , Tea , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Child , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Polyphenols/administration & dosage , Puberty, Precocious/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Waist Circumference/physiology
10.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the great lockdown in Spain due to SARS-CoV-2, in between the months of March and June 2020, dietary and physical activity habits were modified in children. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the lockdown on anthropometric parameters in children aged 11/12 years. METHODS: Fifty Spanish children aged 11/12 years (M = 11.40; SD = 0.50) participated: 33 (66%) boys and 17 (34%) girls. For data collection, we used an anthropometry kit; the Alpha-Fitness Battery, a validated instrument to assess dietary intake, habits and practices; and an ad hoc survey to collect sociodemographic and other data under investigation. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the anthropometric parameters measured and in the results obtained for Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage pre- and post-lockdown in both boys and girls (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in waist-circumference measurements (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of a significant impact of the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown on anthropometric parameters in boys and girls aged 11/12 years.


Subject(s)
Anthropometry , COVID-19 , Child Behavior , Healthy Lifestyle , Quarantine , Adiposity , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , Child , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Sex Factors , Spain , Time Factors , Waist Circumference
11.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 247(3): 200-206, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477209

ABSTRACT

An observational study was conducted in Ukraine to determine the independent mortality risks among adult inpatients with COVID-19. The results of treatment of COVID-19 inpatients (n = 367) are presented, and waist circumference (WC) was measured. Logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the effects of factors on the risk of mortality. Odds ratios and 95% CIs for the association were calculated. One hundred and three of 367 subjects had fasting plasma glucose level that met the diabetes mellitus criteria (≥7.0 mmol/L), in 53 patients, diabetes mellitus was previously known. Two hundred and eleven patients did not have diabetes or hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus/hyperglycemia odds ratio 2.5 (CI 1.0-6.1), p = 0.045 loses statistical significance after standardization by age, waist circumference or fasting plasma glucose. No effect on gender, body mass index-determined obesity, or hypertension was found. The fasting plasma glucose (>8.5 mmol/L), age (≥61 years), and waist circumference (>105 cm) categories were associated with ORs 6.34 (CI 2.60-15.4); 4.12 (CI 1.37-12.4); 8.93 (CI 3.26-24.5), respectively. The optimal model of mortality risk with AUC 0.86 (CI 0.81-0.91) included the diabetes/heperglycemia and age categories as well as waist circumference as a continued variable. Waist circumference is an independent risk factor for mortality of inpatients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Hyperglycemia , Waist Circumference , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome , Ukraine/epidemiology
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(11): 3085-3094, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The recent COVID-19 pandemic has further increased the importance of reducing obesity and prediabetes/diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the association between adiposity and regression of prediabetes/diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The San Juan Overweight Adults Longitudinal Study (SOALS) included 1351 individuals with overweight/obesity, aged 40-65, free of major cardiovascular diseases and physician diagnosed diabetes. From the 1012 participants with baseline prediabetes/diabetes, 598 who completed the follow-up were included. Over the follow-up, 25% regressed from prediabetes to normoglycemia or from diabetes to prediabetes or normoglycemia. Poisson regression with robust standard error was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) adjusting for major confounders. Higher neck circumference (NC) was associated with regression of prediabetes/diabetes (RR = 0.45 comparing extreme tertiles; 95% CI:0.30-0.66); RR was 0.49 (95% CI:0.34-0.73) for waist circumference (WC) and 0.64 (95% CI:0.44-0.92) for BMI. Significant associations were found using median cut-offs or continuous measures for weight and BMI. Greater reduction in BMI (comparing extreme tertiles) was significantly associated with regression of prediabetes/diabetes (RR = 1.44; 95% CI:1.02-2.02). Continuous measures of change in adiposity (except for NC) were also associated with regression of prediabetes/diabetes for BMI and weight. Participants who reduced BMI (>5%) increased prediabetes/diabetes regression (RR = 1.61; 95% CI:1.15-2.25) compared to those who did not; similarly for weight (RR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.10-2.19). Additional analysis for body fat percentage showing slightly weaker results than BMI/weight further supported our findings. CONCLUSION: Lower baseline adiposity and higher reduction in adiposity were associated with regression of prediabetes/diabetes among individuals with overweight/obesity.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Poisson Distribution , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Waist Circumference
13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(9): 1986-1994, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with unintentional weight loss. Little is known on whether and how patients regain the lost weight. We assessed changes in weight and abdominal adiposity over a three-month follow-up after discharge in COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: In this sub-study of a large prospective observational investigation, we collected data from individuals who had been hospitalized for COVID-19 and re-evaluated at one (V1) and three (V2) months after discharge. Patient characteristics upon admission and anthropometrics, waist circumference and hunger levels assessed during follow-up were analyzed across BMI categories. RESULTS: One-hundred-eighty-five COVID-19 survivors (71% male, median age 62.1 [54.3; 72.1] years, 80% with overweight/obesity) were included. Median BMI did not change from admission to V1 in normal weight subjects (-0.5 [-1.2; 0.6] kg/m2, p = 0.08), but significantly decreased in subjects with overweight (-0.8 [-1.8; 0.3] kg/m2, p < 0.001) or obesity (-1.38 [-3.4; -0.3] kg/m2, p < 0.001; p < 0.05 vs. normal weight or obesity). Median BMI did not change from V1 to V2 in normal weight individuals (+0.26 [-0.34; 1.15] kg/m2, p = 0.12), but significantly increased in subjects with overweight (+0.4 [0.0; 1.0] kg/m2, p < 0.001) or obesity (+0.89 [0.0; 1.6] kg/m2, p < 0.001; p = 0.01 vs. normal weight). Waist circumference significantly increased from V1 to V2 in the whole group (p < 0.001), driven by the groups with overweight or obesity. At multivariable regression analyses, male sex, hunger at V1 and initial weight loss predicted weight gain at V2. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with overweight or obesity hospitalized for COVID-19 exhibit rapid, wide weight fluctuations that may worsen body composition (abdominal adiposity). CLINICALTRIALS. GOV REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Subject(s)
Body-Weight Trajectory , COVID-19/physiopathology , Obesity, Abdominal/physiopathology , Overweight/physiopathology , Survivors , Adiposity , Aged , Anthropometry , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity, Abdominal/virology , Overweight/virology , Prospective Studies , Waist Circumference
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 652765, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177968

ABSTRACT

Previous studies link obesity and components of metabolic health, such as hypertension or inflammation, to increased hospitalizations and mortality of patients with COVID-19. Here, in two overlapping samples of over 1,000 individuals from the UK Biobank we investigate whether metabolic health as measured by waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and systemic inflammation is related to increased COVID-19 infection and mortality rate. Using logistic regression and controlling for confounding variables such as socioeconomic status, age, sex or ethnicity, we find that individuals with worse metabolic health (measured on average eleven years prior to 2020) have an increased risk for COVID-19-related death (adjusted odds ratio: 1.75). We also find that specific factors contributing to increased mortality are increased serum glucose levels, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Health Status , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Databases, Factual , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Dyslipidemias/complications , Dyslipidemias/mortality , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Waist Circumference
15.
Eat Weight Disord ; 27(1): 345-359, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169065

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chest X-ray (CXR) severity score and BMI-based obesity are predictive risk factors for COVID-19 hospital admission. However, the relationship between abdominal obesity and CXR severity score has not yet been fully explored. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzed the association of different adiposity indexes, including waist circumference and body mass index (BMI), with CXR severity score in 215 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Patients with abdominal obesity showed significantly higher CXR severity scores and had higher rates of CXR severity scores ≥ 8 compared to those without abdominal obesity (P < 0.001; P = 0.001, respectively). By contrast, patients with normal weight, with overweight and those with BMI-based obesity showed no significant differences in either CXR severity scores or in the rates of CXR severity scores ≥ 8 (P = 0.104; P = 0.271, respectively). Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) correlated more closely with CXR severity scores than BMI (r = 0.43, P < 0.001; r = 0.41, P < 0.001; r = 0.17, P = 0.012, respectively). The area under the curves (AUCs) for waist circumference and WHtR were significantly higher than that for BMI in identifying a high CXR severity score (≥ 8) (0.68 [0.60-0.75] and 0.67 [0.60-0.74] vs 0.58 [0.51-0.66], P = 0.001). A multivariate analysis indicated abdominal obesity (risk ratio: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.25-2.45, P < 0.001), bronchial asthma (risk ratio: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.07-2.81, P = 0.026) and oxygen saturation at admission (risk ratio: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.97, P < 0.001) as the only independent factors associated with high CXR severity scores. CONCLUSION: Abdominal obesity phenotype is associated with a high CXR severity score better than BMI-based obesity in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Therefore, when visiting the patient in a hospital setting, waist circumference should be measured, and patients with abdominal obesity should be monitored closely. Level of evidence Cross-sectional descriptive study, Level V.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obesity, Abdominal , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/diagnostic imaging , Obesity, Abdominal/complications , Obesity, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Waist Circumference , X-Rays
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6696357, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sedentary lifestyle and work from home schedules due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 have caused a significant rise in obesity across adults. With limited visits to the doctors during this period to avoid possible infections, there is currently no way to measure or track obesity. METHODS: We reviewed the literature on relationships between obesity and facial features, in white, black, hispanic-latino, and Korean populations and validated them against a cohort of Indian participants (n = 106). The body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were obtained using anthropometric measurements, and body fat mass (BFM), percentage body fat (PBF), and visceral fat area (VFA) were measured using body composition analysis. Facial pictures were also collected and processed to characterize facial geometry. Regression analysis was conducted to determine correlations between body fat parameters and facial model parameters. RESULTS: Lower facial geometry was highly correlated with BMI (R 2 = 0.77) followed by PBF (R 2 = 0.72), VFA (R 2 = 0.65), WHR (R 2 = 0.60), BFM (R 2 = 0.59), and weight (R 2 = 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: The ability to predict obesity using facial images through mobile application or telemedicine can help with early diagnosis and timely medical intervention for people with obesity during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anthropometry/methods , Automated Facial Recognition/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Obesity/diagnosis , Adult , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Facial Recognition/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Waist Circumference , Waist-Hip Ratio
17.
J Obes ; 2021: 8837319, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052342

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess if body mass index (BMI) and high waist circumference (HWC) are associated with testing positive for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: 9,386 UK Biobank study participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 from March 16th 2020 to June 29th 2020 were analyzed. A forward model building approach was used to estimate adjusted risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Analyses were stratified by age due to a significant first-order interaction between age and HWC. Results: Approximately 17% (n = 1,577) of participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. BMI category had a linear association with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 among participants <65 years (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.17). For participants ≥65 years, only obesity class II (RR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.10-1.74) had a significantly greater risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 than those who were underweight/normal weight. While HWC was not associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in those <65 years, having an HWC was associated with an increased risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in participants ≥65 years (RR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.27). Conclusion: The associations of BMI and HWC with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 differed by age. Notably, HWC was associated with testing positive in those ≥65 years, but not those who were younger, independent of BMI. This suggests that measures of adiposity in addition to BMI may be used to identify older individuals at greater risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/etiology , Obesity/complications , Waist Circumference , Age Factors , Aged , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity, Abdominal , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
18.
Metabolism ; 112: 154345, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the associations of obesity-related traits (body mass index [BMI], central obesity) and their genetic predisposition with the risk of developing severe COVID-19 in a population-based data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 489,769 adults enrolled in the UK Biobank-a population-based cohort study. The exposures of interest are BMI categories and central obesity (e.g., larger waist circumference). Using genome-wide genotyping data, we also computed polygenic risk scores (PRSs) that represent an individual's overall genetic risk for each obesity trait. The outcome was severe COVID-19, defined by hospitalization for laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 489,769 individuals, 33% were normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), 43% overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and 24% obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). The UK Biobank identified 641 patients with severe COVID-19. Compared to adults with normal weight, those with a higher BMI had a dose-response increases in the risk of severe COVID-19, with the following adjusted ORs: for 25.0-29.9 kg/m2, 1.40 (95%CI 1.14-1.73; P = 0.002); for 30.0-34.9 kg/m2, 1.73 (95%CI 1.36-2.20; P < 0.001); for 35.0-39.9 kg/m2, 2.82 (95%CI 2.08-3.83; P < 0.001); and for ≥40.0 kg/m2, 3.30 (95%CI 2.17-5.03; P < 0.001). Likewise, central obesity was associated with significantly higher risk of severe COVID-19 (P < 0.001). Furthermore, larger PRS for BMI was associated with higher risk of outcome (adjusted OR per BMI PRS Z-score 1.14, 95%CI 1.05-1.24; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In this large population-based cohort, individuals with more-severe obesity, central obesity, or genetic predisposition for obesity are at higher risk of developing severe-COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Obesity, Abdominal/complications , Obesity, Abdominal/genetics , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Overweight/genetics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Waist Circumference/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL