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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5): 940-947, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822348

ABSTRACT

Monitoring severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) is critical for public health management of coronavirus disease. Sequencing is resource-intensive and incompletely representative, and not all isolates can be sequenced. Because wastewater SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations correlate with coronavirus disease incidence in sewersheds, tracking VOCs through wastewater is appealing. We developed digital reverse transcription PCRs to monitor abundance of select mutations in Alpha and Delta VOCs in wastewater settled solids, applied these to July 2020-August 2021 samples from 2 large US metropolitan sewersheds, and compared results to estimates of VOC abundance from case isolate sequencing. Wastewater measurements tracked closely with case isolate estimates (Alpha, rp 0.82-0.88; Delta, rp 0.97). Mutations were detected in wastewater even at levels <5% of total SARS-CoV-2 RNA and in samples available 1-3 weeks before case isolate results. Wastewater variant monitoring should be strategically deployed to complement case isolate sequencing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792704

ABSTRACT

A residential building's wastewater presents a potential non-invasive method of surveilling numerous infectious diseases, including SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed wastewater from 16 different residential locations at Syracuse University (Syracuse, NY, USA) during fall semester 2020, testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA twice weekly and compared the presence of clinical COVID-19 cases to detection of the viral RNA in wastewater. The sensitivity of wastewater surveillance to correctly identify dormitories with a case of COVID-19 ranged from 95% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 76-100%) on the same day as the case was diagnosed to 73% (95% CI = 53-92%), with 7 days lead time of wastewater. The positive predictive value ranged from 20% (95% CI = 13-30%) on the same day as the case was diagnosed to 50% (95% CI = 40-60%) with 7 days lead time. The specificity of wastewater surveillance to correctly identify dormitories without a case of COVID-19 ranged from 60% (95% CI = 52-67%) on the day of the wastewater sample to 67% (95% CI = 58-74%) with 7 days lead time. The negative predictive value ranged from 99% (95% CI = 95-100%) on the day of the wastewater sample to 84% (95% CI = 77-91%) with 7 days lead time. Wastewater surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 at the building level is highly accurate in determining if residents have a COVID-19 infection. Particular benefit is derived from negative wastewater results that can confirm a building is COVID-19 free.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , New York , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
3.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 30(1): 3-6, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789806

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed a significant number of cracks in the current vigilance techniques that stand to minimise outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2. There is a serious inadequacy of the testing capacity of healthcare systems worldwide, which can be attributed to the lack of appropriate testing and monitoring methods for a disease such as COVID-19. The current tools in use for COVID-19 surveillance are either expensive, not applicable to large populations or yield results after the outbreak has already occurred. The immense contagiousness in combination with a wealth of asymptomatic carriers means that RT-PCR testing is not feasible on a mass scale. It is evident that new methods are required for the monitoring of COVID-19 and a range of new epidemiological tools must be implemented if public health systems worldwide want to make relevant predictions on the patterns of disease spread and increase the efficacy of their decisions. In addition to this, the pandemic has highlighted the necessity for redirecting biomedical research towards early diagnosis and rational therapy of respiratory viruses in particular, as well as prevention of their spread by conventional means. An efficient early detection system would save lives and allow countries to return to pre-pandemic standards of living. At the forefront of this lies wastewater-based epidemiology, which carries immense potential as a means of pre-symptomatic diagnosis and population-based surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
4.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266407, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789185

ABSTRACT

Wastewater surveillance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been leveraged during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as a public health tool at the community and building level. In this study, we compare the sequence diversity of SARS-CoV-2 amplified from wastewater influent to the Columbia, South Carolina, metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the University of South Carolina campus during September 2020, which represents the peak of COVID-19 cases at the university during 2020. A total of 92 unique mutations were detected across all WWTP influent and campus samples, with the highest frequency mutations corresponding to the SARS-CoV-2 20C and 20G clades. Signature mutations for the 20G clade dominated SARS-CoV-2 sequences amplified from localized wastewater samples collected at the University of South Carolina, suggesting that the peak in COVID-19 cases during early September 2020 was caused by an outbreak of the 20G lineage. Thirteen mutations were shared between the university building-level wastewater samples and the WWTP influent collected in September 2020, 62% of which were nonsynonymous substitutions. Co-occurrence of mutations was used as a similarity metric to compare wastewater samples. Three pairs of mutations co-occurred in university wastewater and WWTP influent during September 2020. Thirty percent of the detected mutations, including 12 pairs of concurrent mutations, were only detected in university samples. This report affirms the close relationship between the prevalent SARS-CoV-2 genotypes of the student population at a university campus and those of the surrounding community. However, this study also suggests that wastewater surveillance at the building-level at a university offers important insight by capturing sequence diversity that was not apparent in the WWTP influent, thus offering a balance between the community-level wastewater and clinical sequencing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Universities , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 432: 128667, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788119

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach for COVID-19 surveillance is largely based on the assumption of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding into sewers by infected individuals. Recent studies found that SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration in wastewater (CRNA) could not be accounted by the fecal shedding alone. This study aimed to determine potential major shedding sources based on literature data of CRNA, along with the COVID-19 prevalence in the catchment area through a systematic literature review. Theoretical CRNA under a certain prevalence was estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, with eight scenarios accommodating feces alone, and both feces and sputum as shedding sources. With feces alone, none of the WBE data was in the confidence interval of theoretical CRNA estimated with the mean feces shedding magnitude and probability, and 63% of CRNA in WBE reports were higher than the maximum theoretical concentration. With both sputum and feces, 91% of the WBE data were below the simulated maximum CRNA in wastewater. The inclusion of sputum as a major shedding source led to more comparable theoretical CRNA to the literature WBE data. Sputum discharging behavior of patients also resulted in great fluctuations of CRNA under a certain prevalence. Thus, sputum is a potential critical shedding source for COVID-19 WBE surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 242: 113948, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783418

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence of the use of wastewater-based epidemiology to integrate conventional monitoring assessing disease symptoms and signs of viruses in a specific territory. We present the results of SARS-CoV-2 environmental surveillance activity in wastewater samples collected between September 2020 and July 2021 in 9 wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) located in central and western Sicily, serving over 570,000 residents. The presence of SARS-CoV-2, determined in 206 wastewater samples using RT-qPCR assays, was correlated with the notified and geo-referenced cases on the areas served by the WTPs in the same study period. Overall, 51% of wastewater samples were positive. Samples were correlated with 33,807 SARS-CoV-2 cases, reported in 4 epidemic waves, with a cumulative prevalence of 5.9% among Sicilian residents. The results suggest that the daily prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 active cases was statistically significant and higher in areas with SARS-CoV-2 positive wastewater samples. According to these findings, the proposed method achieves a good sensitivity profile (78.3%) in areas with moderate or high viral circulation (≥133 cases/100,000 residents) and may represent a useful tool in the management of epidemics based on an environmental approach, although it is necessary to improve the accuracy of the process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pilot Projects , Sicily/epidemiology , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(5): 342, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777746

ABSTRACT

The present study tracked the city-wide dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus 2 ribonucleic acids (SARS-CoV-2 RNA) in the wastewater from nine different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jaipur during the second wave of COVID-19 out-break in India. A total of 164 samples were collected weekly between February 19th and June 8th, 2021. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 47.2% (52/110) influent samples and 37% (20/54) effluent samples. The increasing percentage of positive influent samples correlated with the city's increasing active clinical cases during the second wave of COVID-19 in Jaipur. Furthermore, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) evidence clearly showed early detection of about 20 days (9/9 samples reported positive on April 20th, 2021) before the maximum cases and maximum deaths reported in the city on May 8th, 2021. The present study further observed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in treated effluents at the time window of maximum active cases in the city even after tertiary disinfection treatments of ultraviolet (UV) and chlorine (Cl2) disinfection. The average genome concentration in the effluents and removal efficacy of six commonly used treatments, activated sludge process + chlorine disinfection (ASP + Cl2), moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with ultraviolet radiations disinfection (MBBR + UV), MBBR + chlorine (Cl2), sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and SBR + Cl2, were compared with removal efficacy of SBR + Cl2 (81.2%) > MBBR + UV (68.8%) > SBR (57.1%) > ASP (50%) > MBBR + Cl2 (36.4%). The study observed the trends and prevalence of four genes (E, RdRp, N, and ORF1ab gene) based on two different kits and found that prevalence of N > ORF1ab > RdRp > E gene suggested that the effective genome concentration should be calculated based on the presence/absence of multiple genes. Hence, it is imperative to say that using a combination of different detection genes (E, N, RdRp, & ORF1ab genes) increases the sensitivity in WBE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Biofilms , Bioreactors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlorine , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , RNA, Viral , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
8.
Environ Int ; 163: 107217, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757319

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) emerged as a powerful, actionable health management tool during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hypothesizing future uses, we explored its potential for real-time, tracking of progress in attaining United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) globally as a non-expensive method using existing infrastructure. We inventoried (i) literature-documented sewerage infrastructure, (ii) demographics of populations served, and (iii) WBE markers informative of 9 SDGs. Among the 17 different sustainable development goals listed by the UN 2030 agenda, more than half of these may be monitored by using WBE monitoring at centralized treatment infrastructure as tabulated in this study. Driven mainly by COVID-19, WBE currently is practiced in at least 55 countries, reaching about 300 million people. Expansion of WBE to 109,000 + treatment plants inventoried in 129 countries would increase global coverage 9-fold to 34.7% or 2.7 billion, leaving out 5 billion people not served by centralized sewerage systems. Associations between population demographics and present-day infrastructure are explored, and geospatial regions particularly vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks are identified. The results suggest that difference in the differential outcomes in well-being is an outcome of the sanitation infrastructure inequalities and lack of sanitation infrastructure creates doubly disadvantaged populations at risk of poor hygiene and cut off from the early-warning benefits of conventional WBE. This is the first study to explore the feasibility and potential barriers to the use of WBE for tracking the attainment of SDGs globally with at least 9 out of 17 SDGs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Sustainable Development , United Nations
9.
Euro Surveill ; 27(10)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742165

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThroughout the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants of concern (VOCs) have repeatedly and independently arisen. VOCs are characterised by increased transmissibility, increased virulence or reduced neutralisation by antibodies obtained from prior infection or vaccination. Tracking the introduction and transmission of VOCs relies on sequencing, typically whole genome sequencing of clinical samples. Wastewater surveillance is increasingly used to track the introduction and spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants through sequencing approaches.AimHere, we adapt and apply a rapid, high-throughput method for detection and quantification of the relative frequency of two deletions characteristic of the Alpha, Beta, and Gamma VOCs in wastewater.MethodsWe developed drop-off RT-dPCR assays and an associated statistical approach implemented in the R package WWdPCR to analyse temporal dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 signature mutations (spike Δ69-70 and ORF1a Δ3675-3677) in wastewater and quantify transmission fitness advantage of the Alpha VOC.ResultsBased on analysis of Zurich wastewater samples, the estimated transmission fitness advantage of SARS-CoV-2 Alpha based on the spike Δ69-70 was 0.34 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30-0.39) and based on ORF1a Δ3675-3677 was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.49-0.57), aligning with the transmission fitness advantage of Alpha estimated by clinical sample sequencing in the surrounding canton of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.38-0.61).ConclusionDigital PCR assays targeting signature mutations in wastewater offer near real-time monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and potentially earlier detection and inference on transmission fitness advantage than clinical sequencing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Switzerland/epidemiology , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
10.
Water Res ; 215: 118257, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721084

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) gave rise to an international public health emergency in 3 months after its emergence in Wuhan, China. Typically for an RNA virus, random mutations occur constantly leading to new lineages, incidental with a higher transmissibility. The highly infective alpha lineage, firstly discovered in the UK, led to elevated mortality and morbidity rates as a consequence of Covid-19, worldwide. Wastewater surveillance proved to be a powerful tool for early detection and subsequent monitoring of the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants in a defined catchment. Using a combination of sequencing and RT-qPCR approaches, we investigated the total SARS-CoV-2 concentration and the emergence of the alpha lineage in wastewater samples in Vienna, Austria linking it to clinical data. Based on a non-linear regression model and occurrence of signature mutations, we conclude that the alpha variant was present in Vienna sewage samples already in December 2020, even one month before the first clinical case was officially confirmed and reported by the health authorities. This provides evidence that a well-designed wastewater monitoring approach can provide a fast snapshot and may detect the circulating lineages in wastewater weeks before they are detectable in the clinical samples. Furthermore, declining 14 days prevalence data with simultaneously increasing SARS-CoV-2 total concentration in wastewater indicate a different shedding behavior for the alpha variant. Overall, our results support wastewater surveillance to be a suitable approach to spot early circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages based on whole genome sequencing and signature mutations analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Waste Water
11.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 65(3): 367-377, 2022 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rise of an infectious disease crisis such as the SARS-CoV­2 pandemic posed significant challenges for the administrative structures of the public health service, which resulted in varying levels of efficiency in outbreak management as a function of staffing and digital resources. This substantially impeded the integration of innovative pandemic outbreak management tools. Innovative crisis management, such as cluster tracking, risk group testing, georeferencing, or the integration of wastewater surveillance recommended by the EU Commission, was made significantly more difficult. AIM: In this case study in Berchtesgadener Land, we present the integration of an area-wide georeferenced wastewater surveillance system that captured 95% of the entire population since November 2020. METHODOLOGY: Sampling occurred twice a week at nine municipal wastewater treatment plants and directly from the main sewer at three locations. Samples were pre-treated by centrifugation and subsequently analyzed by digital droplet polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting four specific genes of SARS-CoV­2. RESULTS: The integration of an area-wide georeferenced wastewater surveillance system was successful. Wastewater occurrences are plotted for each municipality against cumulative infections over seven days per 100,000 inhabitants. Changes in the infection pattern in individual communities are noticeable ten days ahead of the official case numbers with a sensitivity of approximately 20 in 100,000 inhabitants. DISCUSSION: The integration of this innovative approach to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation by employing a digital dashboard and the use of an early warning system via quantitative wastewater surveillance resulted in very efficient, proactive management, which might serve as a blueprint for other municipalities in Germany.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715337

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is emerging as a potential approach to study the infection dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 at a community level. Periodic sewage surveillance can act as an indicative tool to predict the early surge of pandemic within the community and understand the dynamics of infection and, thereby, facilitates for proper healthcare management. In this study, we performed a long-term epidemiological surveillance to assess the SARS-CoV-2 spread in domestic sewage over one year (July 2020 to August 2021) by adopting longitudinal sampling to represent a selected community (~2.5 lakhs population). Results indicated temporal dynamics in the viral load. A consistent amount of viral load was observed during the months from July 2020 to November 2020, suggesting a higher spread of the viral infection among the community, followed by a decrease in the subsequent two months (December 2020 and January 2021). A marginal increase was observed during February 2021, hinting at the onset of the second wave (from March 2021) that reached it speak in April 2021. Dynamics of the community infection rates were calculated based on the viral gene copies to assess the severity of COVID-19 spread. With the ability to predict the infection spread, longitudinal WBE studies also offer the prospect of zoning specific areas based on the infection rates. Zoning of the selected community based on the infection rates assists health management to plan and manage the infection in an effective way. WBE promotes clinical inspection with simultaneous disease detection and management, in addition to an advance warning signal to anticipate outbreaks, with respect to the slated community/zones, to tackle, prepare for and manage the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Water , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sewage , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 827: 154235, 2022 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712975

ABSTRACT

Continuous surveillance of COVID-19 diffusion remains crucial to control its diffusion and to anticipate infection waves. Detecting viral RNA load in wastewater samples has been suggested as an effective approach for epidemic monitoring and the development of an effective warning system. However, its quantitative link to the epidemic status and the stages of outbreak is still elusive. Modelling is thus crucial to address these challenges. In this study, we present a novel mechanistic model-based approach to reconstruct the complete epidemic dynamics from SARS-CoV-2 viral load in wastewater. Our approach integrates noisy wastewater data and daily case numbers into a dynamical epidemiological model. As demonstrated for various regions and sampling protocols, it quantifies the case numbers, provides epidemic indicators and accurately infers future epidemic trends. Following its quantitative analysis, we also provide recommendations for wastewater data standards and for their use as warning indicators against new infection waves. In situations of reduced testing capacity, our modelling approach can enhance the surveillance of wastewater for early epidemic prediction and robust and cost-effective real-time monitoring of local COVID-19 dynamics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
15.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258263, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700786

ABSTRACT

Clinical and surveillance testing for the SARS-CoV-2 virus relies overwhelmingly on RT-qPCR-based diagnostics, yet several popular assays require 2-3 separate reactions or rely on detection of a single viral target, which adds significant time, cost, and risk of false-negative results. Furthermore, multiplexed RT-qPCR tests that detect at least two SARS-CoV-2 genes in a single reaction are typically not affordable for large scale clinical surveillance or adaptable to multiple PCR machines and plate layouts. We developed a RT-qPCR assay using the Luna Probe Universal One-Step RT-qPCR master mix with publicly available primers and probes to detect SARS-CoV-2 N gene, E gene, and human RNase P (LuNER) to address these shortcomings and meet the testing demands of a university campus and the local community. This cost-effective test is compatible with BioRad or Applied Biosystems qPCR machines, in 96 and 384-well formats, with or without sample pooling, and has a detection sensitivity suitable for both clinical reporting and wastewater surveillance efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Ribonuclease P/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Waste Water/virology , DNA Primers/genetics , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
16.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 4867626, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700395

ABSTRACT

Background: Since its initial appearance in December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread globally. Wastewater surveillance has been demonstrated as capable of identifying infection clusters early. The purpose of this study was to investigate a quick and simple method to detect SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater in Thailand during the early stages of the second outbreak wave when the prevalence of the disease and the virus concentration in wastewater were low. Methods: Wastewater samples were collected from a hospital caring for patients with COVID-19 and from 35 markets, two of which were associated with recently reported COVID-19 cases. Then, samples were concentrated by membrane filtering prior to SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-qPCR. Results: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the wastewater samples from the hospital; the Ct values for the N, ORF1ab, and S genes progressively increased as the number of patients admitted to the treatment floor decreased. Notably, the ORF1ab and S genes were still detectable in wastewater even when only one patient with COVID-19 remained at the hospital. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the wastewater samples from fresh market where COVID-19 cases were reported. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that wastewater surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 is sensitive and can detect the virus even in places with a high ambient temperature and relatively low prevalence of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 824: 153927, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692892

ABSTRACT

This work presents the first case of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in leachate collected from a transfer station in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. After calibration of the viral detection method already used for wastewater samples with a pilot leachate sample and virus fragments in laboratory, twelve polyethylene glycol concentrated leachates samples were tested by RT-qPCR. The results confirmed the presence of N1 gene in 9 of the 12 analyzed samples between epidemiological weeks 33 and 38 of the year 2021 (08/15/2021 to 09/19/2021). The occurrence of the N2 gene was only observed in 5 of the 12 samples. The concentration values for N1 and N2 genes varied between 3.1 and 4.6 log10.GC·L-1, which are values close to those measured in sanitary wastewater. This method showed to be a promising procedure to verify the presence of viral RNA in municipal solid waste leachate, being especially useful where there is no treatment system and sanitation infrastructure, which makes the conventional wastewater surveillance unfeasible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Brazil , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Solid Waste , Waste Water
19.
Environ Res ; 208: 112496, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683113

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology has been used to measure SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in cities worldwide as an indicator of community health, however, few longitudinal studies have followed SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater in small communities from the start of the pandemic or evaluated the influence of tourism on viral loads. Therefore the objective of this study was to use measurements of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater to monitor viral trends and variants in a small island community over a twelve-month period beginning May 1, 2020, before the community re-opened to tourists. Wastewater samples were collected weekly and analyzed to detect and quantify SARS-CoV-2 genome copies. Sanger sequencing was used to determine genome sequences from total RNA extracted from wastewater samples positive for SARS-CoV-2. Visitor data was collected from the local Chamber of Commerce. We performed Poisson and linear regression to determine if visitors to the Cedar Key Chamber of Commerce were positively associated with SARS-CoV-2-positive wastewater samples and the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Results indicated that weekly wastewater samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 until mid-July when positive samples were recorded in four of five consecutive weeks. Additional positive results were recorded in November and December 2020, as well as January, March, and April 2021. Tourism data revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration in wastewater increased by 1.06 Log10 genomic copies/L per 100 tourists weekly. Sequencing from six positive wastewater samples yielded two complete sequences of SARS-CoV-2, two overlapping sequences, and two low yield sequences. They show arrival of a new variant SARS-CoV-2 in January 2021. Our results demonstrate the utility of wastewater surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 in a small community. Wastewater surveillance and viral genome sequencing suggest that population mobility likely plays an important role in the introduction and circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants among communities experiencing high tourism and who have a small population size.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tourism , Waste Water
20.
Environ Int ; 161: 107143, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683112

ABSTRACT

With the advent of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, Wastewater-Based Epidemiology (WBE) has been applied to track community infection in cities worldwide and has proven succesful as an early warning system for identification of hotspots and changingprevalence of infections (both symptomatic and asymptomatic) at a city or sub-city level. Wastewater is only one of environmental compartments that requires consideration. In this manuscript, we have critically evaluated the knowledge-base and preparedness for building early warning systems in a rapidly urbanising world, with particular attention to Africa, which experiences rapid population growth and urbanisation. We have proposed a Digital Urban Environment Fingerprinting Platform (DUEF) - a new approach in hazard forecasting and early-warning systems for global health risks and an extension to the existing concept of smart cities. The urban environment (especially wastewater) contains a complex mixture of substances including toxic chemicals, infectious biological agents and human excretion products. DUEF assumes that these specific endo- and exogenous residues, anonymously pooled by communities' wastewater, are indicative of community-wide exposure and the resulting effects. DUEF postulates that the measurement of the substances continuously and anonymously pooled by the receiving environment (sewage, surface water, soils and air), can provide near real-time dynamic information about the quantity and type of physical, biological or chemical stressors to which the surveyed systems are exposed, and can create a risk profile on the potential effects of these exposures. Successful development and utilisation of a DUEF globally requires a tiered approach including: Stage I: network building, capacity building, stakeholder engagement as well as a conceptual model, followed by Stage II: DUEF development, Stage III: implementation, and Stage IV: management and utilization. We have identified four key pillars required for the establishment of a DUEF framework: (1) Environmental fingerprints, (2) Socioeconomic fingerprints, (3) Statistics and modelling and (4) Information systems. This manuscript critically evaluates the current knowledge base within each pillar and provides recommendations for further developments with an aim of laying grounds for successful development of global DUEF platforms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
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