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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(4): 865-868, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261126

ABSTRACT

We sequenced 54 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) genomes collected during 2021-22 and 2022-23 outbreaks in Washington, USA, to determine the origin of increased RSV cases. Detected RSV strains have been spreading for >10 years, suggesting a role for diminished population immunity from low RSV exposure during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Humans , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Genomics
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(11): 283-287, 2023 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258620

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can lead to severe outcomes in children (1). Vaccination decreases risk for COVID-19 illness, severe disease, and death (2). On December 13, 2020, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccination for persons aged ≥16 years, with expansion on May 12, 2021, to children and adolescents (children) aged 12-15 years, and on November 2, 2021, to children aged 5-11 years (3). As of March 8, 2023, COVID-19 vaccination coverage among school-aged children remained low nationwide, with 61.7% of children aged 12-17 years and approximately one third (32.7%) of those aged 5-11 years having completed the primary series (3). Intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine and vaccination coverage vary by demographic characteristics, including race and ethnicity and socioeconomic status (4-6). Seattle Public Schools (SPS) implemented a program to increase COVID-19 vaccination coverage during the 2021-22 school year, focusing on children aged 5-11 years during November 2021-June 2022, with an added focus on populations with low vaccine coverage during January 2022-June 2022.† The program included strategic messaging, school-located vaccination clinics, and school-led community engagement. Vaccination data from the Washington State Immunization Information System (WAIIS) were analyzed to examine disparities in COVID-19 vaccination by demographic and school characteristics and trends over time. In December 2021, 56.5% of all SPS students, 33.7% of children aged 5-11 years, and 81.3% of children aged 12-18 years had completed a COVID-19 primary vaccination series. By June 2022, overall series completion had increased to 80.3% and was 74.0% and 86.6% among children aged 5-11 years and 12-18 years, respectively. School-led vaccination programs can leverage community partnerships and relationships with families to improve COVID-19 vaccine access and coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Child , Adolescent , Humans , United States , Washington/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Students
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(12): 309-312, 2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282422

ABSTRACT

During 2014-2020, no tuberculosis (TB) cases were reported within the Washington state prison system. However, during July 2021-June 2022, 25 TB cases were reported among persons incarcerated or formerly incarcerated in two Washington state prisons. Phylogenetic analyses of whole genome sequencing data indicated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from all 11 patients with culture-confirmed TB were closely related, suggesting that these cases represented a single outbreak. The median infectious period for 12 patients who were considered likely contagious was 170 days. As of November 15, 2022, the Washington State Department of Corrections (WADOC) and Washington State Department of Health (WADOH), with technical assistance from CDC, had identified 3,075 contacts among incarcerated residents and staff members at five state prisons, and 244 contacts without a known TB history received a diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI). Persons who were evaluated for TB disease were isolated; those receiving a diagnosis of TB then initiated antituberculosis therapy. Persons with LTBI were offered treatment to prevent progression to TB disease. This ongoing TB outbreak is the largest in Washington in 20 years. Suspension of annual TB screening while limited resources were redirected toward the COVID-19 response resulted in delayed case detection that facilitated TB transmission. In addition, fear of isolation might discourage residents and staff members from reporting symptoms, which likely also leads to delayed TB diagnoses. Continued close collaboration between WADOC and WADOH is needed to end this outbreak and prevent future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Latent Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Humans , Prisons , Washington/epidemiology , Phylogeny , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 193, 2023 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Presence of at least one underlying health condition (UHC) is positively associated with severe COVID-19, but there is limited research examining this association by age group, particularly among young adults. METHODS: We examined age-stratified associations between any UHC and COVID-19-associated hospitalization using a retrospective cohort study of electronic health record data from the University of Washington Medicine healthcare system for adult patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test from February 29, 2020, to March 13, 2021. Any UHC was defined as documented diagnosis of at least one UHC identified by the CDC as a potential risk factor for severe COVID-19. Adjusting for sex, age, race and ethnicity, and health insurance, we estimated risk ratios (aRRs) and risk differences (aRDs), overall and by age group (18-39, 40-64, and 65 + years). RESULTS: Among patients aged 18-39 (N = 3,249), 40-64 (N = 2,840), 65 + years (N = 1,363), and overall (N = 7,452), 57.5%, 79.4%, 89.4%, and 71.7% had at least one UHC, respectively. Overall, 4.4% of patients experienced COVID-19-associated hospitalization. For all age groups, the risk of COVID-19-associated hospitalization was greater for patients with any UHC vs. those without (18-39: 2.2% vs. 0.4%; 40-64: 5.6% vs. 0.3%; 65 + : 12.2% vs. 2.8%; overall: 5.9% vs. 0.6%). The aRR comparing patients with vs. those without UHCs was notably higher for patients aged 40-64 years (aRR [95% CI] for 18-39: 4.3 [1.8, 10.0]; 40-64: 12.9 [3.2, 52.5]; 65 + : 3.1 [1.2, 8.2]; overall: 5.3 [3.0, 9.6]). The aRDs increased across age groups (aRD [95% CI] per 1,000 SARS-CoV-2-positive persons for 18-39: 10 [2, 18]; 40-64: 43 [33, 54]; 65 + : 84 [51, 116]; overall: 28 [21, 35]). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with UHCs are at significantly increased risk of COVID-19-associated hospitalization regardless of age. Our findings support the prevention of severe COVID-19 in adults with UHCs in all age groups and in older adults aged 65 + years as ongoing local public health priorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Young Adult , Humans , Aged , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Washington/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Risk Factors
5.
Transfusion ; 60(5): 908-911, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first coronavirus (COVID-19) case was reported in United States in the state of Washington, approximately 3 months after the outbreak in Wuhan, China. Three weeks later, the US federal government declared the pandemic a national emergency. The number of confirmed COVID-19 positive cases increased rather rapidly and changed routine daily activities of the community. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This brief report describes the response from the hospital, the regional blood center, and the hospital-based transfusion services to the events that took place in the community during the initial phases of the pandemic. RESULTS: In Washington State, the first week of March started with four confirmed cases and ended with 150; by the end of the second week of March there were more than 700 cases of confirmed COVID-19. During the first week, blood donations dropped significantly. Blood units provided from blood centers of nonaffected areas of the country helped keep inventory stable and allow for routine hospital operations. The hospital-based transfusion service began prospective triaging of blood orders to monitor and prioritize blood usage. In the second week, blood donations recovered, and the hospital postponed elective procedures to ensure staff and personal protective equipment were appropriate for the care of critical patients. CONCLUSION: As community activities are disrupted and hospital activities switch from routine operations to pandemic focused and urgent care oriented, the blood supply and usage requires a number of transformations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Transfusion , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Hospital Planning , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(2): 242-251, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198462

ABSTRACT

Genomic data provides useful information for public health practice, particularly when combined with epidemiologic data. However, sampling bias is a concern because inferences from nonrandom data can be misleading. In March 2021, the Washington State Department of Health, USA, partnered with submitting and sequencing laboratories to establish sentinel surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 genomic data. We analyzed available genomic and epidemiologic data during presentinel and sentinel periods to assess representativeness and timeliness of availability. Genomic data during the presentinel period was largely unrepresentative of all COVID-19 cases. Data available during the sentinel period improved representativeness for age, death from COVID-19, outbreak association, long-term care facility-affiliated status, and geographic coverage; timeliness of data availability and captured viral diversity also improved. Hospitalized cases were underrepresented, indicating a need to increase inpatient sampling. Our analysis emphasizes the need to understand and quantify sampling bias in phylogenetic studies and continue evaluation and improvement of public health surveillance systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology , Sentinel Surveillance , Phylogeny , Genomics
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2425-2434, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089724

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 likely emerged from an animal reservoir. However, the frequency of and risk factors for interspecies transmission remain unclear. We conducted a community-based study in Idaho, USA, of pets in households that had >1 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans. Among 119 dogs and 57 cats, clinical signs consistent with SARS-CoV-2 were reported for 20 dogs (21%) and 19 cats (39%). Of 81 dogs and 32 cats sampled, 40% of dogs and 43% of cats were seropositive, and 5% of dogs and 8% of cats were PCR positive. This discordance might be caused by delays in sampling. Respondents commonly reported close human‒animal contact and willingness to take measures to prevent transmission to their pets. Reported preventive measures showed a slightly protective but nonsignificant trend for both illness and seropositivity in pets. Sharing of beds and bowls had slight harmful effects, reaching statistical significance for sharing bowls and seropositivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Humans , Animals , Dogs , Cats , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Idaho/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Pets , Cat Diseases/epidemiology
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2343-2347, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054907

ABSTRACT

To determine the epidemiology of human parainfluenza virus in homeless shelters during the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed data and sequences from respiratory specimens collected in 23 shelters in Washington, USA, during 2019-2021. Two clusters in children were genetically similar by shelter of origin. Shelter-specific interventions are needed to reduce these infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ill-Housed Persons , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Washington/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2338-2341, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054904

ABSTRACT

A SARS-CoV-2 P.1 (Gamma) variant outbreak occurred at a skilled nursing facility in Washington, USA, in April 2021. Effectiveness of 2 doses of mRNA vaccines against P.1 infection among residents in this outbreak was 75.0% (95% CI 44.5%-88.7%), similar to effectiveness for other pre-Delta variants among long-term care residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Washington/epidemiology , Vaccine Efficacy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control
10.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(4): 334-343, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051746

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Despite the massive scale of COVID-19 case investigation and contact tracing (CI/CT) programs operating worldwide, the evidence supporting the intervention's public health impact is limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Public Health-Seattle & King County (PHSKC) CI/CT program, including its reach, timeliness, effect on isolation and quarantine (I&Q) adherence, and potential to mitigate pandemic-related hardships. DESIGN: This program evaluation used descriptive statistics to analyze surveillance records, case and contact interviews, referral records, and survey data provided by a sample of cases who had recently ended isolation. SETTING: The PHSKC is one of the largest governmental local health departments in the United States. It serves more than 2.2 million people who reside in Seattle and 38 other municipalities. PARTICIPANTS: King County residents who were diagnosed with COVID-19 between July 2020 and June 2021. INTERVENTION: The PHSKC integrated COVID-19 CI/CT with prevention education and service provision. RESULTS: The PHSKC CI/CT team interviewed 42 900 cases (82% of cases eligible for CI/CT), a mean of 6.1 days after symptom onset and 3.4 days after SARS-CoV-2 testing. Cases disclosed the names and addresses of 10 817 unique worksites (mean = 0.8/interview) and 11 432 other recently visited locations (mean = 0.5/interview) and provided contact information for 62 987 household members (mean = 2.7/interview) and 14 398 nonhousehold contacts (mean = 0.3/interview). The CI/CT team helped arrange COVID-19 testing for 5650 contacts, facilitated grocery delivery for 7253 households, and referred 9127 households for financial assistance. End of I&Q Survey participants (n = 304, 54% of sampled) reported self-notifying an average of 4 nonhousehold contacts and 69% agreed that the information and referrals provided by the CI/CT team helped them stay in isolation. CONCLUSIONS: In the 12-month evaluation period, CI/CT reached 42 611 households and identified thousands of exposure venues. The timing of CI/CT relative to infectiousness and difficulty eliciting nonhousehold contacts may have attenuated the intervention's effect. Through promotion of I&Q guidance and services, CI/CT can help mitigate pandemic-related hardships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Contact Tracing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Washington/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997628

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the associated mitigation measures to reduce the spread of disease affected the social, economic, and overall health of individuals. Quantitative administrative datasets typically did not contain demographic information that allowed for reporting or analysis of the impacts of COVID-19 on people living with disabilities. Understanding the experiences of this population during the pandemic can inform the design of public health responses that are more robust and better connected to community. This paper describes a qualitative participatory study with a diverse sample of people living with disabilities in King County, WA. Through 2 listening sessions and 35 semi-structured interviews, it examines what impacts COVID-19 brought for people living with disabilities; elucidates the supports that were helpful in addressing COVID-19 impacts; examines inequities faced by the disability community; and sheds light on how to engage with this community to inform the public health emergency response. The process, protocols, findings, and lessons learned are replicable by other local health departments and could be incorporated as part of routine data collection and considered for future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Washington/epidemiology
12.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(8): 642-648, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973311

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study characterizes determinants of stress, depression, quality of life, and intent to leave among emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in the Puget Sound region, Washington, during the COVID-19 pandemic and identifies areas for intervention on these outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey measured stress, depression, quality of life, and intent to leave among EMTs ( N = 123). Regression models were developed for these outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 23.8% of respondents were very likely to leave their position in the next 6 months. Job demands predicted stress and depression, and financial security predicted stress and quality of life. Intent to leave was predicted by stress, manager support, and length of employment. CONCLUSIONS: Increased exposure to hazards has impacted EMT mental health. Emergency medical technicians are vital to healthcare, so improving EMT health and well-being is important, as attrition during a pandemic could impact public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Technicians , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Technicians/psychology , Employment , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Washington/epidemiology
13.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2_suppl): 96S-100S, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Smartphone-based digital exposure notification (EN) tools were introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic to supplement strained case investigation and contact tracing efforts. We examined the influence of an EN tool implemented in Washington State, WA Notify, on user engagement in behaviors that protect against COVID-19 transmission. METHODS: From January 25 through June 30, 2021, we administered 2 surveys to WA Notify users who received notification of a possible COVID-19 exposure. The initial survey, sent when users received a notification, focused on intent to engage in protective behaviors. The follow-up survey captured data on self-reported actual engagement in protective behaviors and contact by a public health contact tracer. RESULTS: Of 1507 WA Notify users who completed the initial survey, 40.1% (n = 604) reported intending to seek COVID-19 testing and 67.1% (n = 1011) intended to watch for COVID-19 symptoms. Of 407 respondents to the follow-up survey, 57.5% (n = 234) reported getting tested and 84.3% (n = 343) reported watching for COVID-19 symptoms. Approximately 84% (n = 1266) of respondents to the initial survey received a notification from WA Notify before being reached by public health contact tracers; on follow-up, 42.5% (n = 173) of respondents reported never being contacted by public health. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that WA Notify users may initiate protective behaviors earlier than nonusers who will not know of an exposure until notified by public health or by a known contact. Digital EN tools may be a valuable addition to existing public health outbreak investigation and response activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Notification , Washington/epidemiology
14.
Public Health Rep ; 137(5): 841-848, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Appropriate face covering use at public venues can help mitigate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the absence of widespread vaccination and provide protection when viral variants become more infectious. The objective of this study was to evaluate compliance with a statewide face mask mandate by examining trends in face covering use in publicly accessible spaces in King County, Washington. METHODS: From November 27, 2020, through May 11, 2021, we conducted a repeated cross-sectional observational study of face covering use across publicly accessible venues (eg, grocery and convenience stores, airport, transit center, post office). Trained observers recorded perceived sex, estimated age group, and face covering use. We calculated estimates of overall face covering use and prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: We observed 9865 people in 53 unique venues during 229 observation intervals during 6 observation periods. Correct face covering use was 87.2% overall and lowest at semi-outdoor venues such as transit hubs (78.1%) and the pick-up curb of Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (69.0%). Correct face covering use was lowest among men (PR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.27-1.58) and among people aged 2-11 years (PR = 2.74; 95% CI, 2.37-3.17) and 12-17 years (PR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07-1.72). Compliance declined among adults aged ≥60 years and among younger age groups before vaccine eligibility. CONCLUSIONS: Overall compliance with the statewide face mask mandate in King County was high. Layered mitigation strategies, including but not limited to the use of face coverings, and methods to assess adherence to them are crucial to preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
16.
J Infect Dis ; 226(Suppl 3): S304-S314, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV) is a common cause of respiratory illness in all people, including those experiencing homelessness. RV epidemiology in homeless shelters is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional homeless shelter study in King County, Washington, October 2019-May 2021. Shelter residents or guardians aged ≥3 months reporting acute respiratory illness completed questionnaires and submitted nasal swabs. After 1 April 2020, enrollment expanded to residents and staff regardless of symptoms. Samples were tested by multiplex RT-PCR for respiratory viruses. A subset of RV-positive samples was sequenced. RESULTS: There were 1066 RV-positive samples with RV present every month of the study period. RV was the most common virus before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (43% and 77% of virus-positive samples, respectively). Participants from family shelters had the highest prevalence of RV. Among 131 sequenced samples, 33 RV serotypes were identified with each serotype detected for ≤4 months. CONCLUSIONS: RV infections persisted through community mitigation measures and were most prevalent in shelters housing families. Sequencing showed a diversity of circulating RV serotypes, each detected over short periods of time. Community-based surveillance in congregate settings is important to characterize respiratory viral infections during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04141917.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Ill-Housed Persons , Viruses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Pandemics , Rhinovirus/genetics , Washington/epidemiology
17.
Am J Public Health ; 112(8): 1134-1137, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902753

ABSTRACT

During fall 2020 in rural Pierce County, Washington, school districts and the county health department offered weekly rapid antigen screening to students and staff. Asymptomatic screening identified 42.5% of confirmed cases from the population. Parents reported it was a positive experience for their children. The program supported decisions to return to in-person learning, but screening ended because of resource and technical limitations. When planning in-school screening, stakeholder engagement and resource sustainability are important factors to consider. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(8):1134-1137. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306875).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Schools , Students , Washington/epidemiology
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(26): e2112182119, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890404

ABSTRACT

Detailed characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission across different settings can help design less disruptive interventions. We used real-time, privacy-enhanced mobility data in the New York City, NY and Seattle, WA metropolitan areas to build a detailed agent-based model of SARS-CoV-2 infection to estimate the where, when, and magnitude of transmission events during the pandemic's first wave. We estimate that only 18% of individuals produce most infections (80%), with about 10% of events that can be considered superspreading events (SSEs). Although mass gatherings present an important risk for SSEs, we estimate that the bulk of transmission occurred in smaller events in settings like workplaces, grocery stores, or food venues. The places most important for transmission change during the pandemic and are different across cities, signaling the large underlying behavioral component underneath them. Our modeling complements case studies and epidemiological data and indicates that real-time tracking of transmission events could help evaluate and define targeted mitigation policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Population Dynamics , Time Factors , Washington/epidemiology
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e536-e544, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is dominated by variant viruses; the resulting impact on disease severity remains unclear. Using a retrospective cohort study, we assessed the hospitalization risk following infection with 7 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants. METHODS: Our study includes individuals with positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the Washington Disease Reporting System with available viral genome data, from 1 December 2020 to 14 January 2022. The analysis was restricted to cases with specimens collected through sentinel surveillance. Using a Cox proportional hazards model with mixed effects, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) for hospitalization risk following infection with a variant, adjusting for age, sex, calendar week, and vaccination. RESULTS: In total, 58 848 cases were sequenced through sentinel surveillance, of which 1705 (2.9%) were hospitalized due to COVID-19. Higher hospitalization risk was found for infections with Gamma (HR 3.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.40-4.26), Beta (HR 2.85, 95% CI 1.56-5.23), Delta (HR 2.28 95% CI 1.56-3.34), or Alpha (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.29-2.07) compared to infections with ancestral lineages; Omicron (HR 0.92, 95% CI .56-1.52) showed no significant difference in risk. Following Alpha, Gamma, or Delta infection, unvaccinated patients show higher hospitalization risk, while vaccinated patients show no significant difference in risk, both compared to unvaccinated, ancestral lineage cases. Hospitalization risk following Omicron infection is lower with vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Infection with Alpha, Gamma, or Delta results in a higher hospitalization risk, with vaccination attenuating that risk. Our findings support hospital preparedness, vaccination, and genomic surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Washington/epidemiology
20.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(6): 5699-5716, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792335

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants combined with slowing pace of vaccination in Fall 2021 created uncertainty around the future trajectory of the epidemic in King County, Washington, USA. We analyzed the benefits of offering vaccination to children ages 5-11 and expanding the overall vaccination coverage using mathematical modeling. We adapted a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, calibrated to data from King County, Washington, to simulate scenarios of vaccinating children aged 5-11 with different starting dates and different proportions of physical interactions (PPI) in schools being restored. Dynamic social distancing was implemented in response to changes in weekly hospitalizations. Reduction of hospitalizations and estimated time under additional social distancing measures are reported over the 2021-2022 school year. In the scenario with 85% vaccination coverage of 12+ year-olds, offering early vaccination to children aged 5-11 with 75% PPI was predicted to prevent 756 (median, IQR 301-1434) hospitalizations cutting youth hospitalizations in half compared to no vaccination and largely reducing the need for additional social distancing measures over the school year. If, in addition, 90% overall vaccination coverage was reached, 60% of remaining hospitalizations would be averted and the need for increased social distancing would almost certainly be avoided. Our work suggests that uninterrupted in-person schooling in King County was partly possible because reasonable precaution measures were taken at schools to reduce infectious contacts. Rapid vaccination of all school-aged children provides meaningful reduction of the COVID-19 health burden over this school year but only if implemented early. It remains critical to vaccinate as many people as possible to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with future epidemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage , Washington/epidemiology
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