Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 23
Filter
1.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf ; 48(4): 214-221, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, warfarin users were required to complete in-person training in order to participate in approved international normalized ratio (INR) patient self-testing (PST) programs. To minimize in-person contact during the pandemic, a federal waiver of the in-person training requirement allowed new patients to begin PST after completing virtual training. However, it was uncertain whether such patients achieved comparable levels of INR control to patients receiving in-person training. METHODS: INR results for patients receiving virtual training upon PST commencement between April 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020, were compared to those of patients initiating PST with in-person training between April 1, 2019, and December 31, 2019. The primary outcome was the difference in warfarin time in therapeutic range (TTR) between the groups, with secondary outcomes including differences in the percentages of INR values within individually prescribed INR range and of critical INR values. RESULTS: The records of 33,683 patients were included in the analysis (13,568 in the "In-Person" sample; 20,115 in the "Virtual" sample). Patients in the Virtual sample achieved a TTR of 66.78%, compared to the In-Person sample (64.19%; absolute difference 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.50-2.68, p < 0.001). The TTR values were also statistically significantly higher in all subgroups evaluated across categories of patient age, gender, geography, and indication. Similarly favorable results were achieved for INR values in range and critical values. CONCLUSION: Virtual education for PST for warfarin therapy is effective and should continue to be an option for patients and providers throughout the pandemic, and possibly beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Warfarin , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , Self-Testing , Warfarin/therapeutic use
2.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 254, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of developing a stroke by 20%. AF related strokes are associated with greater morbidity. Historically, warfarin was the anticoagulant of choice for stroke prevention in patients with AF but lately patients are being switched or started on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). DOACs are promoted as safer alternatives to warfarin and it is expected that they will be associated with fewer challenges both for patients and healthcare professionals. This systematic narrative review aimed to explore perspectives of patients and professionals on medicines optimisation of oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists and DOACs in atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Prospero registration CRD42018091591. Systematic searches undertaken of research studies (qualitative and quantitative), published February 2018 to November 2020 from several databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Medline Via Ovid, CINHAL via Ebsco, and PubMED via NCBI) following PRISMA methodology. Data were organised using Covidence software. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the included studies and synthesized the findings (thematic analysis approach). RESULTS: Thirty-four studies were included. Studies were critically appraised using established critical appraisal tools (Qualsyst) and a risk of bias was assigned. Clinicians considered old age and the associated complexities such as co-morbidities and the increased potential for bleeding as potential barriers to optimising anticoagulation. Whereas patients' health and medication beliefs influenced adherence. Notably, structured patient support was important in enhancing safety and effective anticoagulation. For both patients and clinicians, confidence and experience of safe anticoagulation was influenced by the presence of co-morbidities,  poor knowledge and understanding of AF and the purpose of anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: Age, complex multimorbidity and polypharmacy influence prescribing, with DOACs being perceived to be safer than warfarin. This systematic narrative review suggests that interventions are needed to support patient self-management. There are residual anxieties associated with long term anticoagulation in the context of complexities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Humans , Stroke/prevention & control , Warfarin/therapeutic use
3.
OMICS ; 26(1): 35-50, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635804

ABSTRACT

Pharmacogenomics is universally relevant for worldwide modern therapeutics and yet needs further development in resource-limited countries. While there is an abundance of genetic association studies in controlled medical settings, there is a paucity of studies with a naturalistic design in real-life clinical practice in patients with comorbidities and under multiple drug treatment regimens. African patients are often burdened with communicable and noncommunicable comorbidities, yet the application of pharmacogenomics in African clinical settings remains limited. Using warfarin as a model, this study aims at minimizing gaps in precision/personalized medicine research in African clinical practice. We present, therefore, pharmacogenomic profiles of a cohort of 503 black Africans (n = 252) and Mixed Ancestry (n = 251) patients from Southern Africa, on warfarin and co-prescribed drugs in a naturalized noncontrolled environment. Seventy-three (n = 73) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 29 pharmacogenes were characterized using a combination of allelic discrimination, Sanger sequencing, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and Sequenom Mass Array. The common comorbidities were hypertension (43-46%), heart failure (39-45%), diabetes mellitus (18%), arrhythmia (25%), and HIV infection (15%). Accordingly, the most common co-prescribed drugs were antihypertensives, antiarrhythmic drugs, antidiabetics, and antiretroviral therapy. We observed marked variation in major pharmacogenes both at interethnic levels and within African subpopulations. The Mixed Ancestry group presented a profile of genetic variants reflecting their European, Asian, and African admixture. Precision medicine requires that African populations begin to capture their own pharmacogenetic SNPs as they cannot always infer with absolute certainty from Asian and European populations. In the current historical moment of the COVID-19 pandemic, we also underscore that the spectrum of drugs interacting with warfarin will likely increase, given the systemic and cardiovascular effects of COVID-19, and the anticipated influx of COVID-19 medicines in the near future. This observational clinical pharmacogenomics study of warfarin, together with past precision medicine research, collectively, lends strong support for incorporation of pharmacogenetic profiling in clinical settings in African patients for effective and safe administration of therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Pharmacogenetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Precision Medicine , SARS-CoV-2 , Warfarin/therapeutic use
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(24): e023235, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574529

ABSTRACT

Background Adherence to oral anticoagulation (OAC) is critical for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. However, the COVID-19 pandemic may have disrupted access to such therapy. We hypothesized that our analysis of a US nationally representative pharmacy claims database would identify increased incidence of lapses in OAC refills during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods and Results We identified individuals with atrial fibrillation prescribed OAC in 2018. We used pharmacy dispensing records to determine the incidence of 7-day OAC gaps and 15-day excess supply for each 30-day interval from January 1, 2019 to July 8, 2020. We constructed interrupted time series analyses to test changes in gaps and supply around the pandemic declaration by the World Health Organization (March 11, 2020), and whether such changes differed by medication (warfarin or direct OAC), prescription payment type, or prescriber specialty. We identified 1 301 074 individuals (47.5% women; 54% age ≥75 years). Immediately following the COVID-19 pandemic declaration, we observed a 14% decrease in 7-day OAC gaps and 56% increase in 15-day excess supply (both P<0.001). The increase in 15-day excess supply was more marked for direct OAC (69% increase) than warfarin users (35%; P<0.001); Medicare beneficiaries (62%) than those with commercial insurance (43%; P<0.001); and those prescribed OAC by a cardiologist (64%) rather than a primary care provider (48%; P<0.001). Conclusions Our analysis of nationwide claims data demonstrated increased OAC possession after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings may have been driven by waivers of early refill limits and patients' tendency to stockpile medications in the first weeks of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Medicare , Pandemics , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Warfarin/therapeutic use
5.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 592, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and Fontan physiology have each been associated with an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), however little is known about the risks and potential consequences of having both. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51 year old male with tricuspid atresia status post Fontan and extracardiac Glenn shunt, atrial flutter, and sinus sick syndrome presented with phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) of the left lower extremity in spite of supratherapeutic INR in the context of symptomatic COVID-10 pneumonia. He was treated with single session, catheter directed mechanical thrombectomy that was well-tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This report of acute PCD despite therapeutic anticoagulation with a Vitamin K antagonist, managed with emergent mechanical thrombectomy, calls to attention the importance of altered flow dynamics in COVID positive patients with Fontan circulation that may compound these independent risk factors for developing deep venous thrombosis with the potential for even higher morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fontan Procedure , Gangrene , Mechanical Thrombolysis , Postoperative Complications , Thrombophlebitis , Tricuspid Atresia , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Amputation/methods , Atrial Flutter/drug therapy , Atrial Flutter/etiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Fontan Procedure/adverse effects , Fontan Procedure/methods , Gangrene/etiology , Gangrene/surgery , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Lower Extremity/pathology , Lower Extremity/surgery , Male , Mechanical Thrombolysis/adverse effects , Mechanical Thrombolysis/methods , Middle Aged , Phlebography/methods , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/physiopathology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Sick Sinus Syndrome/diagnosis , Sick Sinus Syndrome/etiology , Thrombophlebitis/diagnosis , Thrombophlebitis/etiology , Thrombophlebitis/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , Tricuspid Atresia/etiology , Tricuspid Atresia/surgery
7.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 172, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolism has been reported as a consequence of severe COVID-19. Although warfarin is a commonly used anticoagulant, it acts by antagonising vitamin K, which is low in patients with severe COVID-19. To date, the clinical evidence on the impact of regular use of warfarin on COVID-19-related thromboembolism is lacking. METHODS: On behalf of NHS England, we conducted a population-based cohort study investigating the association between warfarin and COVID-19 outcomes compared with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). We used the OpenSAFELY platform to analyse primary care data and pseudonymously linked SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing data, hospital admissions and death records from England. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for COVID-19-related outcomes comparing warfarin with DOACs in people with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. We also conducted negative control outcome analyses (being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and non-COVID-19 death) to assess the potential impact of confounding. RESULTS: A total of 92,339 warfarin users and 280,407 DOAC users were included. We observed a lower risk of all outcomes associated with warfarin versus DOACs [testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, HR 0.73 (95% CI 0.68-0.79); COVID-19-related hospital admission, HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.83); COVID-19-related deaths, HR 0.74 (95% CI 0.66-0.83)]. A lower risk of negative control outcomes associated with warfarin versus DOACs was also observed [being tested for SARS-CoV-2, HR 0.80 (95% CI 0.79-0.81); non-COVID-19 deaths, HR 0.79 (95% CI 0.76-0.83)]. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study shows no evidence of harmful effects of warfarin on severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/virology , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , England/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(3): 626-632, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460438

ABSTRACT

Warfarin has been used as an anticoagulant by millions of patients due to its effectiveness, availability, and low cost. Evidence on the safe extension of international normalized ratio (INR) testing frequency remains an area of interest, especially during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to safely extend INR testing intervals in patients throughout a multisite, system-wide anticoagulation clinic. Updates were made to the pharmacist's collaborative practice agreement (CPA) and nurse protocol to optimize practice and allow INR testing interval extension up to a maximum of 8-weeks. The primary outcome was the change in duration between INR tests (INR testing interval) measured before and after providing staff education on clinic updates. The mean duration between INR tests (SD) was 23.69 days (11.29) in the pre-intervention period and 25.58 days (13.91) in the post-intervention period. During the COVID-19 pandemic (post2), intervals were extended further to 27.81 days (14.96), demonstrating a statistically significant increase in INR testing interval from pre-intervention to post-intervention and to post2 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A secondary outcome indicated the mean time in therapeutic range (SD) showed no significant difference in pre-intervention 70.11% (25.95) versus post-intervention of 69.76% (25.69) with a difference of - 0.35% (29.93) (p = 0.956) or versus the post2 of 68.82% (27.20) with a difference of - 1.29% (33.20) (p = 0.120). This study showed that changes to the CPA and protocol allowed for a significant increase in INR testing interval while simultaneously maintaining a mean time in therapeutic range > 60% for the clinic population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Warfarin , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , Warfarin/therapeutic use
9.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(5): 397-399, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428942

ABSTRACT

Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired clonal haematological disease characterized by complement-mediated haemolysis, bone marrow failure and venous thrombosis. Anticomplement therapy eculizumab improves survival and reduces complications. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high incidence of both venous and arterial thrombosis in hospitalized patients with pneumonia. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) as the presenting symptom of COVID-19 is a rare event. We describe a well-controlled PNH patient on eculizumab for more than 5 years who presented with DVT, while on warfarin, as the first sign of COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of DVT in a PNH patient with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Warfarin/therapeutic use
10.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 47(3): 407-410, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334480

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Favipiravir is a promising treatment candidate for managing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Warfarin has many drug interactions, but no interactions with favipiravir have been reported. CASE SUMMARY: Our patient was taking warfarin for deep vein thrombosis. The international normalized ratio (INR) was stable (1.65 to 2.0); however, it increased to 4.63 after administering favipiravir. The patient had no other factors justifying this change. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Favipiravir and warfarin might have previously unidentified drug interactions that elevated the INR. Therefore, INR must be closely monitored when they are concomitantly administered in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Warfarin , Amides , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Interactions , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Pyrazines , Warfarin/therapeutic use
13.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211021495, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277870

ABSTRACT

The treatment process of patients using warfarin is expected to be hindered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore we investigated whether the time in therapeutic range (TTR) and bleeding complications were affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. 355 patients using warfarin were included between March 2019 to March 2021. Demographic parameters, INR (international normalized ratio), and bleeding rates were recorded retrospectively. The TTR value was calculated using Rosendaal's method. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 12 years and 55% of them were female. The mean TTR value during the COVID-19 pandemic was lower than the pre-COVID-19 period (56 ± 21 vs 68 ± 21, P < 0.001). Among the patients, 41% had a lack of outpatient INR control. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 71 (20%) patients using VKA suffered bleeding. Among patients with bleeding, approximately 60% did not seek medical help and 6% of patients performed self-reduction of the VKA dose. During the COVID-19 pandemic, TTR values have decreased with the lack of monitoring. Furthermore, the majority of patients did not seek medical help even in case of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Bleeding Time , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Warfarin/pharmacology , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/psychology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Medication Adherence , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Self Medication , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Warfarin/adverse effects , Warfarin/therapeutic use
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 102, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic affecting all countries in the world. Italy has been particularly afflicted by the health emergency, and since the peak phase has passed, major concern regarding medium to long term complications due to COVID-19 is arising. Little is known in literature regarding thromboembolic complications once healed after COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old patient recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by pulmonary embolism (PE) came to the hospital for palpitations and chest pain. Although he was on treatment dose of direct oral anticoagulation (DOAC), massive recurrent PE was diagnosed. CONCLUSION: In the early post COVID-19 era, the question remains regarding the efficacy of DOACs in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Dabigatran/administration & dosage , Heparin/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Recurrence , Warfarin/therapeutic use
16.
J Appl Lab Med ; 6(4): 953-961, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have documented reduced access to patient care due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including access to diagnostic or screening tests, prescription medications, and treatment for an ongoing condition. In the context of clinical management for venous thromboembolism, this could result in suboptimal therapy with warfarin. We aimed to determine the impact of the pandemic on utilization of International Normalized Ratio (INR) testing and the percentage of high and low results. METHODS: INR data from 11 institutions were extracted to compare testing volume and the percentage of INR results ≥3.5 and ≤1.5 between a pre-pandemic period (January-June 2019, period 1) and a portion of the COVID-19 pandemic period (January-June 2020, period 2). The analysis was performed for inpatient and outpatient cohorts. RESULTS: Testing volumes showed relatively little change in January and February, followed by a significant decrease in March, April, and May, and then returned to baseline in June. Outpatient testing showed a larger percentage decrease in testing volume compared to inpatient testing. At 10 of the 11 study sites, we observed an increase in the percentage of abnormal high INR results as test volumes decreased, primarily among outpatients. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted INR testing among outpatients which may be attributable to several factors. Increased supratherapeutic INR results during the pandemic period when there was reduced laboratory utilization and access to care is concerning because of the risk of adverse bleeding events in this group of patients. This could be mitigated in the future by offering drive-through testing and/or widespread implementation of home INR monitoring.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , International Normalized Ratio/methods , Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Warfarin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
17.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 754-758, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118255

ABSTRACT

As a result of infection control regulations during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, anticoagulation clinics have been required to adjust their practices in order to continue providing safe and effective services for their patients. In accordance with a guidance document issued by the Anticoagulation Forum, The Brooklyn Hospital Center (TBHC) anticoagulation clinic in Brooklyn, New York implemented measures including telemedicine follow-ups instead of in-person clinic visits, extending the interval of INR testing, and reviewing eligible candidates for transition from warfarin to direct oral anticoagulants. This study describes the outcomes of one hospital-based clinic location in the 3 months before and after COVID-19 became a significant concern in the New York City area. The primary outcome of time-in-therapeutic range (TTR) for patients receiving warfarin was 60.6 % and 65.8 % in the pre-COVID and post-COVID groups, respectively (p = 0.21). For secondary outcomes, there was no difference in percent of therapeutic INRs (51.5 % pre-COVID v. 44.8 % post-COVID, p = 0.75) or percent of INRs ≥ 4.5 (2.3 % pre-COVID v. 4 % post-COVID, p = 0.27). Based on the data reported in this study, the short-term changes implemented at TBHC's anticoagulation clinic did not appear to cause reductions in safety and efficacy of chronic warfarin therapy management.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19 , Drug Monitoring , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital , Pharmacists , Telemedicine , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Ambulatory Care , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Drug Substitution , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Male , Middle Aged , New York , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Warfarin/adverse effects
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054633

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a 38-year-old man with a history of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension on therapeutic anticoagulation and recent hospitalisation for COVID-19 disease who was hospitalised for recurrent acute pulmonary embolism despite therapeutic anticoagulation with warfarin (International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 3.0). Our case highlights the hypercoagulable state associated with COVID-19 disease and the absence of standardised approaches to anticoagulation treatment for this population.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Adult , Chronic Disease , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL