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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 782296, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572344

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Case investigation and contact tracing are important tools to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2, particularly when implemented efficiently. Our objective was to evaluate participation in and timeliness of COVID-19 contact tracing and whether these measures changed over time. Methods: We retrospectively assessed COVID-19 case investigation and contact tracing surveillance data from the Washington State centralized program for August 1-31, 2020 and October 1-31, 2020. We combined SARS-CoV-2 testing reports with contact tracing data to compare completeness, reporting of contacts, and program timeliness. Results: For August and October respectively, 4,600 (of 12,521) and 2,166 (of 16,269) individuals with COVID-19 were referred to the state program for case investigation. Investigators called 100% of referred individuals; 65% (August) and 76% (October) were interviewed. Of individuals interviewed, 33% reported contacts in August and 45% in October, with only mild variation by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and urbanicity. In August, 992 individuals with COVID-19 reported a total of 2,584 contacts (mean, 2.6), and in October, 739 individuals reported 2,218 contacts (mean, 3.0). Among contacts, 86% and 78% participated in interviews for August and October. The median time elapsed from specimen collection to contact interview was 4 days in August and 3 days in October, and from symptom onset to contact interview was 7 days in August and 6 days in October. Conclusions: While contact tracing improved with time, the proportion of individuals disclosing contacts remained below 50% and differed minimally by demographic characteristics. The longest time interval occurred between symptom onset and test result notification. Improving elicitation of contacts and timeliness of contact tracing may further decrease SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Contact Tracing , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
2.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E9-E15, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526227

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Shortly after the first COVID-19 case in the United States was identified in Washington, the Washington State Department of Health (WA DOH) determined that real-time knowledge of scientific findings related to SARS-CoV-2 was critical for an effective response. Epidemiologists at the WA DOH established the Daily Literature Situation Report (Lit Rep), within the agency's incident management team, to support public health and state leaders in evidence-based decision making. However, from January to May, the scale of the pandemic response and daily volume of emerging information grew beyond the capacity of the WA DOH epidemiology team tasked with gathering, reviewing, summarizing, and disseminating it daily. OBJECTIVE: To ensure public health leaders maintained awareness of the rapidly evolving scientific literature during the pandemic to support evidence-based practice. DESIGN: The WA DOH contracted the University of Washington (UW) Alliance for Pandemic Preparedness to assemble a team of faculty and students to continue producing the Lit Rep. MAIN OUTCOME: In addition to the daily Lit Rep, the UW team developed in-depth reports addressing questions from public health leadership and further evolved the methodology for the daily reports to support long-term sustainability and broader accessibility. RESULTS: Throughout its existence, the Lit Rep had summarized more than 4300 articles from more than 150 000 citations and had more than 5600 subscribers from public health practice, academia, and the general public, both domestic and international. CONCLUSIONS: The flexible Lit Rep model sets a standard for responding to emerging public health threats and communicating complex scientific information to government leaders, public health staff, and other interested parties. The WA DOH and the UW have exemplified how a mutually beneficial partnership can be established to support more effective public health practice based on real-time evidence both during a crisis and potentially for future public health challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Washington
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1608-1612, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524680

ABSTRACT

Population-based rates of infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and related health care utilization help determine estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness and averted illnesses, especially since the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant began circulating in June 2021. Among members aged ≥12 years of a large integrated health care delivery system in Oregon and Washington, incidence of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations were calculated by COVID-19 vaccination status, vaccine product, age, race, and ethnicity. Infection after full vaccination was defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test result ≥14 days after completion of an authorized COVID-19 vaccination series.* During the July-September 2021 surveillance period, SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred among 4,146 of 137,616 unvaccinated persons (30.1 per 1,000 persons) and 3,009 of 344,848 fully vaccinated persons (8.7 per 1,000). Incidence was higher among unvaccinated persons than among vaccinated persons across all demographic strata. Unvaccinated persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more than twice as likely to receive ED care (18.5%) or to be hospitalized (9.0%) than were vaccinated persons with COVID-19 (8.1% and 3.9%, respectively). The crude mortality rate was also higher among unvaccinated patients (0.43 per 1,000) than in fully vaccinated patients (0.06 per 1,000). These data support CDC recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination, including additional and booster doses, to protect individual persons and communities against COVID-19, including illness and hospitalization caused by the Delta variant (1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Oregon/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Washington/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21675, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504246

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 led to death of millions of people worldwide. To stave off the spread of the virus, the authorities in the US employed different strategies, including the mask mandate order issued by the states' governors. In the current work, we defined a parameter called average death ratio as the monthly average of the number of daily deaths to the monthly average number of daily cases. We utilized survey data to quantify people's abidance by the mask mandate order. Additionally, we implicitly addressed the extent to which people abide by the mask mandate order, which may depend on some parameters such as population, income, and education level. Using different machine learning classification algorithms, we investigated how the decrease or increase in death ratio for the counties in the US West Coast correlates with the input parameters. The results showed that for the majority of counties, the mask mandate order decreased the death ratio, reflecting the effectiveness of such a preventive measure on the West Coast. Additionally, the changes in the death ratio demonstrated a noticeable correlation with the socio-economic condition of each county. Moreover, the results showed a promising classification accuracy score as high as 90%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/trends , California , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Policy , Humans , Machine Learning , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Oregon , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Washington
5.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S3): S215-S223, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496725

ABSTRACT

Public Health 3.0 approaches are critical for monitoring disparities in economic, social, and overall health impacts following the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated policy changes to slow community spread. Timely, cross-sector data as identified using this approach help decisionmakers identify changes, track racial disparities, and address unintended consequences during a pandemic. We applied a monitoring and evaluation framework that combined policy changes with timely, relevant cross-sector data and community review. Indicators covered unemployment, basic needs, family violence, education, childcare, access to health care, and mental, physical, and behavioral health. In response to increasing COVID-19 cases, nonpharmaceutical intervention strategies were implemented in March 2020 in King County, Washington. By December 2020, 554 000 unemployment claims were filed. Social service calls increased 100%, behavioral health crisis calls increased 25%, and domestic violence calls increased 25%, with disproportionate impact on communities of color. This framework can be replicated by local jurisdictions to inform and address racial inequities in ongoing COVID-19 mitigation and recovery. Cross-sector collaboration between public health and sectors addressing the social determinants of health are an essential first step to have an impact on long-standing racial inequities. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(S3):S215-S223. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306422).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Public Health , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mental Health , Population Surveillance , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Washington
6.
J Pediatr ; 238: 317-320, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481892

ABSTRACT

Reports have emerged of myocarditis and pericarditis predominantly after the second dose of the coronavirus disease messenger ribonucleic acid vaccine. We describe 13 patients aged 12-17 years who presented with chest pain within 1 week after their second dose of the Pfizer vaccine and were found to have elevated serum troponin levels and evidence of myopericarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Washington/epidemiology
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2124946, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460117

ABSTRACT

Importance: Machine learning could be used to predict the likelihood of diagnosis and severity of illness. Lack of COVID-19 patient data has hindered the data science community in developing models to aid in the response to the pandemic. Objectives: To describe the rapid development and evaluation of clinical algorithms to predict COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization using patient data by citizen scientists, provide an unbiased assessment of model performance, and benchmark model performance on subgroups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This diagnostic and prognostic study operated a continuous, crowdsourced challenge using a model-to-data approach to securely enable the use of regularly updated COVID-19 patient data from the University of Washington by participants from May 6 to December 23, 2020. A postchallenge analysis was conducted from December 24, 2020, to April 7, 2021, to assess the generalizability of models on the cumulative data set as well as subgroups stratified by age, sex, race, and time of COVID-19 test. By December 23, 2020, this challenge engaged 482 participants from 90 teams and 7 countries. Main Outcomes and Measures: Machine learning algorithms used patient data and output a score that represented the probability of patients receiving a positive COVID-19 test result or being hospitalized within 21 days after receiving a positive COVID-19 test result. Algorithms were evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and area under the precision recall curve (AUPRC) scores. Ensemble models aggregating models from the top challenge teams were developed and evaluated. Results: In the analysis using the cumulative data set, the best performance for COVID-19 diagnosis prediction was an AUROC of 0.776 (95% CI, 0.775-0.777) and an AUPRC of 0.297, and for hospitalization prediction, an AUROC of 0.796 (95% CI, 0.794-0.798) and an AUPRC of 0.188. Analysis on top models submitting to the challenge showed consistently better model performance on the female group than the male group. Among all age groups, the best performance was obtained for the 25- to 49-year age group, and the worst performance was obtained for the group aged 17 years or younger. Conclusions and Relevance: In this diagnostic and prognostic study, models submitted by citizen scientists achieved high performance for the prediction of COVID-19 testing and hospitalization outcomes. Evaluation of challenge models on demographic subgroups and prospective data revealed performance discrepancies, providing insights into the potential bias and limitations in the models.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Benchmarking , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Decision Rules , Crowdsourcing , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Machine Learning , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Severity of Illness Index , Washington/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(5 Suppl 1): S16-S25, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453987

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In 2019, the District of Columbia recorded a 20-year low rate in new HIV infections but also had near-record numbers of gonorrhea and chlamydia infections. District of Columbia Department of Health has supported numerous forms of community-based in-person screening but not direct at-home testing. METHODS: In summer 2020, the District of Columbia Department of Health launched GetCheckedDC.org for District of Columbia residents to order home-based oral HIV antibody test and urogenital, pharyngeal, and rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea tests. Initial and follow-up surveys were completed by individuals for both test modalities. RESULTS: A retrospective analysis was conducted for the first 5 months of the program. During that period, 1,089 HIV and 1,262 gonorrhea and chlamydia tests (535 urogenital, 520 pharyngeal, 207 rectal) were ordered by 1,245 District of Columbia residents. The average age was 33.1 (median=31, range=14-78) years; 51.6% of requestors identified as Black; 39.3% identified as men who have sex with men; 16.2% reported no form of insurance; and 8.1% and 10.4% reported never being testing for HIV and sexually transmitted infections, respectively. More than half of people requesting tests reported convenience and COVID-19 as the reasons. In total, 39.5% of sexually transmitted infection tests were returned; 7.22% of people testing for sexually transmitted infections received a positive result, and 10.35% of rectal tests were positive. No individuals reported a positive HIV self-test that was confirmed; 98.5% of respondents said that they would recommend the HIV self-test kit. CONCLUSIONS: Mail-out HIV and sexually transmitted infection testing was readily taken up among high-priority demographics within a diverse, urban, high-morbidity jurisdiction during the COVID-19 pandemic. Extragenital testing for gonorrhea and chlamydia should be included in all at-home screening tests given the high positivity rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adult , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , District of Columbia/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Postal Service , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5931-5941, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432428

ABSTRACT

Real-time epidemiological tracking of variants of concern (VOCs) can help limit the spread of more contagious forms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as those containing the N501Y mutation. Typically, genetic sequencing is required to be able to track VOCs in real-time. However, sequencing can take time and may not be accessible in all laboratories. Genotyping by RT-ddPCR offers an alternative to rapidly detect VOCs through discrimination of specific alleles such as N501Y, which is associated with increased transmissibility and virulence. Here we describe the first cases of the B.1.1.7 lineage of SARS-CoV-2 detected in Washington State by using a combination of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), RT-ddPCR, and next-generation sequencing. We initially screened 1035 samples positive for SARS-CoV-2 by our CDC-based laboratory-developed assay using ThermoFisher's multiplex RT-PCR COVID-19 assay over four weeks from late December 2020 to early January 2021. S gene target failures (SGTF) were subsequently assayed by RT-ddPCR to confirm four mutations within the S gene associated with the B.1.1.7 lineage: a deletion at amino acid (AA) 69-70 (ACATGT), deletion at AA 145, (TTA), N501Y mutation (TAT), and S982A mutation (GCA). All four targets were detected in two specimens; follow-up sequencing revealed a total of 9 mutations in the S gene and phylogenetic clustering within the B.1.1.7 lineage. Next, we continued screening samples for SGTF detecting 23 additional B.1.1.7 variants by RT-ddPCR and confirmed by sequencing. As VOCs become increasingly prevalent, molecular diagnostic tools like RT-ddPCR can be utilized to quickly, accurately, and sensitively distinguish more contagious lineages of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Alleles , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genotype , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Time Factors , Washington/epidemiology
12.
Am J Ind Med ; 64(11): 941-951, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: App-based drivers face work disruptions and infection risk during a pandemic due to the nature of their work, interactions with the public, and lack of workplace protections. Limited occupational health research has focused on their experiences. METHODS: We surveyed 100 app-based drivers in Seattle, WA to assess risk perceptions, supports, and controls received from the company that employs them, sources of trust, stress, job satisfaction, COVID-19 infection status, and how the pandemic had changed their work hours. Data were summarized descriptively and with simple regression models. We complemented this with qualitative interviews to better understand controls and policies enacted during COVID-19, and barriers and facilitators to their implementation. RESULTS: Drivers expressed very high levels of concern for exposure and infection (86%-97% were "very concerned" for all scenarios). Only 31% of drivers reported receiving an appropriate mask from the company for which they drive. Stress (assessed via PSS-4) was significantly higher in drivers who reported having had COVID-19, and also significantly higher in respondents with lower reported job satisfaction. Informants frequently identified supports such as unemployment benefits and peer outreach among the driver community as ways to ensure that drivers could access available benefits during COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: App-based drivers received few protections from the company that employed them, and had high fear of exposure and infection at work. There is increased need for health-supportive policies and protections for app-based drivers. The most effective occupational and public health regulations would cover employees who may not have a traditional employer-employee relationship.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Safety Management/organization & administration , Workplace/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Occupational Diseases/virology , Occupational Health , Organizational Culture , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation , Washington , Workplace/organization & administration , Young Adult
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(9): 2513-2515, 2020 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387735
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(17): 521-522, 2020 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389843

ABSTRACT

In the United States, approximately 1.4 million persons access emergency shelter or transitional housing each year (1). These settings can pose risks for communicable disease spread. In late March and early April 2020, public health teams responded to clusters (two or more cases in the preceding 2 weeks) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in residents and staff members from five homeless shelters in Boston, Massachusetts (one shelter); San Francisco, California (one); and Seattle, Washington (three). The investigations were performed in coordination with academic partners, health care providers, and homeless service providers. Investigations included reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing at commercial and public health laboratories for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, over approximately 1-2 weeks for residents and staff members at the five shelters. During the same period, the team in Seattle, Washington, also tested residents and staff members at 12 shelters where a single case in each had been identified. In Atlanta, Georgia, a team proactively tested residents and staff members at two shelters with no known COVID-19 cases in the preceding 2 weeks. In each city, the objective was to test all shelter residents and staff members at each assessed facility, irrespective of symptoms. Persons who tested positive were transported to hospitals or predesignated community isolation areas.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cities , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378380

ABSTRACT

Survivors' considerations for re-housing following intimate partner violence (IPV) are understudied despite likely neighborhood-level influences on women's safety. We assess housing priorities and predictors of re-housing location among recent IPV survivors (n = 54) in Rapid Re-housing (RRH) in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area. Choropleth maps depict residential location relative to census tract characteristics (neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) and residential segregation) derived from American Community Survey data (2013-2017). Linear regression measured associations between women's individual, economic, and social factors and NDI and segregation. In-depth interviews (n = 16) contextualize quantitative findings. Overall, survivors re-housed in significantly more deprived and racially segregated census tracts within their respective regions. In adjusted models, trouble securing housing (B = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.13, 1.34), comfortability with proximity to loved ones (B = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.48), and being unsure (vs unlikely) about IPV risk (B = -0.76, 95% CI: -1.39, -0.14) were significantly associated with NDI. Economic dependence on an abusive partner (B = -0.31, 95% CI: -0.56, -0.06) predicted re-housing in segregated census tracts; occasional stress about housing affordability (B = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.75) predicted re-housing in less segregated census tracts. Qualitative results contextualize economic (affordability), safety, and social (familiarity) re-housing considerations and process impacts (inspection delays). Structural racism, including discriminatory housing practices, intersect with gender, exacerbating challenges among survivors of severe IPV. This mixed-methods study further highlights the significant economic tradeoffs for safety and stability, where the prioritization of safety may exacerbate economic devastation for IPV survivors. Findings will inform programmatic policies for RRH practices among survivors.


Subject(s)
Housing , Intimate Partner Violence , Baltimore , Female , Humans , Survivors , Washington
17.
Healthc (Amst) ; 9(3): 100560, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375952

ABSTRACT

Across the US, states have initiated reforms to improve population health by coordinating efforts among health care stakeholders and addressing health-related social needs. Washington State's Medicaid Transformation Project (MTP), launched in 2017, seeks to achieve these goals by supporting the state's Accountable Communities of Health, independent organizations that convene and coordinate the health care and social service sectors in nine regions of the state. MTP places Medicaid funds in the hands of ACHs for the purpose of building health system capacity and carrying out health improvement projects. It includes new supports for aging, housing and employment, and substance use disorder treatment. Early lessons from MTP are emerging that can inform health system transformation efforts in other states. MTP demonstrates the advantages of creating new organizations to serve as regional conveners and coordinators. However, the introduction of new entities will require states to clearly articulate the varying roles of these entities and existing managed care organizations and state agencies. States will need to balance the tradeoffs of local control versus centralization. For example, it may be optimal to standardize electronic health information exchanges but allow organizations flexibility to adopt other interventions that match their local context. In addition, states should build treatment and comparison groups into their program designs in order to generate high-quality evidence about the impact of new health care delivery and payment models.


Subject(s)
Medicaid , Social Determinants of Health , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Social Work , United States , Washington
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2119355, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355857

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although people receiving maintenance dialysis have limited life expectancy and a high burden of comorbidity, relatively few studies have examined spirituality and religious beliefs among members of this population. Objective: To examine whether there is an association between the importance of religious or spiritual beliefs and care preferences and palliative care needs in people who receive dialysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among adults who were undergoing maintenance dialysis at 31 facilities in Seattle, Washington, and Nashville, Tennessee, between April 22, 2015, and October 2, 2018. The survey included a series of questions assessing patients' knowledge, preferences, values, and expectations related to end-of-life care. Data were analyzed from February 12, 2020, to April 21, 2021. Exposures: The importance of religious or spiritual beliefs was ascertained by asking participants to respond to this statement: "My religious or spiritual beliefs are what really lie behind my whole approach to life." Response options were definitely true, tends to be true, tends not to be true, or definitely not true. Main Outcomes and Measurements: Outcome measures were based on self-reported engagement in advance care planning, resuscitation preferences, values regarding life prolongation, preferred place of death, decision-making preference, thoughts or discussion about hospice or stopping dialysis, prognostic expectations, and palliative care needs. Results: A total of 937 participants were included in the cohort, of whom the mean (SD) age was 62.8 (13.8) years and 524 (55.9%) were men. Overall, 435 (46.4%) participants rated the statement about religious or spiritual beliefs as definitely true, 230 (24.6%) rated it as tends to be true, 137 (14.6%) rated it as tends not to be true, and 135 (14.4%) rated it as definitely not true. Participants for whom these beliefs were more important were more likely to prefer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (estimated probability for definitely true: 69.8% [95% CI, 66.5%-73.2%]; tends to be true: 60.8% [95% CI, 53.4%-68.3%]; tends not to be true: 61.6% [95% CI, 53.6%-69.6%]; and definitely not true: 60.6% [95% CI, 52.5%-68.6%]; P for trend = .003) and mechanical ventilation (estimated probability for definitely true: 42.6% [95% CI, 38.1%-47.0%]; tends to be true: 33.5% [95% CI, 25.9%-41.2%]; tends not to be true: 35.1% [95% CI, 27.2%-42.9%]; and definitely not true: 27.9% [95% CI, 19.6%-36.1%]; P for trend = .002) and to prefer a shared role in decision-making (estimated probability for definitely true: 41.6% [95% CI, 37.7%-45.5%]; tends to be true: 35.4% [95% CI, 29.0%-41.8%]; tends not to be true: 36.0% [95% CI, 26.7%-45.2%]; and definitely not true: 23.8% [95% CI, 17.3%-30.3%]; P for trend = .001) and were less likely to have thought or spoken about stopping dialysis. These participants were no less likely to have engaged in advance care planning, to value relief of pain and discomfort, to prefer to die at home, to have ever thought or spoken about hospice, and to have unmet palliative care needs and had similar prognostic expectations. Conclusions and Relevance: The finding that religious or spiritual beliefs were important to most study participants suggests the value of an integrative approach that addresses these beliefs in caring for people who receive dialysis.


Subject(s)
Patient Preference , Renal Dialysis , Self Report , Terminal Care/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Religion , Spirituality , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tennessee , Washington
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