Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
J Hazard Mater ; 404(Pt B): 124082, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813688

ABSTRACT

Heterogeneous Fenton catalysts are emerging as excellent materials for applications related to water purification. In this review, recent trends in the synthesis and application of heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the abatement of organic pollutants and disinfection of microorganisms are discussed. It is noted that as the complexity of cell wall increases, the resistance level towards various disinfectants increases and it requires either harsh conditions or longer exposure time for the complete disinfection. In case of viruses, enveloped viruses (e.g. SARS-CoV-2) are found to be more susceptible to disinfectants than the non-enveloped viruses. The introduction of plasmonic materials with the Fenton catalysts broadens the visible light absorption efficiency of the hybrid material, and incorporation of semiconductor material improves the rate of regeneration of Fe(II) from Fe(III). A special emphasis is given to the use of Fenton catalysts for antibacterial applications. Composite materials of magnetite and ferrites remain a champion in this area because of their easy separation and reuse, owing to their magnetic properties. Iron minerals supported on clay materials, perovskites, carbon materials, zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) dramatically increase the catalytic degradation rate of contaminants by providing high surface area, good mechanical stability, and improved electron transfer. Moreover, insights to the zero-valent iron and its capacity to remove a wide range of organic pollutants, heavy metals and bacterial contamination are also discussed. Real world applications and the role of natural organic matter are summarised. Parameter optimisation (e.g. light source, dosage of catalyst, concentration of H2O2 etc.), sustainable models for the reusability or recyclability of the catalyst and the theoretical understanding and mechanistic aspects of the photo-Fenton process are also explained. Additionally, this review summarises the opportunities and future directions of research in the heterogeneous Fenton catalysis.


Subject(s)
Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Iron/chemistry , Light , Waste Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Purification/methods , Catalysis , Disinfection , Humic Substances/analysis , Metal-Organic Frameworks/chemistry , Minerals/chemistry , Oxidation-Reduction , Photochemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/chemistry , Waste Water/chemistry , Waste Water/microbiology , Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/radiation effects
2.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(19): 2903-2905, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779925

ABSTRACT

Several lines of evidence suggest the presence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater. The use of sewage water for irrigation is common in many developing countries, and it is only partially treated in the majority of countries with less than 10% of collected wastewater receiving any form of treatment globally. Wastewater is unsafe for human and animal consumption and contains impurities and microbial pathogens. Here, we pose the question of whether the reuse of untreated or partially treated wastewater for irrigation can expose susceptible populations and pets, leading to COVID-19 disease recurrence in the community? It is imperative to study the ecological relationships between humans, animals, and environmental health in relation to COVID-19 to contribute to a "One Health Concept" to design preventative strategies and attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Irrigation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Waste Water/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Humans , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Risk Factors , Sewage/virology , Water Purification/methods
3.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(18): 2786-2788, 2020 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-765996

ABSTRACT

Herein, we propose the use of novel adsorbents, namely micelle clay complexes comprising the clay montmorillonite, coupled with activated carbon for effective eradication of neuropathogenic microbes such as SARS-CoV-2 and Naegleria fowleri from water supplies for ablution/nasal irrigation. These can be incorporated easily to water collection devices, i.e., taps and water bottles, in the domestic setting. These filters are low cost, easy to install, and ideal disinfection systems. Such strategies are particularly useful for communities who have lack of access to safe water supplies, rely heavily on water storage tanks, or lack adequate water sanitation facilities, especially in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Filtration/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Water Purification/methods , Bentonite , Betacoronavirus , Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections/prevention & control , Charcoal , Clay , Filtration/instrumentation , Humans , Naegleria fowleri , Nasal Lavage , Water Purification/instrumentation
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111116, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741186

ABSTRACT

Disinfectant quaternary ammonium compounds (Quats) have diverse uses in a variety of consumer and commercial products, particularly cleaning products. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, they have become a primary tool to inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus on surfaces. Disinfectant Quats have very low vapor pressure, and following the use phase of the products in which they are found, disposal is typically "down-the-drain" to wastewater treatment systems. Consequently, the potential for the greatest environmental effect is to the aquatic environment, from treated effluent, and potentially to soils, which might be amended with wastewater biosolids. Among the earliest used and still common disinfectant Quats are the alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) compounds and the dialkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) compounds. They are cationic surfactants often found in consumer and commercial surface cleaners. Because of their biocidal properties, disinfectant Quats are heavily regulated for human and environmental safety around the world. Consequently, there is a robust database of information regarding the ecological hazards and environmental fate of ADBAC and DDAC; however, some of the data presented are from unpublished studies that have been submitted to and reviewed by regulatory agencies (i.e., EPA and European Chemicals Agency) to support antimicrobial product registration. We summarize the available environmental fate data and the acute and chronic aquatic ecotoxicity data for freshwater species, including algae, invertebrates, fish, and plants using peer-reviewed literature and unpublished data submitted to and summarized by regulatory agencies. The lower limit of the range of the ecotoxicity data for disinfectant Quats tends to be lower than that for other surface active agents, such as nonionic or anionic surfactants. However, ecotoxicity is mitigated by environmental fate characteristics, the data for which we also summarize, including high biodegradability and a strong tendency to sorb to wastewater biosolids, sediment, and soil. As a result, disinfectant Quats are largely removed during wastewater treatment, and those residues discharged in treated effluent are likely to rapidly bind to suspended solids or sediments, thus mitigating their toxicity.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/toxicity , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Animals , Aquatic Organisms/drug effects , Biodegradation, Environmental , /prevention & control , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ecotoxicology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Risk Assessment , Waste Water/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacology , Water Purification/methods
5.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(17): 2482-2484, 2020 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714239

ABSTRACT

The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in human wastewater together with poor quality of public drinking water supplies in developing countries is of concern. Additionally, the frequent use of contaminated water for bathing, nasal irrigation, swimming, and ablution can be a risk factor in contracting infectious agents such as the brain-eating amoebae and possibly SARS-CoV-2. The use of appropriate tap water filters should be encouraged to remove pathogenic microbes, together with restrained nasal irrigation (not forcing water inside nostrils vigorously) during ritual ablution or bathing to avoid dangerous consequences for populations residing in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drinking Water/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Waste Water/virology , Water Purification/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Drinking Water/analysis , Drinking Water/standards , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Waste Water/analysis , Water Purification/standards
6.
Water Environ Res ; 92(7): 952-953, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612493
7.
Ann Ig ; 32(5): 439-448, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612743

ABSTRACT

Public health measures to cope with the Covid-19 pandemic, imposed also a shutdown of sports facilities and swimming pools. Safety issues related to recreational waters were emerging during the lockdown, rising concerns on how and when reopening pools and on how improve their management while SARS-CoV-2 is circulating in the population. The GSMS-SItI, Working Group on Movement Sciences for Health of the Italian Society of Hygiene Preventive Medicine and Public Health, discussed and summarized some indications for a suitable preventive approach. Several measures are highlighted, including social distancing, optimized water management, airflow and microclimatic parameters in the pool as well in the annexed rooms, verification of sanitation procedures. The GSMS-SItI underlines that prevention should be based on monitoring of the local epidemiological situation and on the constant collaboration with the local health authority and the national health service.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health , Swimming Pools/standards , Water Quality/standards , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disinfection , Exercise , Facility Design and Construction , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Italy , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Population Surveillance , Quarantine , Risk Assessment , Water Microbiology/standards , Water Purification/methods , Water Purification/standards
8.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114741, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-176010

ABSTRACT

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play important roles in water purification but are also important source of aerosols. However, the relationship between aerosol characteristics and wastewater treatment process remains poorly understood. In this study, aerosols were collected over a 24-month period from a WWTP using a modified anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process. The aerated tank (AerT) was characterized by the highest respiratory fraction (RF) concentrations (861-1525 CFU/m3) and proportions (50.76%-65.96%) of aerosol particles. Fourteen core potential pathogens and 15 toxic metal(loid)s were identified in aerosols. Mycobacterium was the genus that aerosolized most easily in fine grid, pre-anoxic tank, and AerT. High wastewater treatment efficiency may increase the emission of RF and core potential pathogens. The median size of activated sludge, richness of core potential pathogens in wastewater, and total suspended particulates were the most influential factors directly related to the RF proportions, core community of potential pathogens, and composition of toxic metal(loid)s in WWTP aerosols, respectively. Relative humidity, temperature, input and removal of biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, and mixed liquor suspended solids could also directly or indirectly affect the aerosol characteristics. This study enhances the mechanistic understanding of linking aerosol characteristics to treatment processes and has important implications for targeted manipulation.


Subject(s)
Waste Water , Water Purification , Aerosols , Metals , Sewage , Waste Disposal, Fluid
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL