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1.
Br Dent J ; 232(1): 44-54, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031746

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has had a large impact on dentistry across Wales. Dentists were facing significant levels of psychological distress prior to the pandemic, so it was important to monitor dentists' mental health during this unprecedented challenge.Aims To gain both an understanding of the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has been having on the mental health of dentists working in Wales, as well as understanding the levels of stress the pandemic has caused. We also aimed to understand the specific causes of stress.Results High levels of stress were found, with 82% of respondents saying stress levels in the dental team have increased noticeably. Three-quarters of respondents have gone to work despite not feeling mentally well enough. Working conditions and financial pressures caused by the pandemic have directly impacted the mental health of many dentists. As a result, they have been using both adaptive and maladaptive coping methods to cope with the stress of the pandemic, with over one-third of respondents drinking alcohol more frequently than before the pandemic.Conclusions The pandemic has had a profound impact on the professional lives of dentists working in Wales. Their interactions with patients and colleagues have been greatly affected, as well as their work and working conditions. These have all substantially contributed to increased stress levels. Without significant improvements to the working conditions of dentists, as well as continued psychological support, large-scale burnout in the future is not only possible, but likely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Dentists , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Wales/epidemiology
2.
Vet Rec ; 190(1): 23-27, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994429
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the trends in hospital admissions due to viral infections characterized by skin and mucous membrane lesions in England and Wales between 1999 and 2019. METHODS: This is an ecological study using publicly available databases in England and Wales; the Hospital Episode Statistics database in England and the Patient Episode Database for Wales. Hospital admissions data were collected for the period between April 1999 and March 2019. Hospital admissions due to viral infections characterized by skin and mucous membrane lesions were identified using the tenth version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases system, diagnostic codes B00-B09. The trend in hospital admissions was assessed using a Poisson model. RESULTS: Hospital admissions for different causes increased by 51.9% (from 25.67 (95% CI 25.23-26.10) in 1999 to 38.98 (95% CI 38.48-39.48) in 2019 per 100,000 persons, trend test, p < 0.01). The most prevalent viral infections characterized by skin and mucous membrane lesions hospital admissions causes were zoster (herpes zoster), varicella (chickenpox), herpesviral (herpes simplex) infections, and viral warts, which accounted for 26.9%, 23.4%, 18.7%, and 17.6%, respectively. The age group below 15 years accounted for 43.2% of the total number of admissions. Females contributed to 50.5% of the total number of admissions. Hospital admission rate in males increased by 61.1% (from 25.21 (95% CI 24.59-25.82) in 1999 to 40.60 (95% CI 39.87-41.32) in 2019 per 100,000 persons). The increase in females was 43.2% (from 26.11 (95% CI 25.49-26.72) in 1999 to 37.40 (95% CI 36.70-38.09) in 2019 per 100,000 persons). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates an evident variation in hospital admission of viral infections characterized by skin and mucous membrane lesions based on age and gender. Efforts should be directed towards vaccinating high-risk groups, particularly the elderly and females. Moreover, efforts should be focused on vaccinating the young population against varicella, particularly females who are more susceptible to acquiring the infection. Further observational and epidemiological studies are needed to identify other factors associated with increased hospital admission rates.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Aged , Chickenpox/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Mucous Membrane , Patient Admission , Wales/epidemiology
5.
Vaccine ; 39(48): 7108-7116, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination intention is key to the success of any vaccination programme, alongside vaccine availability and access. Public intention to take a COVID-19 vaccine is high in England and Wales compared to other countries, but vaccination rate disparities between ethnic, social and age groups has led to concern. METHODS: Online survey of prospective household community cohort study participants across England and Wales (Virus Watch). Vaccination intention was measured by individual participant responses to 'Would you accept a COVID-19 vaccine if offered?', collected in December 2020 and February 2021. Responses to a 13-item questionnaire collected in January 2021 were analysed using factor analysis to investigate psychological influences on vaccination intention. RESULTS: Survey response rate was 56% (20,785/36,998) in December 2020 and 53% (20,590/38,727) in February 2021, with 14,880 adults reporting across both time points. In December 2020, 1,469 (10%) participants responded 'No' or 'Unsure'. Of these people, 1,266 (86%) changed their mind and responded 'Yes' or 'Already had a COVID-19 vaccine' by February 2021. Vaccination intention increased across all ethnic groups and levels of social deprivation. Age was most strongly associated with vaccination intention, with 16-24-year-olds more likely to respond "Unsure" or "No" versus "Yes" than 65-74-year-olds in December 2020 (OR: 4.63, 95 %CI: 3.42, 6.27 & OR 7.17 95 %CI: 4.26, 12.07 respectively) and February 2021 (OR: 27.92 95 %CI: 13.79, 56.51 & OR 17.16 95 %CI: 4.12, 71.55). The association between ethnicity and vaccination intention weakened, but did not disappear, over time. Both vaccine- and illness-related psychological factors were shown to influence vaccination intention. CONCLUSIONS: Four in five adults (86%) who were reluctant or intending to refuse a COVID-19 vaccine in December 2020 had changed their mind in February 2021 and planned to accept, or had already accepted, a vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , England , Humans , Intention , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Wales/epidemiology
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1924, 2021 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Today's primary school children have grown up in a climate of strong smoking restrictions, decreasing tobacco use, and the emergence of e-cigarettes. Children's exposure to tobacco declined substantially in years following the introduction of smoke-free legislation, with smoking uptake and perceived smoking norms declining. There is debate regarding whether emergence of e-cigarettes may interrupt trends in children's smoking perceptions, or offer a means for adults to limit children's exposure to tobacco. This study examines change in children's tobacco and e-cigarettes experimentation (ever use), exposure to secondhand smoking and vaping, and perceived smoking norms. METHODS: Data from four, repeat cross-sectional surveys of Year 6 primary school pupils (age 10-11 years) in Wales in 2007, 2008, 2014 and 2019 (n = 6741) were combined. E-cigarette use and perceptions were included in 2014 and 2019 surveys. Analyses used binary logistic regression analyses, adjusted for school-level clustering. RESULTS: Child tobacco experimentation and most indicators of exposure to tobacco smoke indicated a graded decreasing trend over time from 2007 to 2019. Exposure to e-cigarettes increased from 2014 to 2019, as did pupil awareness of e-cigarettes (OR = 2.56, 95%CI = 2.12-3.10), and parental use (OR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.00-1.57). A decrease in child e-cigarette experimentation was not significant (OR = 0.80, 95%CI = 0.57-1.13). Children's normative perceptions for smoking by adults and children indicated a graded decrease over time (OR = 0.66, 95%CI = 0.54-0.80; OR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.55-0.86; respectively from 2014 to 2019). However, fewer reported disapproval of people smoking around them in 2019 relative to 2014 (OR = 0.68, 95%CI = 0.53-0.88). Higher exposure to tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes in public places, cars and households were associated with favourable normative perceptions for tobacco smoking; however in models adjusted for exposure to both associations of e-cigarette exposure were attenuated. CONCLUSION: Children's experimentation with and exposure to tobacco, and their perceptions of smoking as a normative behaviour, have continued to decline alongside growth in exposure to e-cigarettes. Although a large majority of pupils reported they minded people smoking around them, there was some evidence of diminishing disapproval of secondhand smoke since 2007. Further research is needed to understand whether use of e-cigarettes in cars and homes is displacing prior smoking or being introduced into environments where smoking had been eliminated.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Vaping , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Tobacco , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis , Tobacco Use , Wales/epidemiology
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 325, 2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma species have been associated with economically important diseases affecting ruminants worldwide and include contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and contagious agalactia, listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The Mycoplasma Team at the Animal and Plant Health Agency provides an identification service for Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species of veterinary importance to the United Kingdom (UK), supporting the detection of new and emerging pathogens, as well as contributing to the surveillance of endemic, and the OIE listed diseases exotic to the UK. Mycoplasma and other Mollicutes species were identified from diagnostic samples from farmed ruminants in England and Wales using a combination of culture and 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, submitted between 2005 and 2019. RESULTS: A total of 5578 mollicutes identifications, which include mycoplasmas and the related acholeoplasmas and ureaplasmas, were made from farmed ruminant animals during the study period. Throughout the study period, the pathogen Mycoplasma bovis was consistently the most frequently identified species, accounting for 1411 (32%) of 4447 molecular identifications in cattle, primarily detected in the lungs of pneumonic calves, followed by joints and milk of cattle showing signs of arthritis and mastitis, respectively. M. bovirhinis, M. alkalescens, M. dispar, M. arginini and Ureaplasma diversum, were also common. Mixed species, principally M. bovis with M. alkalescens, M. arginini or M. bovirhinis were also prevalent, particularly from respiratory samples. The non-cultivable blood-borne haemoplasmas Candidatus 'Mycoplasma haemobos' and Mycoplasma wenyonii were identified from cattle, with the latter species most often associated with milk-drop. M. ovipneumoniae was the predominant species identified from sheep and goats experiencing respiratory disease, while M. conjunctivae preponderated in ocular samples. The UK remains free of the ruminant mycoplasmas listed by OIE. CONCLUSIONS: The continued high prevalence of M. bovis identifications confirms its ongoing dominance and importance as a significant pathogen of cattle in England and Wales, particularly in association with respiratory disease. M. ovipneumoniae has seen a general increase in prevalence in recent years, notably in coughing lambs and should therefore be considered as a primary differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in small ruminants.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases/microbiology , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Ruminants/microbiology , Animal Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , England/epidemiology , Mycoplasma/classification , Mycoplasma/genetics , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Tenericutes/classification , Tenericutes/isolation & purification , Wales/epidemiology
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e054410, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic instigated multiple societal and healthcare interventions with potential to affect perinatal practice. We evaluated population-level changes in preterm and full-term admissions to neonatal units, care processes and outcomes. DESIGN: Observational cohort study using the UK National Neonatal Research Database. SETTING: England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Admissions to National Health Service neonatal units from 2012 to 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Admissions by gestational age, ethnicity and Index of Multiple Deprivation, and key care processes and outcomes. METHODS: We calculated differences in numbers and rates between April and June 2020 (spring), the first 3 months of national lockdown (COVID-19 period), and December 2019-February 2020 (winter), prior to introduction of mitigation measures, and compared them with the corresponding differences in the previous 7 years. We considered the COVID-19 period highly unusual if the spring-winter difference was smaller or larger than all previous corresponding differences, and calculated the level of confidence in this conclusion. RESULTS: Marked fluctuations occurred in all measures over the 8 years with several highly unusual changes during the COVID-19 period. Total admissions fell, having risen over all previous years (COVID-19 difference: -1492; previous 7-year difference range: +100, +1617; p<0.001); full-term black admissions rose (+66; -64, +35; p<0.001) whereas Asian (-137; -14, +101; p<0.001) and white (-319; -235, +643: p<0.001) admissions fell. Transfers to higher and lower designation neonatal units increased (+129; -4, +88; p<0.001) and decreased (-47; -25, +12; p<0.001), respectively. Total preterm admissions decreased (-350; -26, +479; p<0.001). The fall in extremely preterm admissions was most marked in the two lowest socioeconomic quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate substantial changes occurred in care pathways and clinical thresholds, with disproportionate effects on black ethnic groups, during the immediate COVID-19 period, and raise the intriguing possibility that non-healthcare interventions may reduce extremely preterm births.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , Wales/epidemiology
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045380, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588227

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In January 2020, the UK moved to a 1+1 schedule for the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) with a single priming dose at 3-month and a 12-month booster. We modelled the impact on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) out to 2030/2031 of reductions in PCV13 coverage and population mixing associated with restrictions on non-essential healthcare visits and social distancing measures introduced in 2020/2021 to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. DESIGN: Using an existing model of pneumococcal transmission in England and Wales, we simulated the impact of a 40% reduction in coverage and a 40% reduction in mixing between and within age groups during two lockdowns in spring 2020 and autumn/winter 2020/2021. More and less extreme reductions in coverage and mixing were explored in a sensitivity analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Predicted annual numbers of IPD cases under different coverage and mixing reduction scenarios with uncertainty intervals (UIs) generated from minimum and maximum values of the model predictions using 500 parameter sets. RESULTS: The model predicted that any increase in IPD cases resulting from a reduction in PCV13 coverage would be more than offset by a reduction in pneumococcal transmission due to social distancing measures and that overall reductions in IPD cases will persist for a few years after resumption of normal mixing. The net reduction in cumulative IPD cases over the five epidemiological years from July 2019 was predicted to be 13 494 (UI 12 211, 14 676) all ages. Similar results were obtained in the sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 lockdowns are predicted to have had a profound effect on pneumococcal transmission resulting in a reduction in pneumococcal carriage prevalence and IPD incidence for up to 5 years after the end of the lockdown period. Carriage studies will be informative in confirming the predicted impact of the lockdown measures after they have been lifted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Communicable Disease Control , England/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Physical Distancing , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales/epidemiology
10.
Vaccine ; 39(42): 6256-6261, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544601

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted existing health inequalities for ethnic minority groups and those living in more socioeconomically deprived areas in the UK. With higher levels of severe outcomes in these groups, equitable vaccination coverage should be prioritised. The aim of this study was to identify inequalities in coverage of COVID-19 vaccination in Wales, UK and to highlight areas which may benefit from routine enhanced surveillance and targeted interventions. Records within the Wales Immunisation System (WIS) population register were linked to the Welsh Demographic Service Dataset (WDSD) and central list of shielding patients, held within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Databank. Ethnic group was derived from the 2011 census and over 20 administrative electronic health record (EHR) data sources. Uptake of first dose of any COVID-19 vaccine was analysed over time, with the odds of being vaccinated as at 25th April 2021 by sex, health board of residence, rural/urban classification, deprivation quintile and ethnic group presented. Using logistic regression models, analyses were adjusted for age group, care home resident status, health and social care worker status and shielding status. This study included 1,256,412 individuals aged 50 years and over. Vaccine coverage increased steadily from 8th December 2020 until mid-April 2021. Overall uptake of first dose of COVID-19 vaccine in this group was 92.1%. After adjustment the odds of being vaccinated were lower for individuals who were male, resident in the most deprived areas, resident in an urban area and an ethnic group other than White. The largest inequality was seen between ethnic groups, with the odds of being vaccinated 0.22 (95 %CI 0.21-0.24) if in any Black ethnic group compared to any White ethnic group. Ongoing monitoring of inequity in uptake of vaccinations is required, with better targeted interventions and engagement with deprived and ethnic communities to improve vaccination uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom , Vaccination , Wales/epidemiology
11.
PLoS Med ; 18(8): e1003767, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been related to incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We assessed the joint association of various air pollutants with the risk of T2D and examined potential modification by obesity status and genetic susceptibility on the relationship. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 449,006 participants from UK Biobank free of T2D at baseline were included. Of all the study population, 90.9% were white and 45.7% were male. The participants had a mean age of 56.6 (SD 8.1) years old and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.4 (SD 4.8) kg/m2. Ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) with diameters ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), between 2.5 µm and 10 µm (PM2.5-10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. An air pollution score was created to assess the joint exposure to the 4 air pollutants. During a median of 11 years follow-up, we documented 18,239 incident T2D cases. The air pollution score was significantly associated with a higher risk of T2D. Compared to the lowest quintile of air pollution score, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for T2D was 1.05 (0.99 to 1.10, p = 0.11), 1.06 (1.00 to 1.11, p = 0.051), 1.09 (1.03 to 1.15, p = 0.002), and 1.12 (1.06 to 1.19, p < 0.001) for the second to fifth quintile, respectively, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, genetic factors, and other covariates. In addition, we found a significant interaction between the air pollution score and obesity status on the risk of T2D (p-interaction < 0.001). The observed association was more pronounced among overweight and obese participants than in the normal-weight people. Genetic risk score (GRS) for T2D or obesity did not modify the relationship between air pollution and risk of T2D. Key study limitations include unavailable data on other potential T2D-related air pollutants and single-time measurement on air pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: We found that various air pollutants PM2.5, PM2.5-10, NO2, and NO, individually or jointly, were associated with an increased risk of T2D in the population. The stratified analyses indicate that such associations were more strongly associated with T2D risk among those with higher adiposity.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Obesity/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/chemically induced , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/chemically induced , Scotland/epidemiology , Wales/epidemiology
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048335, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408047

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify ethnic differences in proportion positive for SARS-CoV-2, and proportion hospitalised, proportion admitted to intensive care and proportion died in hospital with COVID-19 during the first epidemic wave in Wales. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of 76 503 SARS-CoV-2 tests carried out in Wales to 31 May 2020. Cohort study of 4046 individuals hospitalised with confirmed COVID-19 between 1 March and 31 May. In both analyses, ethnicity was assigned using a name-based classifier. SETTING: Wales (UK). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Admission to an intensive care unit following hospitalisation with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. Death within 28 days of a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. RESULTS: Using a name-based ethnicity classifier, we found a higher proportion of black, Asian and ethnic minority people tested for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR tested positive, compared with those classified as white. Hospitalised black, Asian and minority ethnic cases were younger (median age 53 compared with 76 years; p<0.01) and more likely to be admitted to intensive care. Bangladeshi (adjusted OR (aOR): 9.80, 95% CI 1.21 to 79.40) and 'white - other than British or Irish' (aOR: 1.99, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.44) ethnic groups were most likely to be admitted to intensive care unit. In Wales, older age (aOR for over 70 years: 10.29, 95% CI 6.78 to 15.64) and male gender (aOR: 1.38, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.59), but not ethnicity, were associated with death in hospitalised patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the growing evidence that ethnic minorities are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. During the first COVID-19 epidemic wave in Wales, although ethnic minority populations were less likely to be tested and less likely to be hospitalised, those that did attend hospital were younger and more likely to be admitted to intensive care. Primary, secondary and tertiary COVID-19 prevention should target ethnic minority communities in Wales.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Aged , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom , Wales/epidemiology
13.
Midwifery ; 103: 103103, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392103

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of self-reported mental health problems in a cohort of women in early pregnancy. To describe the relationship between poor mental health and sociodemographic characteristics, self-efficacy and support networks. To assess if participants were representative of the local antenatal population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SETTING: The UK government has pledged money to provide more support for women with perinatal mental health issues. Understanding the prevalence and predicting women who may need support will inform clinical practice. This paper reports part of the larger 'Mothers Mood Study', which explored women's and midwives' experience of mild to moderate perinatal mental health issues and service provision. Routinely collected population level data were analysed and a smaller cross-sectional survey design used to assess predictors of poor mental health in early pregnancy in one health board in Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Routinely collected data were extracted for all women who registered for maternity care between May 2017 and May 2018 (n = 6312) from the electronic maternity information system (pregnant population). Over a three month period 302 of these women completed a questionnaire at the antenatal clinic after an ultrasound scan (participants). Eligible women were aged ≥18 years, with sufficient spoken and written English to complete the questionnaire and a viable pregnancy of ≤18 weeks' gestation. The questionnaire collected data on sociodemographic status, self-efficacy and support networks, self-reported mental health problems. Current anxiety and depression were assessed using the General Anxiety Disorders Assessment and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. FINDINGS: Among the pregnant population 23% (n = 1490) disclosed a mental health problem during routine questioning with anxiety and depression being the most common conditions. Participants completing the detailed questionnaire were similar in age and parity to the pregnant population with similar levels of depression (15.6%; n = 15.6 v 17.3%, n = 1092). Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and General Anxiety Disorder 7 scores identified 8% with symptoms of anxiety (n = 25) or depression (n = 26) and a further 24.2% (n = 73) with symptoms of mild anxiety and 25.2% (n = 76) with mild depression. Low self-efficacy (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.12-1.45), a previous mental health problem (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.37-11.33) and low support from family (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.00-1.27) were found to be associated with early pregnancy anxiety and/or depression. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Around one in five women who register for maternity care may have a mental health problem. Mild to moderate anxiety and depression are common in early pregnancy. Services need to improve for women who do not currently meet the threshold for referral to perinatal mental health services. Assessment and active monitoring of mental health is recommended, in particular for pregnant women with risk factors including a history of previous mental health difficulties, poor family support or low self-efficacy.


Subject(s)
Maternal Health Services , Pregnancy Complications , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Parturition , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Wales/epidemiology
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of mortality following elective total hip (THR) and knee replacements (KR) may be influenced by patients' pre-existing comorbidities. There are a variety of scores derived from individual comorbidities that can be used in an attempt to quantify this. The aims of this study were to a) identify which comorbidity score best predicts risk of mortality within 90 days or b) determine which comorbidity score best predicts risk of mortality at other relevant timepoints (30, 45, 120 and 365 days). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We linked data from the National Joint Registry (NJR) on primary elective hip and knee replacements performed between 2011-2015 with pre-existing conditions recorded in the Hospital Episodes Statistics. We derived comorbidity scores (Charlson Comorbidity Index-CCI, Elixhauser, Hospital Frailty Risk Score-HFRS). We used binary logistic regression models of all-cause mortality within 90-days and within 30, 45, 120 and 365-days of the primary operation using, adjusted for age and gender. We compared the performance of these models in predicting all-cause mortality using the area under the Receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUROC) and the Index of Prediction Accuracy (IPA). RESULTS: We included 276,594 elective primary THRs and 338,287 elective primary KRs for any indication. Mortality within 90-days was 0.34% (N = 939) after THR and 0.26% (N = 865) after KR. The AUROC for the CCI and Elixhauser scores in models of mortality ranged from 0.78-0.81 after THR and KR, which slightly outperformed models with ASA grade (AUROC = 0.77-0.78). HFRS performed similarly to ASA grade (AUROC = 0.76-0.78). The inclusion of comorbidities prior to the primary operation offers no improvement beyond models with comorbidities at the time of the primary. The discriminative ability of all prediction models was best for mortality within 30 days and worst for mortality within 365 days. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidity scores add little improvement beyond simpler models with age, gender and ASA grade for predicting mortality within one year after elective hip or knee replacement. The additional patient-specific information required to construct comorbidity scores must be balanced against their prediction gain when considering their utility.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/mortality , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/mortality , Elective Surgical Procedures/mortality , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , England/epidemiology , Female , Hip Fractures/pathology , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , Wales/epidemiology
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16222, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376757

ABSTRACT

The 'Sepsis Six' bundle was promoted as a deliverable tool outside of the critical care settings, but there is very little data available on the progress and change of sepsis care outside the critical care environment in the UK. Our aim was to compare the yearly prevalence, outcome and the Sepsis Six bundle compliance in patients at risk of mortality from sepsis in non-intensive care environments. Patients with a National Early Warning Score (NEWS) of 3 or above and suspected or proven infection were enrolled into four yearly 24-h point prevalence studies, carried out in fourteen hospitals across Wales from 2016 to 2019. We followed up patients to 30 days between 2016-2019 and to 90 days between 2017 and 2019. Out of the 26,947 patients screened 1651 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were recruited. The full 'Sepsis Six' care bundle was completed on 223 (14.0%) occasions, with no significant difference between the years. On 190 (11.5%) occasions none of the bundle elements were completed. There was no significant correlation between bundle element compliance, NEWS or year of study. One hundred and seventy (10.7%) patients were seen by critical care outreach; the 'Sepsis Six' bundle was completed significantly more often in this group (54/170, 32.0%) than for patients who were not reviewed by critical care outreach (168/1385, 11.6%; p < 0.0001). Overall survival to 30 days was 81.7% (1349/1651), with a mean survival time of 26.5 days (95% CI 26.1-26.9) with no difference between each year of study. 90-day survival for years 2017-2019 was 74.7% (949/1271), with no difference between the years. In multivariate regression we identified older age, heart failure, recent chemotherapy, higher frailty score and do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation orders as significantly associated with increased 30-day mortality. Our data suggests that despite efforts to increase sepsis awareness within the NHS, there is poor compliance with the sepsis care bundles and no change in the high mortality over the study period. Further research is needed to determine which time-sensitive ward-based interventions can reduce mortality in patients with sepsis and how can these results be embedded to routine clinical practice.Trial registration Defining Sepsis on the Wards ISRCTN 86502304 https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN86502304 prospectively registered 09/05/2016.


Subject(s)
Hospital Mortality/trends , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Care Bundles/statistics & numerical data , Sepsis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Sepsis/pathology , Sepsis/therapy , Survival Rate , Wales/epidemiology
17.
Thorax ; 76(12): 1246-1249, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301738

ABSTRACT

The burden of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection remains poorly defined. We report on the outcomes of 2508 adults with molecularly-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 admitted across 18 major hospitals, representing over 60% of those hospitalised across Wales between 1 March and 1 July 2020. Inpatient mortality for nosocomial infection ranged from 38% to 42%, consistently higher than participants with community-acquired infection (31%-35%) across a range of case definitions. Those with hospital-acquired infection were older and frailer than those infected within the community. Nosocomial diagnosis occurred a median of 30 days following admission (IQR 21-63), suggesting a window for prophylactic or postexposure interventions, alongside enhanced infection control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Adult , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales/epidemiology
18.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 31(4): 262-274, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The level of mental state incidents dealt with by police and the police resource involved is under-researched, often giving rise to un-evidenced claims around demand, response and resources. The 2019 National Police Chiefs' Council and College of Policing definition of such incidents provides a useful basis for more accurate calculation: 'Any police incident thought to relate to someone's mental health where their vulnerability is at the centre of the incident or where the police have had to do something additionally or differently because of it'. AIMS: To establish the nature and frequency of incidents involving the police when mental state is a primary reason for the involvement. METHODS: In this mixed methods study, we first analysed data from records in two mixed inner city/urban/rural forces and one large multi-local authority metropolitan force. Secondly, we made an in-depth analysis of a sample of mental state-related incidents (n = 320) in two of these forces. Thirdly, we took a 24-hour snapshot of all such incidents in England and Wales. RESULTS: Mental state-related incidents accounted for 5.1% of recorded police contacts from the public, rising to just 7.8% when confining attention only to contacts that generated a police response beyond taking the call and recording it. Length of time between an incident being reported and first response was similar between mental state-related and non-mental state-related incidents, but response to closure time was shorter for the former. CONCLUSIONS: While incidents relating to mental state problems do consume police resources, they do not represent disproportionate demand in terms of numbers or time spent. That said, only about a quarter of the police work recorded was related to possible crimes, and the possibility of conflating perception of wider social need with mental state problems may further account for an apparent mismatch between the perceived and actual proportion of the workload spent on these incidents.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Police , Censuses , England/epidemiology , Humans , Wales/epidemiology
19.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 75(12): 1165-1171, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous observational studies have highlighted structural inequalities in COVID-19 mortality in the UK. Such studies often fail to consider the hierarchical, spatial nature of such inequalities in their analysis, leading to the potential for bias and an inability to reach conclusions about the most appropriate structural levels for policy intervention. METHODS: We use publicly available population data on COVID-19-related mortality and all-cause mortality between March and July 2020 in England and Wales to investigate the spatial scale of such inequalities. We propose a multiscale approach to simultaneously consider three spatial scales at which processes driving inequality may act and apportion inequality between these. RESULTS: Adjusting for population age structure and number of local care homes we find highest regional inequality in March and June/July. We find finer grained within region inequality increased steadily from March until July. The importance of spatial context increases over the study period. No analogous pattern is visible for non-COVID-19 mortality. Higher relative deprivation is associated with increased COVID-19 mortality at all stages of the pandemic but does not explain structural inequalities. CONCLUSIONS: Results support initial stochastic viral introduction in the South, with initially high inequality decreasing before the establishment of regional trends by June and July, prior to reported regionality of the 'second-wave'. We outline how this framework can help identify structural factors driving such processes, and offer suggestions for a long-term, locally targeted model of pandemic relief in tandem with regional support to buffer the social context of the area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , England/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales/epidemiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the trend of ischemic heart disease (IHD) admission and the prescriptions of IHD medications in England and Wales. METHODS: A secular trends study was conducted during the period of 1999 to 2019. We extracted hospital admission data for patients from all age groups from the Hospital Episode Statistics database in England and the Patient Episode Database for Wales. Prescriptions of IHD medications were extracted from the Prescription Cost Analysis database from 2004 to 2019. The chi-squared test was used to assess the difference between the admission rates and the difference between IHD medication prescription rates. The trends in IHD-related hospital admission and IHD-related medication prescription were assessed using a Poisson model. The correlation between hospital admissions for IHD and its IHD medication-related prescriptions was assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Our study detected a significant increase in the rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) medication prescriptions in England and Wales, representing a rise in the CVD medications prescription rate of 41.8% (from 539,334.95 (95% CI = 539,286.30-539,383.59) in 2004 to 764,584.55 (95% CI = 764,545.55-764,623.56) in 2019 prescriptions per 100,000 persons), with a mean increase of 2.8% per year during the past 15 years. This increase was connected with a reduction in the IHD hospital admission rate by 15.4% (from 838.50 (95% CI = 836.05-840.94) in 2004 to 709.78 (95% CI = 707.65-711.92) in 2019 per 100,000 persons, trend test, p < 0.01), with a mean decrease of 1.02% per year during the past 15 years and by 5% (from 747.43 (95% CI = 745.09-749.77) in 1999 to 709.78 (95% CI = 707.65-711.92) in 2019 per 100,000 persons, trend test, p < 0.01) with a mean decrease of 0.25% per year during the past two decades in England and Wales. CONCLUSION: The rate of hospitalisation due to IHD has decreased in England and Wales during the past two decades. Hospitalisation due to IHD was strongly and negatively correlated with the increase in the rates of dispensing of IHD-related medications. Other factors contributing to this decline could be the increase in controlling IHD risk factors during the past few years. Future studies exploring other risk factors that are associated with IHD hospitalisation are warranted.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Ischemia , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Prescriptions , Wales/epidemiology
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