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1.
Prev Med ; 160: 107100, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867905

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic prompted built environment changes throughout the United States. We assessed the prevalence of new places and changed spaces for physical activity as observed by US adults and their intentions to use them. We used data from SummerStyles, a web-based survey of US adults conducted in June 2021 (n = 4073). Respondents were asked if they had discovered new places to be physically active during the past year, and if changes had been made to streets or outdoor areas to allow additional space for recreating. Those responding "yes" were asked if they intended to use the respective space. We estimated the weighted prevalence of adults who observed new places and changed spaces, and their intended use, by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics, physical activity level, and walking status. We compared subgroups with prevalence ratios (PR). Overall, 25.0% of US adults reported discovering new places for physical activity, and 25.3% reported changes to streets and outdoor spaces. Intention to use new places and changed spaces exceeded 50% among all sociodemographic and geographic subgroups. Among those reporting changes, adults who were physically inactive compared to those who were sufficiently active had similar intentions to use new places (PR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.63, 1.10) and changed spaces (PR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.69, 1.17). Approximately 1 in 4 adults reported discovering new places or changed spaces to support physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, and most intended to use these features. Expanding access to such supportive environments may help promote physical activity participation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Walking
2.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 24(5): 293-298, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1857393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The influence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused countries worldwide to implement lockdowns. Elective surgeries were temporarily suspended, with surgeries being performed only for emergent/urgent medical conditions such as hip fractures where early surgical intervention has shown decreased rates of morbidity/mortality. OBJECTIVES: To assess the indirect influence of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdown on hip fracture patients, considering factors such as time to surgery, early postoperative complications, and ambulation status. METHODS: A comparative retrospective study was conducted on consecutive patients presenting to our emergency department (ED) with hip fractures that were treated surgically (N=29) during a 1-month period during the government lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The treatments were compared to consecutive patients who presented with hip fractures and were treated surgically (N=44) during the same timeframe in the previous year (control). Comparisons were made using t-test, ANOVA test, Fisher's exact test, and chi-square test. RESULTS: The COVID-19 group was operated on sooner (20.34 vs. 34.87 hours), had fewer early postoperative complications (10.3% vs. 31.8%), had better ambulatory status at discharge, and experienced a shorter hospital stay (5.93 vs. 8.13 days) with more patients being discharged home (72.4% vs. 22.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients presenting with hip fractures to our ED during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown indirectly benefited from this situation by undergoing earlier surgical treatment, thus experiencing fewer early postoperative complications, faster ambulation, and sooner discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hip Fractures , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Walking
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809872

ABSTRACT

We examined whether post-exercise yogurt intake reduced cardiovascular strain during outdoor interval walking training (IWT) in older people during midsummer. The IWT is a training regimen repeating slow and fast walking at ~40% and ≥70% peak aerobic capacity, respectively, for 3 min each per set, ≥5 sets per day, and ≥4 days/wk. We randomly divided 28 male and 75 female older people (~73 yr), who had performed IWT ≥12 months, into a carbohydrate group (CHO-G) consuming jelly (45 g CHO, 180 kcal) and a yogurt group (YGT-G) consuming a yogurt drink (9.3 g protein, 39 g CHO, 192 kcal) immediately after daily IWT for 56 days while monitoring exercise intensity and heart rate (HR) with portable devices. We analyzed the results in 39 subjects for the CHO-G and 37 subjects for the YGT-G who performed IWT ≥ 4 days/wk, ≥60 min total fast walking/wk, and ≥4 sets of each walk/day. We found that the mean HR for fast walking decreased significantly from the baseline after the 30th day in the YGT-G (p < 0.03), but not in the CHO-G (p = 1.00). There were no significant differences in training achievements between the groups. Thus, post-exercise yogurt intake might reduce cardiovascular strain during outdoor walking training in older people.


Subject(s)
Walking , Yogurt , Aged , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Walking/physiology
4.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266183, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808560

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the satisfaction level differences between urban and rural areas with regard to their walking environment during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea. This online cross-sectional research was conducted using a mobile health application. Overall, 1,032 local residents who participated in the mobile healthcare program of a public health center were classified as being from either urban (n = 481, 46.6%) or rural areas (n = 551, 53.4%) for the purpose of this study. The Walkability Checklist, which includes sociodemographic information, was employed using a Chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression to investigate whether or not the participants were satisfied with the environmental factors associated with walking. It was found that both urban and rural areas were more likely to be unsatisfied with walking comfort (adjusted OR: 24.472, 95% CI: 14.937-40.096). Regarding the walking comfort aspects of the walking environment, urban residents chose poor landscape ("needed more grass, flowers, or trees"; aOR: 13.561, 95% CI: 3.619-50.823) as their primary dissatisfaction, and rural residents chose messy streets ("dirty, lots of litter or trash"; aOR: 29.045, 95% CI: 6.202-136.015). Compared with urban residents, rural residents were more discontented with the walking environment. Thus, to promote walking activities at the community level, it is necessary to focus on walking comfort, and implement efforts related to environmental beautification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Rural Population , Urban Population , Walking
5.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(4): 555-563, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806231

ABSTRACT

Background: Rising demands for traditional postpartum depression (PPD) treatment options (e.g., psychiatry), especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, are increasingly difficult to meet. More accessible treatment options (e.g., walking) are needed. Our objective is to determine the impact of walking on PPD severity. Methods: A structured search of seven electronic databases for randomized controlled trials published between 2000 and July 29, 2021 was completed. Studies were included if walking was the sole or primary aerobic exercise modality. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted for studies reporting PPD symptoms measured using a clinically validated tool. A simple count of positive/null effect studies was undertaken as part of a narrative summary. Results: Five studies involving 242 participants were included (mean age = ∼28.9 years; 100% with mild-to-moderate depression). Interventions were 12 (n = 4) and 24 (n = 1) weeks long. Each assessed PPD severity using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and was included in the meta-analysis. The pooled effect estimate suggests that relative to controls walking yielded clinically significant decreases in mean EPDS scores from baseline to intervention end (pooled mean difference = -4.01; 95% CI: -7.18 to -0.84, I2 = 86%). The narrative summary provides preliminary evidence that walking-only, supervised, and group-based interventions, including 90-120+ minutes per week of moderate-intensity walking, may produce greater EPDS reductions. Conclusions: While limited by a relatively small number of included studies, pooled effect estimates suggest that walking may help mothers manage PPD. This is the first-time walking as treatment for PPD, an exercise modality that uniquely addresses many barriers faced by mothers, has been summarized in a systematic way. Trial registration: PROSPERO (CRD42020197521) on August 16th, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Adult , Depression , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Tuberculin , Walking
6.
Health Place ; 75: 102805, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796813

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to understand the perceived effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity, recreation walking, and use of recreational facilities; and if the COVID-19 pandemic amplified disparities in physical activity, recreational walking, and use of recreational facilities related to the levels of neighborhood disadvantage. Recreational walking and the use of neighborhood streets and green spaces significantly decreased in high deprivation areas but not in low deprivation areas during the pandemic. While COVID-19 has negatively affected overall recreational activities, the inequitable impact on recreational walking and use of outdoor recreational facilities has been more evident in disadvantaged neighborhoods with greater deprivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Recreation , Environment Design , Humans , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics , Walking
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(4)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776286

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Patients who survive severe COVID-19 require significant pulmonary rehabilitation. Heart rate (HR) has been used as a safety variable in the evaluation of the results of interventions in patients undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation. The aim of this research was to analyse HR during a pulmonary rehabilitation program in post-severe COVID-19 patients who survived mechanical ventilation (MV). The study includes the initial and final evaluations and aerobic training sessions. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (58 ± 13 years, 11 men) were trained for 8 weeks. A 6-minute walk test (6 MWT) was performed and, subsequently, a supervised and individualised training plan was created. Resting heart rate (RHR), heart rate recovery (HRR), heart rate at minute 6 (HR6 min) and the product of HR6 min and systolic blood pressure (HR6 minxSBP) were measured at 6 MWT. In addition, HR was measured at each training session. Results: After 8 weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation, patients decreased their RHR from 81.95 ± 9.36 to 73.60 ± 9.82 beats/min (p < 0.001) and significantly increased their HRR from 12.45 ± 10.22 to 20.55 ± 7.33 beats/min (p = 0.005). HR6 min presented a significant relationship with walking speed and walked distance after the pulmonary rehabilitation period (r = 0.555, p = 0.011 and r = 0.613, p = 0.011, respectively). HR6 minxSBP presented a significant relationship with walking speed and walked distance after training (r = 0.538, p = 0.014 and r = 0.568, p = 0.008, respectively). In the pulmonary rehabilitation sessions, a significant decrease in HR was observed at minutes 1, 6 and 15 (p < 0.05) between sessions 1 and 6 and at minute 1 between sessions 1 and 12. Conclusions: Eight weeks of individualised and supervised pulmonary rehabilitation were effective in improving RHR and HRR in COVID-19 patients surviving MV. HR is an easily accessible indicator that could help to monitor the evaluation and development of a pulmonary rehabilitation program in COVID-19 patients who survived MV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Survivors , Walking
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765715

ABSTRACT

Forest bathing is beneficial for human health. To investigate whether walking in forest or urban parks affects cardiovascular functions (CVFs), the present study was conducted in five forest trails in the Xitou Experimental Forest and in five urban parks in Taipei city. We recruited 25 adult volunteers for an observational pilot study in forest parks (n = 14) and urban parks (n = 11). CVFs were assessed by measuring the arterial pressure waveform using an oscillometric blood pressure (BP) device. The baseline and paired differences of systolic BP (SBP), central end SBP, heart rate, left ventricle (LV) dP/dt max and cardiac output in participants were lower before and after walking in a forest park than those in an urban park. In addition, the systemic vascular compliance and brachial artery compliance of those who walked in a forest park were significantly higher compared with those in an urban park. Linear mixed models demonstrated lower levels of SBP by 5.22 mmHg, heart rate by 2.46 beats/min, and cardiac output by 0.52 L/min, and LV dP/dt max by 146.91 mmHg/s among those who walked in forest compared to those in an urban park after controlling covariates. This study provides evidence of the potential beneficial effects of walking exercise in forest parks on CVFs.


Subject(s)
Parks, Recreational , Walking , Adult , Blood Pressure , Exercise , Forests , Humans
9.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 253, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic challenged both the Norwegian population and healthcare system. In this study we explored how older men and women experienced rehabilitation and recovery after hospitalisation due to severe COVID-19. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 17 participants aged 60-96 years were performed 6 months after discharge from hospital. A thematic descriptive analysis was conducted. RESULTS: The results revealed that the participants experienced a challenging span between loneliness and companionship in recovering from severe COVID-19. The four subthemes highlighted experiences of being discharged to home and left to themselves, the importance of exercise and companionship at rehabilitation stay, requirement of self-effort and time to recover, and the challenging span between loneliness and companionship when being with family. CONCLUSION: Among participants, the experiences of loneliness throughout the recovery period were striking. An individualised approach including psychological support should be emphasized in primary healthcare to promote recovery in older survivors after severe COVID-19 and their next-of-kin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Walking
10.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 91, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV 2 has rapidly developed into pandemic. This infectious disease affecting mainly respiratory system may cause multiple systemic disorders. With increasing number of new infected patients there are more and more cases with neurological complications secondary to COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present a case of 67-years old Polish male with previously no comorbidities, who has developed bilateral paralysis of peroneal nerve after SARS-CoV 2 infection. Prior to the hospitalization he presented cough and fever and weakness. RT-PCR was reported positive for COVID-19 infection. Then he developed pneumonia and respiratory failure with bilateral lung consolidations on radiological examination. Laboratory findings revealed elevated levels of D-dimer, CRP, AspAT, GGTP, PCT and serum glucose. After discharge from hospital he was diagnosed with thrombophlebitis and prediabetes on follow-up visits. Due to problems with walking, numbness of toes and involuntary muscle spasms in hands, the patient went to the Neurological Outpatient Clinic. After neurological examination bilateral paralysis of peroneal nerve was revealed. CONCLUSIONS: In this report we want to highlight one of the unexpected presentations of SARS-CoV 2 infection and emphasize the importance of neurological examination in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Paralysis , Peroneal Nerve , Walking
11.
Geospat Health ; 17(s1)2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726244

ABSTRACT

With people restricted to their residences, neighbourhood characteristics may affect behaviour and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. We aimed to analyse whether neighbourhoods with higher walkability, public transit, biking services and higher socio-economic status were associated with lower COVID-19 infection during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Massachusetts. We used Walk Score®, Bike Score®, and Transit Score® indices to assess the walkability and transportation of 72 cities in Massachusetts, USA based on availability of data and collected the total COVID-19 case numbers of each city up to 10 April 2021. We used univariate and multivariate linear models to analyse the effects of these scores on COVID-19 cases per 100,000 in each city, adjusting for demographic covariates and all covariates, respectively. In the 72 cities studied, the average Walk Score, Transit Score and Bike Score was 48.7, 36.5 and 44.1, respectively, with a total of 426,182 COVID-19 cases. Higher Walk Score, Transit Score, and Bike Score rankings were negatively associated with COVID-19 cases per 100,000 persons (<0.05). Cities with a higher proportion of Hispanic population and a lower median household income were associated with more COVID-19 cases per 100,000 (P<0.05). Higher Walk Score, Transit Score and Bike Score were shown to be protective against COVID-19 transmission, while socio-demographic factors were associated with COVID-19 infection. Understanding the complex relationship of how the structure of the urban environment may constrain commuting patterns for residents and essential workers during COVID-19 would offer potential insights on future pandemic preparedness and response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environment Design , Residence Characteristics , Bicycling , Cities , Humans , Massachusetts , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , Transportation , Walking
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686724

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the physiological and psychological therapeutic effects of a digital Shinrin-yoku environment constructed indoors in an urban facility as well as the characteristics of the environment that contribute to restorativeness (restorative traits). We measured the fluctuations in the physical and mental states of 25 subjects by obtaining both before-after measurements and continuous measurements while exposed to a digital Shinrin-yoku environment that reproduced visual, auditory, and olfactory elements. The results demonstrated that the parasympathetic nerve activity was significantly increased and that the heart rate was significantly decreased during the exposure compared with that during the resting state. As for mood, five of the six Profile of Mood States (POMS) scales ("Tension-Anxiety," "Depression," "Anger-Hostility," "Fatigue," and "Confusion") were significantly decreased after the experience. In addition, psychological restorative effects were also confirmed, with a significant decrease in "negative affect" (measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)) and a significant increase in the sense of restorativeness (Restorative Outcome Scale (ROS)) after the experience. In contrast, comparing the digital Shinrin-yoku environment with the actual forest environment and the urban environment using POMS, PANAS, ROS, and Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS), the psychological effects and environmental traits of the digital Shinrin-yoku were found to be considerably similar to those of the actual forest environment.


Subject(s)
Forests , Walking , Affect , Anxiety/therapy , Hostility , Humans , Walking/psychology
13.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 13(5): 691-697, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the reliability of using videoconference technology to remotely administer the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), including the 5-time sit-to-stand (5XSTS) and usual 4-m walk (4mWT), and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests and agreement with in-person administration among adults with and without cancer. METHODS: Participants from two ongoing clinical exercise trials in cancer survivors, one that included partners without cancer, comprised the available sample (n = 176; mean age 62.5 ± 11.5 years.). Remote tests were administered on two separate days by either the same or a different assessor to determine intra-rater and inter-rater reliability, respectively. We also compared tests conducted remotely and in-person using the same assessor and the same participant. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used for all comparisons, except for the SPPB score, which used Cohen's kappa and Krippendorf's alpha for intra- and inter-rater reliability, respectively. RESULTS: Remote assessment of the TUG test had excellent intra-rater reliability (0.98, 95% CI 0.93-0.99), inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.96, 95% CI 0.90-0.99), and good agreement with in-person tests (ICC = 0.88, 95% CI 0.74-0.94). The 5XSTS and 4mWT showed excellent (ICC = 0.92, 95% CI 0.84-0.96) and good (ICC = 0.87, 95% CI 0.71-0.94) intra-rater reliability, respectively, but somewhat lower inter-rater reliability (5XSTS: ICC = 0.65, 95% CI 0.34-0.83 and 4mWT: ICC = 0.62, 95% CI 0.30-0.81). Remote 5XSTS had moderate agreement (ICC = 0.72, 95% CI 0.62-0.80) and 4mWT had poor agreement (ICC = 0.48, 95% CI -0.07-0.76) with in-person tests. CONCLUSIONS: Remote assessment of common physical function tests in older adults, including those who have cancer, is feasible and highly reliable when using the same assessor. TUG may be the most methodologically robust measure for remote assessment because it is also highly reliable when using different assessors and correlates strongly with in-person testing. Adapting administration of objective measures of physical function for the remote environment could significantly expand the reach of research and clinical practice to assess populations at risk of functional decline.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Walking , Aged , Humans , Physical Functional Performance , Reproducibility of Results
14.
J Exp Psychol Appl ; 27(4): 722-738, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650610

ABSTRACT

To reduce the spread of COVID-19, governments around the world have recommended or required minimum physical distancing between individuals, as well as either mandating or recommending the use of face coverings (masks) in certain circumstances. When multiple risk reduction activities can be adopted, people may engage in risk compensation by responding to a reduced (perceived) risk exposure due to one activity by increasing risk exposure due to another. We tested for risk compensation in two online experiments that investigated whether either wearing a mask or seeing others wearing masks reduced physical distancing. We presented participants with stylized images of everyday scenarios involving themselves with or without a mask and a stranger with or without a mask. For each scenario, participants indicated the minimum distance they would keep from the stranger. In line with risk compensation, we found that participants indicated they would stand, sit, or walk closer to the stranger if either of them was wearing a mask. This form of risk compensation was stronger for those who believed masks were effective at preventing catching or spreading COVID-19, and for younger (18-40 years) compared to older (over 65 years) participants. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Humans , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Walking
15.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 122(11): 821-825, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the COVID-19 pandemic, the concern about mask-harmful effects disturbed mask-adherence. However, it is not certain whether the masks cause cardiopulmonary overload. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the physiological and disturbing effects of surgical face masks during exercise. METHOD: The study was conducted in a tertiary hospital with 100 healthy volunteers between September 2020 and January 2021. Individuals with impaired walking, cardiopulmonary disease, and smoking were not included in the study. Initially, respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) were measured.  Participants underwent 6-minute walking test (6MWT) with and without surgical masks.  Mask-discomfort questionnaire was applied before and after 6 MWT with the mask. RESULTS: Surgical masks during 6 MWTs significantly increased HR, RR, and EtCO2 levels (p<0.001).  Walking distance (p<0.001) and SpO2 level (p=0.002) were significantly decreased with mask. In Mask-Discomfort Questionnaire, humidity, temperature, resistance, salinity, odor, fatigue (p<0.001), and itching (p=0.001) scores significantly increased after 6MWT with mask. CONCLUSION: In healthy volunteers, HR, RR, EtCO2 were increased, and SpO2 and walking distance were decreased in the short-term, light exercise performed with the surgical mask. Findings support the concern that masks may cause cardiopulmonary overload (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 17). Text in PDF www.elis.sk Keywords: COVID-19, masks, physiology, psychological side effects, questionnaire.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Walking
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542519

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of masks has been recommended as a containment measure. The mask is a hindrance to normal breathing that causes discomfort. This could put more work on the respiratory accessory muscles, and, consequently, these muscles could see their tone increase. For this reason, during this clinical trial (registered in clincaltrials.gov, number: NCT04789603), it was observed whether the use of the mask produced changes in the distance traveled, in the heart rate, in the oxygenometry, in the self-perceived dyspnea and in the tone of accessory respiratory muscles during a 6-min walk test (6MWT). Fifty healthy volunteers were recruited and carried out the 6MWT on three occasions. They carried out the 6MWT in various situations: using an FFP2/N95 mask, using a surgical mask, and without using a mask. The distance walked, the heart rate, the oxygen therapy, the tone of the accessory respiratory muscles, and the self-perceived dyspnea were recorded in each situation. Significant differences were found between the three situations in terms of self-perceived dyspnea FFP2/N95 > surgical mask > no mask. However, there are no differences between the experimental situations during the 6MWT in terms of distance travelled, heart rate, oxygenometry or respiratory muscle tone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Walk Test , Walking
17.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 152, 2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although it is globally known that Japan has high prevalence of active school travel among children, there are few international studies on Japanese children's school travel. Moreover, only few studies have focused on the differences in their mode of travel between to-school and from-school. This study examined the associations of neighborhood built, safety, and social environments with walking to/from school among elementary school-aged children in Chiba, Japan. METHODS: We conducted an online survey with 1545 parents of children aged 6-12 years residing in Chiba between 25 and 27 November 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. A neighborhood was defined as the area of a postcode provided by the participants. Each neighborhood environment was assessed based on the built environment (new town designation, walkability, distance to school, population density), social environment (neighborhood cohesion and connection), and safety (CCTVs, a road section for walking alone, safety volunteers). Neighborhood walkability was measured using subscales of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (youth and abbreviated versions) including crime safety and traffic safety. Parents' perceived influence of COVID-19 on school commuting and after-school activities were also included in the model as covariates. Walking to and from school were separately analyzed using multinomial logistic regressions, where new towns and walkability were computed separately as explanatory variables. RESULTS: Four fifths of children walked to and from school daily. Walking to school was positively associated with crime safety, neighborhood connections, and schools sited in new towns. Walking from school had positive associations with traffic safety, neighborhood cohesion, and CCTVs, but negative associations with safety volunteers and after-school activities. The presence of a section for walking alone and perceived influence of COVID-19 had negative associations with walking to and from school. CONCLUSIONS: Recent social changes such as declining birthrate, decline in public elementary schools, and increasing after-school activities may change parental attitudes toward children's walking to/from school, and subsequently, their mode of school travel over time. To maintain the high prevalence of walking to/from school in Japan, multidisciplinary approaches involving different stakeholders from education, public health, and urban planning are required to overcome sectionalism and support this behavior in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environment Design , Humans , Japan , Pandemics , Parents , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Schools , Social Environment , Transportation , Walking
18.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(2021-14)2021 10 12.
Article in Norwegian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in hospitals is essential for early isolation and treatment. However, false positive test results can have adverse consequences for patient safety. CASE PRESENTATION: A man in his eighties was admitted to hospital with fatigue and new-onset gait and balance difficulties, without fever or symptoms of focal infection, but with elevated C-reactive protein. On admission, he tested positive on screening for SARS-CoV-2 using a fully automated rapid reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. He was placed together with two patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection in cohort isolation. Due to very low exposure risk and nonspecific symptoms, the primary and multiple subsequent test swabs were analysed using RT-PCR analyses guided by laboratory personnel, and all gave negative results. The patient had several risk factors for developing severe COVID-19 illness, but fortunately he remained COVID-19 negative on repeated tests. INTERPRETATION: The case presentation highlights the danger of false-positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, and the importance of interpreting a diagnostic test in the context of pretest probability and test accuracy. It also underlines the risk of using cohort isolation instead of individual isolation.


Subject(s)
Mobility Limitation , Walking , Humans , Male
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2082, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the health risks of sedentary working environments become more clear, greater emphasis on the implementation of walking interventions to reduce sitting time is needed. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigate the role of treadmill-desk interventions on energy expenditure, sitting time, and cardiometabolic health in adults with sedentary occupations. METHODS: Relevant studies published in English were identified using CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases up to December 2020. Random effects meta-analysis models were used to pool study results. RESULTS: Thirteen relevant studies (six workplaces and seven laboratories) were found with a total of 351 participants. Pooled analysis of laboratory studies showed a significant increase in energy expenditure (105.23 kcal per hour, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.41 to 120.4), as well as metabolic rate (5.0 mL/kg/min, 95% CI: 3.35 to 6.64), among treadmill desk users compared to sitting conditions. No evidence of significant differences in blood pressure were found. In workplace studies, we observed a significant reduction in sitting time over a 24-h period (- 1.73 min per hour, 95% CI: - 3.3 to - 0.17) among users of treadmill desks, compared to a conventional desk. However, there were no evidence of statistically significant changes in other metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Treadmill desks offer a feasible and effective intervention to increase energy expenditure and metabolic rate and reduce sitting time while performing work-related tasks. Future studies are needed to increase generalizability to different workplace settings and further evaluate their impact on cardiometabolic health.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Occupational Health , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Sitting Position , Walking , Workplace
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512349

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 survivors are associated with acute respiratory failure (ARF) and show a high prevalence of impairment in physical performance. The present studied aimed to assess whether we may cluster these individuals according to an exercise test. The presented study is a retrospective analysis of 154 survivors who were admitted to two hospitals of Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri network, Italy. Clinical characteristics, walked distance, heart rate (HR), pulse oximetry (SpO2), dyspnoea, and leg fatigue (Borg scale: Borg-D and Borg-F, respectively) while performing the six-minute walking test (6MWT) were entered into unsupervised clustering analysis. Multivariate linear regression identified variables that were informative for the set of variables used for cluster definition. Cluster 1 (C1: 86.4% of participants) and Cluster 2 (C2: 13.6%) were identified. Compared to C1, the individuals in C2 were significantly older, showed significantly higher increase in fatigue and in dyspnoea, greater reduction in SpO2, and a lower HRpeak during the test. The need of walking aids, time from admission to acute care hospitals, age, body mass index, endotracheal intubation, baseline HR and baseline Borg-D, and exercise-induced SpO2 change were significantly associated with the variables that were used for cluster definition. Different characteristics and physiological parameters during the 6MWT characterise survivors of COVID-19-associated ARF. These results may help in the management of the long-term effects of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Exercise Test , Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors , Walking
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