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1.
Br J Nurs ; 31(3): 142-146, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulation clinics faced an unprecedented challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic to safely manage patients on warfarin therapy. METHODS: A London teaching hospital trust received INR point-of-care (POC) testing devices from its clinical commissioning group. The Trust distributed the devices to patients who were cognitively and physically able to self-test and evaluated clinical outcomes and patient experience. FINDINGS: A significant improvement in warfarin control (mean time in therapeutic range (TTR) before POC 52%, standard deviation (SD) 24.8, vs mean after 60.7%, SD 19.7; P>0.009) and a 39% reduction in missed appointments were seen in self-testing patients. Positive patient satisfaction and lifestyle outcomes were identified through a telephone survey. A minority of patients struggled with the technique, leading to frustration. Some patients used many test strips through unsuccessful and additional tests. CONCLUSION: POC testing in a carefully selected group of patients on warfarin therapy resulted in positive clinical and patient satisfaction outcomes. Appropriate governance processes are needed, and clinical expertise is required to support patients. Cost-effectiveness of POC testing needs careful monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Warfarin , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing , Warfarin/adverse effects
2.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 10(4): 826-831.e1, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Great interest exists in standardizing the anticoagulant choice for patients requiring treatment of distal deep vein thrombosis (DDVT). In the present multicenter, retrospective cohort study, we evaluated the outcomes of patients with DDVT who had been treated with warfarin vs direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs; ie, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, dabigatran). METHODS: Queries were built for the TriNetX database (TriNetX LLC, Cambridge, Mass), a federated network of healthcare organizations across the United States that provides de-identified patient data through aggregated counts and statistical summaries. International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, diagnostic codes were used to identify eligible patients. Data from January 1, 2013 to January 1, 2020 were reviewed. Statistical analyses, including propensity matching, were performed using TriNetX's internal software. The inclusion criterion was treatment with either warfarin or a DOAC started within the first 24 hours of diagnosis of an isolated thrombosis of the following veins: anterior tibial, posterior tibial, peroneal, or calf muscular veins. The exclusion criteria were a history of an adverse reaction to anticoagulant agents, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection, thrombophilia, mechanical heart valve, chronic proximal DVT (PDVT) and/or DDVT, and 6-month history of the following: acute PDVT, pulmonary embolism (PE), or anticoagulant usage. The outcomes measured included the incidence of mortality, PE, PDVT, stroke, myocardial infarction, and major bleeding within 6 months after initiating anticoagulation therapy. RESULTS: In a cohort of 6509 patients, 1570 were treated with warfarin and 4939 were treated with a DOAC drug. After propensity matching for age, sex, ethnicity, and comorbidities, the DOAC cohort had a significantly lower incidence of PE (1.795% vs 3.590%; P = .0020) and major bleeding (7.949% vs 10.513%; P = .0134). Differences in the incidence of mortality, PDVT, myocardial infarction, and stroke were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Before the present study, no strong evidence was available to suggest an optimal treatment modality for DDVT requiring anticoagulation therapy. The data from the present study suggest that patients receiving DOACs for the treatment of DDVT will have significantly lower rates of progression to PE and a lower incidence of major bleeding compared with patients receiving warfarin. This suggests that DOACs are superior to warfarin for treatment of DDVT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Pulmonary Embolism , Stroke , Venous Thrombosis , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/chemically induced , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Warfarin/adverse effects
3.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, the National Health Service (NHS) recommended that appropriate patients anticoagulated with warfarin should be switched to direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs), requiring less frequent blood testing. Subsequently, a national safety alert was issued regarding patients being inappropriately coprescribed two anticoagulants following a medication change and associated monitoring. OBJECTIVE: To describe which people were switched from warfarin to DOACs; identify potentially unsafe coprescribing of anticoagulants; and assess whether abnormal clotting results have become more frequent during the pandemic. METHODS: With the approval of NHS England, we conducted a cohort study using routine clinical data from 24 million NHS patients in England. RESULTS: 20 000 of 164 000 warfarin patients (12.2%) switched to DOACs between March and May 2020, most commonly to edoxaban and apixaban. Factors associated with switching included: older age, recent renal function test, higher number of recent INR tests recorded, atrial fibrillation diagnosis and care home residency. There was a sharp rise in coprescribing of warfarin and DOACs from typically 50-100 per month to 246 in April 2020, 0.06% of all people receiving a DOAC or warfarin. International normalised ratio (INR) testing fell by 14% to 506.8 patients tested per 1000 warfarin patients each month. We observed a very small increase in elevated INRs (n=470) during April compared with January (n=420). CONCLUSIONS: Increased switching of anticoagulants from warfarin to DOACs was observed at the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic in England following national guidance. There was a small but substantial number of people coprescribed warfarin and DOACs during this period. Despite a national safety alert on the issue, a widespread rise in elevated INR test results was not found. Primary care has responded rapidly to changes in patient care during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19 , Drug Substitution/standards , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , State Medicine/standards , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation Tests , Drug Monitoring , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Substitution/adverse effects , Drug Utilization/standards , England , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Primary Health Care/standards , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Warfarin/adverse effects
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 875, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Warfarin treatment requires frequent monitoring of INR (international normalized ratio) to adjust dosage in a therapeutic range. In China, patients living in small towns usually go to tertiary hospitals to get warfarin monitoring and dosing, resulting in low frequencies of follow-ups and high incidence of complications. Influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic, patients on warfarin have further reduced their visits to healthcare institutions. While patient self-testing (PST) via using a point-of-care testing device for INR measuring at home has been widely used in developed countries and demonstrated improved clinical outcomes compared to usual care in clinics, it is rarely applied in developing countries, including China. This proposed study will develop and assess the "Safe Multidisciplinary App-assisted Remote patient-self-Testing (SMART) model" for warfarin home management in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a multi-center randomized controlled trial. We will carry out the study in three county hospitals, three small tertiary hospitals and three large tertiary hospitals with anticoagulation clinics in Hunan province of China. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to the SMART model group (n = 360) or the control group (usual care clinic group, n = 360; anticoagulation clinic group, n = 120). Patients in the SMART model group do PST at home once every two to 4 weeks. Controls receive usual care in the clinics. All the patients will be followed up through outpatient clinics, phone call or online interviews at the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month. The percentage of time in therapeutic range (TTR), incidence of warfarin associated major bleeding and thromboembolic events and costs will be compared between the SMART model group and control groups. DISCUSSION: Patients in the SMART model group would show improved TTR, lower incidence of complications and better quality of life compared to the control groups. Our design, implementation and usage of the SMART model will provide experience and evidence in developing a novel model for chronic disease management to solve the problem of healthcare service maldistribution, an issue particularly obvious in developing countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR, ChiCTR 2000038984 . Registered 11 October, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing , Warfarin/adverse effects
5.
Kardiologiia ; 61(7): 55-59, 2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359484

ABSTRACT

Aim    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the management of warfarin therapy used for atrial fibrillation (AF) and prosthetic valve disease.Material and methods    The study included 139 Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and 173 prosthetic valve patients (PVP) who were using warfarin. The time in therapeutic range (TTR), International Normalized Ratio (INR) averages, the numbers of INR tests, and the non-adherence to INR monitoring (NIM) were compared for the pre-covid period (PCP) and the COVID-19 period (CP). Also, adherence to warfarin therapy was evaluated with a questionnaire.Results    For all patients, the INR values were higher in the CP (2.47 vs 2.60, p<0.001), and the NIM percentage was higher (19.2 % vs 71.5 %, p<0.001) in the CP. The number of INR tests was lower during the CP (p<0.001).The percentage of patients with TTR≥70 % was lower during the CP (41.7 % vs 33 % p=0.017). Subgroup analysis showed that for PVP, TTR values and the percentage of patients with TTR ≥70 % were similar in both the PCP and CP periods. The questionnaire showed that for 94.1 % of respondents, the major cause of NIM in the CP was the COVID-19 pandemic. However, during the CP, adherence to warfarin medication was high (95.5 %).Conclusion    Lower TTR during the COVID-19 pandemic can increase bleeding and thromboembolic cases.Therefore, patients taking warfarin should be followed more closely, and more practical ways should be considered for INR testing.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Warfarin/adverse effects
6.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211021495, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277870

ABSTRACT

The treatment process of patients using warfarin is expected to be hindered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore we investigated whether the time in therapeutic range (TTR) and bleeding complications were affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. 355 patients using warfarin were included between March 2019 to March 2021. Demographic parameters, INR (international normalized ratio), and bleeding rates were recorded retrospectively. The TTR value was calculated using Rosendaal's method. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 12 years and 55% of them were female. The mean TTR value during the COVID-19 pandemic was lower than the pre-COVID-19 period (56 ± 21 vs 68 ± 21, P < 0.001). Among the patients, 41% had a lack of outpatient INR control. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 71 (20%) patients using VKA suffered bleeding. Among patients with bleeding, approximately 60% did not seek medical help and 6% of patients performed self-reduction of the VKA dose. During the COVID-19 pandemic, TTR values have decreased with the lack of monitoring. Furthermore, the majority of patients did not seek medical help even in case of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Bleeding Time , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Warfarin/pharmacology , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/psychology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Medication Adherence , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Self Medication , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Warfarin/adverse effects , Warfarin/therapeutic use
7.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 754-758, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118255

ABSTRACT

As a result of infection control regulations during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, anticoagulation clinics have been required to adjust their practices in order to continue providing safe and effective services for their patients. In accordance with a guidance document issued by the Anticoagulation Forum, The Brooklyn Hospital Center (TBHC) anticoagulation clinic in Brooklyn, New York implemented measures including telemedicine follow-ups instead of in-person clinic visits, extending the interval of INR testing, and reviewing eligible candidates for transition from warfarin to direct oral anticoagulants. This study describes the outcomes of one hospital-based clinic location in the 3 months before and after COVID-19 became a significant concern in the New York City area. The primary outcome of time-in-therapeutic range (TTR) for patients receiving warfarin was 60.6 % and 65.8 % in the pre-COVID and post-COVID groups, respectively (p = 0.21). For secondary outcomes, there was no difference in percent of therapeutic INRs (51.5 % pre-COVID v. 44.8 % post-COVID, p = 0.75) or percent of INRs ≥ 4.5 (2.3 % pre-COVID v. 4 % post-COVID, p = 0.27). Based on the data reported in this study, the short-term changes implemented at TBHC's anticoagulation clinic did not appear to cause reductions in safety and efficacy of chronic warfarin therapy management.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19 , Drug Monitoring , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital , Pharmacists , Telemedicine , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Ambulatory Care , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Drug Substitution , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Male , Middle Aged , New York , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Warfarin/adverse effects
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