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1.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 142(1): 11-15, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1609123

ABSTRACT

The polio eradication program, launched in 1988, has successfully decreased the number of poliomyelitis patients worldwide. However, in areas with immunization gaps where oral polio vaccine coverage has dropped, outbreaks of more virulent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) have become a threat to public health. In Japan, inactivated polio vaccine replaced oral polio vaccine as the routine immunization in 2012. Polio environmental surveillance (ES) has been conducted nationwide since 2013 to efficiently monitor the wild type poliovirus or VDPV, which may be imported from overseas. ES may also be utilized to detect other viruses in stool samples. We propose a method of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection based on the polio ES network, and establish a procedure to detect fragments of SARS-CoV-2 genome in wastewater solids. Our findings suggest that polio ES can be used to simultaneously monitor SARS-CoV-2 RNA fragments in sewage waters.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring/methods , Poliovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sewage/virology , Waste Water/virology , Disease Eradication , Humans , Japan , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551630

ABSTRACT

During the four pandemic waves, a total of 560,504 cases and 10,178 deaths due to COVID-19 were reported in Croatia. The Alpha variant, dominant from March 2021 (>50% of positive samples), was rapidly replaced by Delta variants (>90%) by August 2021. Several seroprevalence studies were conducted in different populations (general population, children/adolescents, professional athletes, healthcare workers, veterinarians) and in immunocompromised patients (hemodialysis patients, liver/kidney transplant recipients). After the first pandemic wave, seroprevalence rates of neutralizing (NT) antibodies were reported to be 0.2-5.5%. Significantly higher seropositivity was detected during/after the second wave, 2.6-18.7%. Two studies conducted in pet animals (February-June 2020/July-December 2020) reported SARS-CoV-2 NT antibodies in 0.76% of cats and 0.31-14.69% of dogs, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 NT antibodies were not detected in wildlife. Environmental samples taken in the households of COVID-19 patients showed high-touch personal objects as most frequently contaminated (17.3%), followed by surfaces in patients' rooms (14.6%), kitchens (13.3%) and bathrooms (8.3%). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was also detected in 96.8% affluent water samples, while all effluent water samples tested negative. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in humans, animals and the environment suggests that the 'One Health' approach is critical to controlling COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , One Health , Pandemics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Croatia/epidemiology , Dogs , Genetic Variation , Health Personnel , Humans , Pets , Prevalence , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Waste Water/virology
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0079221, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526452

ABSTRACT

A wastewater surveillance program targeting a university residence hall was implemented during the spring semester 2021 as a proactive measure to avoid an outbreak of COVID-19 on campus. Over a period of 7 weeks from early February through late March 2021, wastewater originating from the residence hall was collected as grab samples 3 times per week. During this time, there was no detection of SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in the residence hall wastewater stream. Aiming to obtain a sample more representative of the residence hall community, a decision was made to use passive samplers beginning in late March onwards. Adopting a Moore swab approach, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in wastewater samples just 2 days after passive samplers were deployed. These samples also tested positive for the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant of concern (VOC) using RT-qPCR. The positive result triggered a public health case-finding response, including a mobile testing unit deployed to the residence hall the following day, with testing of nearly 200 students and staff, which identified two laboratory-confirmed cases of Alpha variant COVID-19. These individuals were relocated to a separate quarantine facility, averting an outbreak on campus. Aggregating wastewater and clinical data, the campus wastewater surveillance program has yielded the first estimates of fecal shedding rates of the Alpha VOC of SARS-CoV-2 in individuals from a nonclinical setting. IMPORTANCE Among early adopters of wastewater monitoring for SARS-CoV-2 have been colleges and universities throughout North America, many of whom are using this approach to monitor congregate living facilities for early evidence of COVID-19 infection as an integral component of campus screening programs. Yet, while there have been numerous examples where wastewater monitoring on a university campus has detected evidence for infection among community members, there are few examples where this monitoring triggered a public health response that may have averted an actual outbreak. This report details a wastewater-testing program targeting a residence hall on a university campus during spring 2021, when there was mounting concern globally over the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, reported to be more transmissible than the wild-type Wuhan strain. In this communication, we present a clear example of how wastewater monitoring resulted in actionable responses by university administration and public health, which averted an outbreak of COVID-19 on a university campus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Universities , Waste Water/virology , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mass Screening , Ontario , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258263, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511816

ABSTRACT

Clinical and surveillance testing for the SARS-CoV-2 virus relies overwhelmingly on RT-qPCR-based diagnostics, yet several popular assays require 2-3 separate reactions or rely on detection of a single viral target, which adds significant time, cost, and risk of false-negative results. Furthermore, multiplexed RT-qPCR tests that detect at least two SARS-CoV-2 genes in a single reaction are typically not affordable for large scale clinical surveillance or adaptable to multiple PCR machines and plate layouts. We developed a RT-qPCR assay using the Luna Probe Universal One-Step RT-qPCR master mix with publicly available primers and probes to detect SARS-CoV-2 N gene, E gene, and human RNase P (LuNER) to address these shortcomings and meet the testing demands of a university campus and the local community. This cost-effective test is compatible with BioRad or Applied Biosystems qPCR machines, in 96 and 384-well formats, with or without sample pooling, and has a detection sensitivity suitable for both clinical reporting and wastewater surveillance efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Ribonuclease P/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Waste Water/virology , DNA Primers/genetics , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21368, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493221

ABSTRACT

There is a need for wastewater based epidemiological (WBE) methods that integrate multiple, variously sized surveillance sites across geographic areas. We developed a novel indexing method, Melvin's Index, that provides a normalized and standardized metric of wastewater pathogen load for qPCR assays that is resilient to surveillance site variation. To demonstrate the utility of Melvin's Index, we used qRT-PCR to measure SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA levels in influent wastewater from 19 municipal wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF's) of varying sizes and served populations across the state of Minnesota during the Summer of 2020. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected at each WWTF during the 20-week sampling period at a mean concentration of 8.5 × 104 genome copies/L (range 3.2 × 102-1.2 × 109 genome copies/L). Lag analysis of trends in Melvin's Index values and clinical COVID-19 cases showed that increases in indexed wastewater SARS-CoV-2 levels precede new clinical cases by 15-17 days at the statewide level and by up to 25 days at the regional/county level. Melvin's Index is a reliable WBE method and can be applied to both WWTFs that serve a wide range of population sizes and to large regions that are served by multiple WWTFs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Suburban Population , Urban Population , Waste Disposal Facilities , Waste Water/virology , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Water Purification , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Minnesota/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Risk Factors
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19456, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447320

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerges to scientific research and monitoring of wastewaters to predict the spread of the virus in the community. Our study investigated the COVID-19 disease in Bratislava, based on wastewater monitoring from September 2020 until March 2021. Samples were analyzed from two wastewater treatment plants of the city with reaching 0.6 million monitored inhabitants. Obtained results from the wastewater analysis suggest significant statistical dependence. High correlations between the number of viral particles in wastewater and the number of reported positive nasopharyngeal RT-qPCR tests of infected individuals with a time lag of 2 weeks/12 days (R2 = 83.78%/R2 = 52.65%) as well as with a reported number of death cases with a time lag of 4 weeks/27 days (R2 = 83.21%/R2 = 61.89%) was observed. The obtained results and subsequent mathematical modeling will serve in the future as an early warning system for the occurrence of a local site of infection and, at the same time, predict the load on the health system up to two weeks in advance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Waste Water/analysis , Waste Water/virology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Theoretical , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Slovakia/epidemiology , Waste Water/chemistry , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Water Purification
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(36): 1242-1244, 2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441395

ABSTRACT

Wastewater surveillance, the measurement of pathogen levels in wastewater, is used to evaluate community-level infection trends, augment traditional surveillance that leverages clinical tests and services (e.g., case reporting), and monitor public health interventions (1). Approximately 40% of persons infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, shed virus RNA in their stool (2); therefore, community-level trends in SARS-CoV-2 infections, both symptomatic and asymptomatic (2) can be tracked through wastewater testing (3-6). CDC launched the National Wastewater Surveillance System (NWSS) in September 2020 to coordinate wastewater surveillance programs implemented by state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments to support the COVID-19 pandemic response. In the United States, wastewater surveillance was not previously implemented at the national level. As of August 2021, NWSS includes 37 states, four cities, and two territories. This report summarizes NWSS activities and describes innovative applications of wastewater surveillance data by two states, which have included generating alerts to local jurisdictions, allocating mobile testing resources, evaluating irregularities in traditional surveillance, refining health messaging, and forecasting clinical resource needs. NWSS complements traditional surveillance and enables health departments to intervene earlier with focused support in communities experiencing increasing concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. The ability to conduct wastewater surveillance is not affected by access to health care or the clinical testing capacity in the community. Robust, sustainable implementation of wastewater surveillance requires public health capacity for wastewater testing, analysis, and interpretation. Partnerships between wastewater utilities and public health departments are needed to leverage wastewater surveillance data for the COVID-19 response for rapid assessment of emerging threats and preparedness for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health Surveillance/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Waste Water/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , United States/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435613

ABSTRACT

The following protocol describes our workflow for processing wastewater with the goal of detecting the genetic signal of SARS-CoV-2. The steps include pasteurization, virus concentration, RNA extraction, and quantification by RT-qPCR. We include auxiliary steps that provide new users with tools and strategies that will help troubleshoot key steps in the process. This protocol is one of the safest, cheapest, and most reproducible approaches for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater. Owing to a pasteurization step, it is safe for use in a BSL2 facility. In addition to making the protocol safe for the personnel involved, pasteurization had the added benefit of increasing the SARS-CoV-2 genetic signal. Furthermore, the RNA obtained using this protocol can be sequenced using both Sanger and Illumina sequencing technologies. The protocol was adopted by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection in August 2020 to monitor SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in wastewater in all five boroughs of the city. In the future, this protocol could be used to detect a variety of other clinically relevant viruses in wastewater and serve as a foundation of a wastewater surveillance strategy for monitoring community spread of known and emerging viral pathogens.


Subject(s)
RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Waste Water/virology , COVID-19/virology , Costs and Cost Analysis/economics , Humans , New York City , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/economics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
9.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(23): e0144821, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434881

ABSTRACT

Municipal wastewater provides an integrated sample of a diversity of human-associated microbes across a sewershed, including viruses. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a promising strategy to detect pathogens and may serve as an early warning system for disease outbreaks. Notably, WBE has garnered substantial interest during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to track disease burden through analyses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. Throughout the COVID-19 outbreak, tracking SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater has been an important tool for understanding the spread of the virus. Unlike traditional sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from clinical samples, which adds testing burden to the health care system, in this study, metatranscriptomics was used to sequence virus directly from wastewater. Here, we present a study in which we explored RNA viral diversity through sequencing 94 wastewater influent samples across seven wastewater treatment plants (WTPs), collected from August 2020 to January 2021, representing approximately 16 million people in Southern California. Enriched viral libraries identified a wide diversity of RNA viruses that differed between WTPs and over time, with detected viruses including coronaviruses, influenza A, and noroviruses. Furthermore, single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) of SARS-CoV-2 were identified in wastewater, and we measured proportions of overall virus and SNVs across several months. We detected several SNVs that are markers for clinically important SARS-CoV-2 variants along with SNVs of unknown function, prevalence, or epidemiological consequence. Our study shows the potential of WBE to detect viruses in wastewater and to track the diversity and spread of viral variants in urban and suburban locations, which may aid public health efforts to monitor disease outbreaks. IMPORTANCE Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) can detect pathogens across sewersheds, which represents the collective waste of human populations. As there is a wide diversity of RNA viruses in wastewater, monitoring the presence of these viruses is useful for public health, industry, and ecological studies. Specific to public health, WBE has proven valuable during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to track the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) without adding burden to health care systems. In this study, we used metatranscriptomics and reverse transcription-droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) to assay RNA viruses across Southern California wastewater from August 2020 to January 2021, representing approximately 16 million people from Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego counties. We found that SARS-CoV-2 quantification in wastewater correlates well with county-wide COVID-19 case data, and that we can detect SARS-CoV-2 single-nucleotide variants through sequencing. Likewise, wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) harbored different viromes, and we detected other human pathogens, such as noroviruses and adenoviruses, furthering our understanding of wastewater viral ecology.


Subject(s)
RNA Viruses/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virome , Waste Water/virology , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , California , Gene Expression Profiling , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA Viruses/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2126447, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432337

ABSTRACT

Importance: Scalable programs for school-based SARS-CoV-2 testing and surveillance are needed to guide in-person learning practices and inform risk assessments in kindergarten through 12th grade settings. Objectives: To characterize SARS-CoV-2 infections in staff and students in an urban public school setting and evaluate test-based strategies to support ongoing risk assessment and mitigation for kindergarten through 12th grade in-person learning. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pilot quality improvement program engaged 3 schools in Omaha, Nebraska, for weekly saliva polymerase chain reaction testing of staff and students participating in in-person learning over a 5-week period from November 9 to December 11, 2020. Wastewater, air, and surface samples were collected weekly and tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA to evaluate surrogacy for case detection and interrogate transmission risk of in-building activities. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 detection in saliva and environmental samples and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: A total of 2885 supervised, self-collected saliva samples were tested from 458 asymptomatic staff members (mean [SD] age, 42.9 [12.4] years; 303 women [66.2%]; 25 Black or African American [5.5%], 83 Hispanic [18.1%], 312 White [68.1%], and 35 other or not provided [7.6%]) and 315 students (mean age, 14.2 [0.7] years; 151 female students [48%]; 20 Black or African American [6.3%], 201 Hispanic [63.8%], 75 White [23.8%], and 19 other race or not provided [6.0%]). A total of 46 cases of SARS-CoV-2 (22 students and 24 staff members) were detected, representing an increase in cumulative case detection rates from 1.2% (12 of 1000) to 7.0% (70 of 1000) among students and from 2.1% (21 of 1000) to 5.3% (53 of 1000) among staff compared with conventional reporting mechanisms during the pilot period. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in wastewater samples from all pilot schools as well as in air samples collected from 2 choir rooms. Sequencing of 21 viral genomes in saliva specimens demonstrated minimal clustering associated with 1 school. Geographical analysis of SARS-CoV-2 cases reported district-wide demonstrated higher community risk in zip codes proximal to the pilot schools. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of staff and students in 3 urban public schools in Omaha, Nebraska, weekly screening of asymptomatic staff and students by saliva polymerase chain reaction testing was associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 case detection, exceeding infection rates reported at the county level. Experiences differed among schools, and virus sequencing and geographical analyses suggested a dynamic interplay of school-based and community-derived transmission risk. Collectively, these findings provide insight into the performance and community value of test-based SARS-CoV-2 screening and surveillance strategies in the kindergarten through 12th grade educational setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring , Mass Screening , Program Evaluation , Schools , Urban Population , Adolescent , Adult , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nebraska , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , School Teachers , Students , Waste Water/virology
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18339, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411815

ABSTRACT

Plateaus and rebounds of various epidemiological indicators are widely reported in Covid-19 pandemics studies but have not been explained so far. Here, we address this problem and explain the appearance of these patterns. We start with an empirical study of an original dataset obtained from highly precise measurements of SARS-CoV-2 concentration in wastewater over nine months in several treatment plants around the Thau lagoon in France. Among various features, we observe that the concentration displays plateaus at different dates in various locations but at the same level. In order to understand these facts, we introduce a new mathematical model that takes into account the heterogeneity and the natural variability of individual behaviours. Our model shows that the distribution of risky behaviours appears as the key ingredient for understanding the observed temporal patterns of epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Waste Water/virology , Empirical Research , France/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Anatomic
12.
Acc Chem Res ; 54(19): 3656-3666, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408214

ABSTRACT

The spread of infectious diseases due to travel and trade can be seen throughout history, whether from early settlers or traveling businessmen. Increased globalization has allowed infectious diseases to quickly spread to different parts of the world and cause widespread infection. Posthoc analysis of more recent outbreaks-SARS, MERS, swine flu, and COVID-19-has demonstrated that the causative viruses were circulating through populations for days or weeks before they were first detected, allowing disease to spread before quarantines, contact tracing, and travel restrictions could be implemented. Earlier detection of future novel pathogens could decrease the time before countermeasures are enacted. In this Account, we examined a variety of novel technologies from the past 10 years that may allow for earlier detection of infectious diseases. We have arranged these technologies chronologically from pre-human predictive technologies to population-level screening tools. The earliest detection methods utilize artificial intelligence to analyze factors such as climate variation and zoonotic spillover as well as specific species and geographies to identify where the infection risk is high. Artificial intelligence can also be used to monitor health records, social media, and various publicly available data to identify disease outbreaks faster than traditional epidemiology. Secondary to predictive measures is monitoring infection in specific sentinel animal species, where domestic animals or wildlife are indicators of potential disease hotspots. These hotspots inform public health officials about geographic areas where infection risk in humans is high. Further along the timeline, once the disease has begun to infect humans, wastewater epidemiology can be used for unbiased sampling of large populations. This method has already been shown to precede spikes in COVID-19 diagnoses by 1 to 2 weeks. As total infections increase in humans, bioaerosol sampling in high-traffic areas can be used for disease monitoring, such as within an airport. Finally, as disease spreads more quickly between humans, rapid diagnostic technologies such as lateral flow assays and nucleic acid amplification become very important. Minimally invasive point-of-care methods can allow for quick adoption and use within a population. These individual diagnostic methods then transfer to higher-throughput methods for more intensive population screening as an infection spreads. There are many promising early warning technologies being developed. However, no single technology listed herein will prevent every future outbreak. A combination of technologies from across our infection timeline would offer the most benefit in preventing future widespread disease outbreaks and pandemics.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Animals , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Waste Water/microbiology , Waste Water/parasitology , Waste Water/virology , Zoonoses/diagnosis , Zoonoses/epidemiology
13.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389524

ABSTRACT

We describe the complete capsid of a genotype C1-like Enterovirus A71 variant recovered from wastewater in a neighborhood in the greater Tempe, Arizona area (Southwest United States) in May 2020 using a pan-enterovirus amplicon-based high-throughput sequencing strategy. The variant seems to have been circulating for over two years, but its sequence has not been documented in that period. As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in changes in health-seeking behavior and overwhelmed pathogen diagnostics, our findings highlight the importance of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE ) as an early warning system for virus surveillance.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins/genetics , Enterovirus A, Human/genetics , Enterovirus A, Human/isolation & purification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Waste Water/virology , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Arizona/epidemiology , Capsid/chemistry , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Pandemics , Phylogeny
14.
Front Public Health ; 8: 569209, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389248

ABSTRACT

Only 4 months after the beginning of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, the world is facing a global pandemic due to a complex and insidious virus that today constantly poses new challenges. In this study, we highlight a persistent shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA into the urine, even in patients with a negative nasopharyngeal swab and in patients considered recovered. What does it mean? Besides the fact that the kidney is a probable site of viral replication, the prolonged viral excretion is a matter of great concern for our drainage system contamination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/urine , SARS-CoV-2 , Urine/virology , Virus Shedding , Waste Water/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Risk Factors
15.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367919

ABSTRACT

Sequencing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from wastewater has become a useful tool in monitoring the spread of viral variants. Approaches to this task have been varied, relying on differing sequencing methods and computational analyses. We used a novel computation workflow based on amplicon sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 spike domains in order to track viral populations in wastewater. As part of this workflow, we developed a program, SAM Refiner, that has a variety of outputs, including novel variant reporting as well as functions designed to remove polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generated chimeric sequences. With these methods, we were able to track viral population dynamics over time. We report here on the emergence of two variants of concern, B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and P.1 (Gamma), and their displacement of the D614G B.1 variant in a Missouri sewershed.


Subject(s)
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Software , Waste Water/virology , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Algorithms , Missouri/epidemiology , Molecular Epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348644

ABSTRACT

Considering the lack of effective treatments against COVID-19, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is emerging as a cost-effective approach for real-time population-wide SARS-CoV-2 monitoring. Here, we report novel molecular assays for sensitive detection and mutational/variant analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. Highly stable regions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA were identified by RNA stability analysis and targeted for the development of novel nested PCR assays. Targeted DNA sequencing (DNA-seq) was applied for the analysis and quantification of SARS-CoV-2 mutations/variants, following hexamers-based reverse transcription and nested PCR-based amplification of targeted regions. Three-dimensional (3D) structure models were generated to examine the predicted structural modification caused by genomic variants. WBE of SARS-CoV-2 revealed to be assay dependent, and significantly improved sensitivity achieved by assay combination (94%) vs. single-assay screening (30%-60%). Targeted DNA-seq allowed the quantification of SARS-CoV-2 mutations/variants in wastewater, which agreed with COVID-19 patients' sequencing data. A mutational analysis indicated the prevalence of D614G (S) and P323L (RdRP) variants, as well as of the Β.1.1.7/alpha variant of concern, in agreement with the frequency of Β.1.1.7/alpha variant in clinical samples of the same period of the third pandemic wave at the national level. Our assays provide an innovative cost-effective platform for real-time monitoring and early-identification of SARS-CoV-2 variants at community/population levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Waste Water/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans
17.
Food Environ Virol ; 13(3): 303-315, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321887

ABSTRACT

Wastewater surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging public health tool to understand the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in communities. The performance of different virus concentration methods and PCR methods needs to be evaluated to ascertain their suitability for use in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. We evaluated ultrafiltration and polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation methods to concentrate SARS-CoV-2 from sewage in wastewater treatment plants and upstream in the wastewater network (e.g., manholes, lift stations). Recovery of viruses by different concentration methods was determined using Phi6 bacteriophage as a surrogate for enveloped viruses. Additionally, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in all wastewater samples was determined using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and reverse transcription droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR), targeting three genetic markers (N1, N2 and E). Using spiked samples, the Phi6 recoveries were estimated at 2.6-11.6% using ultrafiltration-based methods and 22.2-51.5% using PEG precipitation. There was no significant difference in recovery efficiencies (p < 0.05) between the PEG procedure with and without a 16 h overnight incubation, demonstrating the feasibility of obtaining same day results. The SARS-CoV-2 genetic markers were more often detected by RT-ddPCR than RT-qPCR with higher sensitivity and precision. While all three SARS-CoV-2 genetic markers were detected using RT-ddPCR, the levels of E gene were almost below the limit of detection using RT-qPCR. Collectively, our study suggested PEG precipitation is an effective low-cost procedure which allows a large number of samples to be processed simultaneously in a routine wastewater monitoring for SARS-CoV-2. RT-ddPCR can be implemented for the absolute quantification of SARS-CoV-2 genetic markers in different wastewater matrices.


Subject(s)
Chemical Fractionation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ultrafiltration/methods , Waste Water/chemistry , Waste Water/virology , Chemical Precipitation , Environmental Monitoring , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Public Health , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sewage/chemistry , Sewage/virology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Water Pollution/analysis
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(31): 12194-12201, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320215

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 can survive in wastewater for several days with a potential risk of waterborne human transmission, hence posing challenges in containing the virus and reducing its spread. Herein, we report on an active biohybrid microrobot system that offers highly efficient capture and removal of target virus from various aquatic media. The algae-based microrobot is fabricated by using click chemistry to functionalize microalgae with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The resulting ACE2-algae-robot displays fast (>100 µm/s) and long-lasting (>24 h) self-propulsion in diverse aquatic media including drinking water and river water, obviating the need for external fuels. Such movement of the ACE2-algae-robot offers effective "on-the-fly" removal of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Specifically, the active biohybrid microrobot results in 95% removal of viral spike protein and 89% removal of pseudovirus, significantly exceeding the control groups such as static ACE2-algae and bare algae. These results suggest considerable promise of biologically functionalized algae toward the removal of viruses and other environmental threats from wastewater.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Biotechnology/methods , Microalgae/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Waste Water/virology , Water Purification/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biotechnology/instrumentation , Cell Line , Click Chemistry , Humans , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Water Purification/instrumentation
19.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254540, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309963

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a family of viruses that are best known as the causative agents of human diseases like the common cold, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. CoVs spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact. There is, however, concern about potential waterborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, as it has been found in wastewater facilities and rivers. To date, little is known about the stability of SARS-CoV-2 or any other free coronavirus in aquatic environments. The inactivation of terrestrial CoVs in seawater is rarely studied. Here, we use a porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) that is commonly found in animal husbandry as a surrogate to study the stability of CoVs in natural water. A series of experiments were conducted in which PRCV (strain 91V44) was added to filtered and unfiltered fresh- and saltwater taken from the river Scheldt and the North Sea. Virus titres were then measured by TCID50-assays using swine testicle cell cultures after various incubation times. The results show that viral inactivation of PRCV in filtered seawater can be rapid, with an observed 99% decline in the viral load after just two days, which may depend on temperature and the total suspended matter concentration. PRCV degraded much slower in filtered water from the river Scheldt, taking over 15 days to decline by 99%, which was somewhat faster than the PBS control treatment (T99 = 19.2 days). Overall, the results suggest that terrestrial CoVs are not likely to accumulate in marine environments. Studies into potential interactions with exudates (proteases, nucleases) from the microbial food web are, however, recommended.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Testis/cytology , Waste Water/virology , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Filtration , Male , Pilot Projects , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Rivers/virology , Swine , Testis/virology , Time Factors , Viral Load , Water Microbiology
20.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(1, ene-feb): 109-119, 2020 Dec 22.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310298

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Describir la evidencia sobre la presencia e infectividad de SARS-CoV-2 y otros coronavirus en aguas residuales y su potencial uso como herramienta de vigilancia epidemiológica. Material y métodos. Búsqueda de publicaciones en PubMed y medRxiv desde enero 2003 hasta el 8 de junio de 2020 de acuerdo con la guía de revisiones rápidas de Cochrane. Resultados. Se incluyeron 29 publicaciones. El ARN de SARS-CoV-2 no infectivo se encontró en agua residual hospitalaria, agua residual cruda, tratada y lodos de plantas de tratamiento. Los niveles cuantitativos de ARN viral en agua residual presentan relación con el número de casos de Covid-19. SARS-CoV-1 y otros coronavirus permanecieron infectivos en agua residual cruda hasta por dos días. Conclusiones. Hasta esta revisión no existe evidencia sobre la presencia de virus infectivos de SARS-CoV-2 en agua residual cruda o tratada. La cuantificación de ARN de SARS-CoV-2 en agua residual es útil para la vigilancia epidemiológica.


Subject(s)
RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Waste Water/virology , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Mexico , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence , Water Microbiology
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