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1.
J Food Prot ; 85(1): 44-53, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810928

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Vibrio cholerae can cause pandemic cholera in humans. The bacterium resides in aquatic environments worldwide. Continuous testing of V. cholerae contamination in water and aquatic products is imperative for food safety control and human health. In this study, a rapid and visualized method was developed for the first time based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of the important virulence-related genes ace, zot, cri, and nanH for toxins and the infectious process of V. cholerae. Three pairs of molecular probes targeting each of these genes were designed and synthesized. The one-step LAMP reaction was conducted at 65°C for 40 min. Positive results were inspected by the production of a light green color under visible light or green fluorescence under UV light (302 nm). Limit of detection of the LAMP method ranged from 1.85 to 2.06 pg per reaction of genomic DNA or 2.50 × 100 to 4.00 × 102 CFU per reaction for target genes of cell culture of V. cholerae, which was more sensitive than standard PCR. Inclusivity and exclusivity of the LAMP method were 100% for all target genes. The method showed similar high efficiency to a certain extent in rapid testing of spiked or collected specimens of water and aquatic products. Target genes were detected by absence from all water samples from various sources. However, high occurrences of the nanH gene were observed in intestinal samples derived from four species of fish and one species of shellfish, indicating a risk of potentially toxic V. cholerae in commonly consumed aquatic products. The results in this study provide a potential tool for rapid and visualized detection of V. cholerae in water and aquatic products.


Subject(s)
Vibrio cholerae , Animals , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vibrio cholerae/genetics , Virulence , Water
2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(4): 286-288, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793123
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5968, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784028

ABSTRACT

Skin antiseptics have important implications for public health and medicine. Although conventional antiseptics have considerable antimicrobial activity, skin toxicity and the development of resistance are common problems. Plasma-treated water has sterilization and tissue-regenerative effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify whether plasma-activated water (PAW) manufactured by our microwave plasma system can be used as a novel antiseptic solution for skin protection. PAW was produced by dissolving reactive nitrogen oxide gas using microwave plasma in deionized water. The antibacterial effects of PAW against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium and effective concentrations were investigated by a solid agar plate assay. The factors mediating the effects of PAW were evaluated by the addition of reactive species scavengers. Cytotoxicity and cell viability assays were performed to examine the protective effect of PAW on normal skin cells. PAW exhibited excellent sterilization and no toxicity in normal skin cells. Experiments also confirmed the potential of PAW as a sanitizer for SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support the use of PAW as an effective skin disinfectant with good safety in the current situation of a global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Humans , Microwaves , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Water/pharmacology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776201

ABSTRACT

Guidelines for using toothpaste during tooth-brushing in public places during the coronavirus epidemic are lacking. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of using toothpaste in terms of droplet generation during brushing, the number of droplets generated, and their scatter range are unknown; therefore, we investigated the relationships between diluted toothpaste viscosity, the number of droplets generated, and the droplets' flight distance. We developed a system to quantitate droplet generation during tooth-brushing. Brushing with water generated 5965 ± 266 droplets; 10.0× diluted toothpaste generated 538 ± 56, 4.00× diluted toothpaste generated 349 ± 15, and 2.00× diluted toothpaste generated 69 ± 27 droplets. Undiluted toothpaste generated no droplets. Droplet number tended to increase with increased toothpaste dilution ratio and decreased viscosity (r = -0.993). The maximum flight distances were 429 ± 11, 445 ± 65, 316 ± 38, and 231 ± 21 mm for water, 10.0×, 4.00×, and 2.00× diluted toothpaste, respectively. The maximum flight distance and toothpaste viscosity correlated negatively (r = -0.999). Thus, the less diluted the toothpaste, the fewer the droplets generated during brushing, and the shorter their flight distance. The use of an appropriate amount of toothpaste is recommended to prevent droplet infection during tooth-brushing.


Subject(s)
Toothbrushing , Toothpastes , Indicator Dilution Techniques , Water
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 750551, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775934

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial infectious diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis globally, and is recognized as a significant zoonotic pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance amongst Campylobacter isolates is a significant global concern. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify and characterize Campylobacter species in humans, animals and water sources in livestock owning households of peri-urban Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; and to characterize antimicrobial resistance. A total of 519 fecal samples from humans (n = 99), livestock (n = 179), poultry (n = 69), and water (n = 172) were collected. Samples were cultured for viable Campylobacter spp. and multiplex PCR utilized for the identification and confirmation. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was assessed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Campylobacter spp. was detected in 67/519 (13.0%) of the total tested samples, and the household level prevalence of Campylobacter was 42.4%. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was: humans (10.1%), cattle (18.5%), poultry (13.0%), sheep (13.3%), goats (7.1%), and water (10.5%). Campylobacter jejuni and C. fetus were the most frequently isolated species, followed by C. coli. The majority of isolates obtained from human samples had co-occurrence with isolates from cattle, poultry or water samples from the same household. The use of stored water, the practice of indoor and outdoor manure collecting, and animal species Campylobacter positivity were significantly associated with greater odds of human Campylobacter spp. positivity. All Campylobacter isolates from humans, poultry, sheep, goats and water, and 96.0% of isolates from cattle were resistant to at least one or more of the tested antimicrobials, with 95.5% of isolates resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials. A One Health approach is recommended to further investigate Campylobacter species infections, and other zoonotic infectious diseases, in the livestock owning populations in Ethiopia, where there is close interaction between humans, animals and the environment.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter , One Health , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cattle , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Livestock , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Sheep , Water
6.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(12): 15-28, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775507

ABSTRACT

A significant knowledge gap currently exists in the literature on the emerging interventions and bioactivity of aqueous extracts of mushrooms. Different solvents and techniques used in the extraction of mushroom metabolites have been discussed. Here, data obtained were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and presented in charts. The results showed that methanol was the most commonly reported extraction solvent (29.70%), followed by water (26.73%). Extracted metabolites of mushrooms were mostly reported for their antioxidant activity (33%). Investigations on the use of mushroom metabolites to treat tropical diseases, their application in novel coronavirus disease-COVID 19 management, and other beneficial effects (antiplasmodial, antimalarial, antityrosinase, analgesic, anticoagulation, and antiasthmatic) on health are emerging and reported rarely to date. It is a notable conclusion that water extracts from mushrooms are effective in the treatment of diverse health conditions, however, further studies are necessary. Modern water extraction techniques are essential for better yield and process optimization but are currently less applied and less frequently reported.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , COVID-19 , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Solvents , Water
7.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760370

ABSTRACT

Most methods for measuring environmental lead (Pb) content are time consuming, expensive, hazardous, and restricted to specific analytical systems. To provide a facile, safe tool to detect Pb, we created pMet-lead, a portable fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based Pb-biosensor. The pMet-lead device comprises a 3D-printed frame housing a 405-nm laser diode-an excitation source for fluorescence emission images (YFP and CFP)-accompanied by optical filters, a customized sample holder with a Met-lead 1.44 M1 (the most recent version)-embedded biochip, and an optical lens aligned for smartphone compatibility. Measuring the emission ratios (Y/C) of the FRET components enabled Pb detection with a dynamic range of nearly 2 (1.96), a pMet-lead/Pb dissociation constant (Kd) 45.62 nM, and a limit of detection 24 nM (0.474 µg/dL, 4.74 ppb). To mitigate earlier problems with a lack of selectivity for Pb vs. zinc, we preincubated samples with tricine, a low-affinity zinc chelator. We validated the pMet-lead measurements of the characterized laboratory samples and unknown samples from six regions in Taiwan by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Notably, two unknown samples had Y/C ratios significantly higher than that of the control (3.48 ± 0.08 and 3.74 ± 0.12 vs. 2.79 ± 0.02), along with Pb concentrations (10.6 ppb and 15.24 ppb) above the WHO-permitted level of 10 ppb in tap water, while the remaining four unknowns showed no detectable Pb upon ICP-MS. These results demonstrate that pMet-lead provides a rapid, sensitive means for on-site Pb detection in water from the environment and in living/drinking supply systems to prevent potential Pb poisoning.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/methods , Smartphone , Water
8.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 27(0): 6, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To protect the health and safety of healthcare workers (HCWs), it is essential to ensure the provision of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services and standard precautions in healthcare facilities (HCF). The objectives of this short communication were 1) to assess the availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs in seven provinces in Afghanistan before the COVID-19 pandemic, and 2) to elucidate the relevance of these patterns with the number of reported HCW infections from COVID-19 in the mentioned provinces. METHODS: We analyzed secondary data from the 2018-19 Afghanistan Service Provision Assessment survey, which included 142 public and private HCFs in seven major provinces in Afghanistan. Data on COVID-19 cases were obtained from the Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health Data Warehouse. Weighted prevalence of WASH services and standard precautions were calculated using frequencies and percentages. ArcGIS maps were used to visualize the distribution of COVID-19 cases, and scatter plots were created to visualize the relevance of WASH services and standard precautions to COVID-19 cases in provinces. RESULTS: Of the 142 facilities surveyed, about 97% had improved water sources, and over 94% had improved toilet for clients. Overall, HCFs had limited availability of hygiene services and standard precautions, which was lower in private than public facilities. More than half of the facilities had safe final disposal and appropriate storage of sharps and medical waste. Of the seven provinces, Herat province had the highest cumulative COVID-19 case rate among HCWs per 100,000 population and reported lower availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs compared to other provinces. CONCLUSION: Our findings show disparities in the availability of WASH services and standard precautions in public and private facilities. Private facilities had a lower availability of hygiene services and standard precautions than public facilities. Provinces with higher availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs had a lower cumulative COVID-19 case rate among HCWs per 100,000 population. Pre-pandemic preparation of adequate WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs could be potentially important in combating infectious disease emergence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sanitation , Afghanistan/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Hygiene , Pandemics/prevention & control , Water , Water Supply
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 824: 153967, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757819

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), among many protocols, lopinavir and ritonavir in individual or combined forms with other drugs have been used, causing an increase in the concentration of antiviral drugs in the wastewater and hospital effluents. In conventional wastewater treatment plants, the removal efficiency of various antiviral drugs is estimated to be low (<20%). The high values of predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for lopinavir and ritonavir (in ng∙L-1) reveal their high chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. This indicates that lopinavir and ritonavir are current priority antiviral drugs that need to be thoroughly monitored and effectively removed from any water and wastewater samples. In this study, we attempt to explore the impacts of two photo-induced processes (photolysis and photocatalysis) on the toxicity of treated water and wastewater samples containing lopinavir and ritonavir to zebrafish (Danio rerio) and marine bacteria (Allivibrio fischeri). The obtained results reveal that traces of lopinavir in water under photo-induced processes may cause severe problems for Danio rerio, including pericardial edema and shortening of the tail, affecting its behavior, and for Allivibrio fischeri as a result of the oxygen-depleted environment, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Hence, lopinavir must be removed from water and wastewater before being in contact with light. In contrast, the photo-induced processes of ritonavir-containing water and wastewater reduce the toxicity significantly. This shows that even if the physicochemical parameters of water and wastewater are within the standard requirements/limits, the presence of traces of antiviral drugs and their intermediates can affect the survival and behavior of Danio rerio and Allivibrio fischeri. Therefore, the photo-induced processes and additional treatment of water and wastewater containing ritonavir can minimize its toxic effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ritonavir , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/toxicity , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/toxicity , Waste Water , Water , Zebrafish
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(26): 3243-3246, 2021 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747172

ABSTRACT

The hygroscopicity of respiratory aerosol determines their particle size distribution and regulates solute concentrations to which entrained microorganisms are exposed. Here, we report the hygroscopicity of simulated lung fluid (SLF) particles. While the response of aqueous particles follow simple mixing rules based on composition, we observe phase hysteresis with increasing and decreasing relative humidity (RH) and clear uptake of water prior to deliquescence. These results indicate that RH history may control the state of respiratory aerosol in the environment and influence the viability of microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , Wettability , Body Fluids/chemistry , Humans , Humidity , Lung/chemistry , Particle Size , Water/chemistry
11.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 229: 112415, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712830

ABSTRACT

Noscapine (NSC) is a benzyl-isoquinoline alkaloid discovered in 1930 as an antitussive agent. Recently, NSC has also been reported to exhibit antitumor activity and, according to computational studies, it is able to attack the protease enzyme of Coronavirus (COVID-19) and thus could be used as antiviral for COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, an increasing use of this drug could be envisaged in the coming years. NSC is readily metabolized with a half-life of 4.5 h giving rise to cotarnine, hydrocotarnine, and meconine, arising from the oxidative breaking of the CC bond between isoquinoline and phthalide moieties. Because of its potentially increasing use, high concentrations of NSC but also its metabolites will be delivered in the environment and potentially affect natural ecosystems. Thus, the aim of this work is to investigate the degradation of NSC in the presence of naturally occurring photocatalysts. As a matter of fact, the present contribution has demonstrated that NSC can be efficiently degraded in the presence of a derivative of the natural organic dye Riboflavin (RFTA) upon exposure to visible light. Indeed, a detailed study of the mechanism involved in the photodegradation revealed the similarities between the biomimetic and the photocatalyzed processes. In fact, the main photoproducts of NSC were identified as cotarnine and opianic acid based on a careful UPLC-MS2 analysis compared to the independently synthesized standards. The former is coincident with one of the main metabolites obtained in humans, whereas the latter is related to meconine, a second major metabolite of NSC. Photophysical experiments demonstrated that the observed oxidative cleavage is mediated mainly by singlet oxygen in a medium in which the lifetime of 1O2 is long enough, or by electron transfer to the triplet excited state of RFTA if the photodegradation occurs in aqueous media, where the 1O2 lifetime is very short.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environmental Restoration and Remediation , Noscapine , Biomimetics , Chromatography, Liquid , Coloring Agents , Ecosystem , Humans , Light , Pandemics , Photolysis , Riboflavin/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Water/chemistry
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 824: 153771, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692896

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to a still ongoing international health and sanity crisis. In the current scenario, the actions taken by the national authorities and the public prioritized measures to control the transmission of the virus, such as social distancing, and face mask-wearing. Unfortunately, due to the debilitated waste management systems and incorrect disposal of single-use face masks and other types of personal protective equipment (PPE), the occurrence of these types of items has led to the exacerbation of marine plastic pollution. Although various studies have focused on surveying marine coasts for PPE pollution, studies on inland water are largely lacking. In order to fill this knowledge gap, the present study assessed PPE pollution in the Iranian coast of the Caspian Sea, the largest enclosed inland water body in the world by following standard monitoring procedures. The results concerning the density (1.02 × 10-4 PPE/m2) composition (face masks represented 95.3% of all PPE) of PPE are comparable to previous studies in marine waters. However, a notable decrease in the occurrence of PPE was observed, probably to behavioral and seasonality reasons. The possible consequences of PPE pollution were discussed, although much more research is needed regarding the ecotoxicological aspects of secondary PPE contaminants, such as microplastics and chemical additives. It is expected that face mask mandates will be eventually halted, and PPE will stop being emitted to the environment. However, based on the lessons learned from the COVID-19 scenario, several recommendations for coastal solid waste management are provided. These are proposed to serve during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caspian Sea , Humans , Iran , Pandemics , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
13.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(11): e2103982, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680237

ABSTRACT

Currently, the incidence of acute liver injury (ALI) is increasing year by year, and infection with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can also induce ALI, but there are still no targeted therapeutic drugs. ZnO-NiO particles is mainly used to clean up reactive oxygen species (ROS) in industrial wastewater, and it is insoluble in water. Its excellent properties are discovered and improved by adding shuttle-based bonds to make it more water-soluble. ZnO-NiO@COOH particles are synthetically applied to treat ALI. The p-n junction in ZnO-NiO@COOH increases the surface area and active sites, thereby creating large numbers of oxygen vacancies, which can quickly adsorb ROS. The content in tissues and serum levels of L-glutathione (GSH) and the GSH/oxidized GSH ratio are measured to assess the capacity of ZnO-NiO@COOH particles to absorb ROS. The ZnO-NiO@COOH particles significantly reduce the expression levels of inflammatory factors (i.e., IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α), macrophage infiltration, and granulocyte activation. ZnO-NiO@COOH rapidly adsorb ROS in a short period of time to block the generation of inflammatory storms and gain time for the follow-up treatment of ALI, which has important clinical significance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zinc Oxide , Glutathione , Humans , Liver , Nickel/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Water , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(7): 8718-8727, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683917

ABSTRACT

Transparent antimicrobial coatings can maintain the aesthetic appeal of surfaces and the functionality of a touch-screen while adding the benefit of reducing disease transmission. We fabricated an antimicrobial coating of silver oxide particles in a silicate matrix on glass. The matrix was grown by a modified Stöber sol-gel process with vapor-phase water and ammonia. A coating on glass with 2.4 mg of Ag2O per mm2 caused a reduction of 99.3% of SARS-CoV-2 and >99.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared to the uncoated glass after 1 h. We envisage that screen protectors with transparent antimicrobial coatings will find particular application to communal touch-screens, such as in supermarkets and other check-out or check-in facilities where a number of individuals utilize the same touch-screen in a short interval.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Oxides/chemistry , Silver Compounds/chemistry , Ammonia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Glass/chemistry , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Oxides/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Silicates/chemistry , Silver Compounds/pharmacology , Water/chemistry
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 824: 153816, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676914

ABSTRACT

The applicability of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been extensively studied throughout the world with remarkable findings. This study reports the presence and reduction of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Nepal, along with river water, hospital wastewater (HWW), and wastewater from sewer lines collected between July 2020 and February 2021. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 50%, 54%, 100%, and 100% of water samples from WWTPs, river hospitals, and sewer lines, respectively, by at least one of four quantitative PCR assays tested (CDC-N1, CDC-N2, NIID_2019-nCOV_N, and N_Sarbeco). The CDC-N2 assay detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the highest number of raw influent samples of both WWTPs. The highest concentration was observed for an influent sample of WWTP A (5.5 ± 1.0 log10 genome copies/L) by the N_Sarbeco assay. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 47% (16/34) of the total treated effluents of WWTPs, indicating that biological treatments installed at the tested WWTPs are not enough to eliminate SARS-CoV-2 RNA. One influent sample was positive for N501Y mutation using the mutation-specific qPCR, highlighting a need for further typing of water samples to detect Variants of Concern. Furthermore, crAssphage-normalized SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in raw wastewater did not show any significant association with the number of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in the whole district where the WWTPs were located, suggesting a need for further studies focusing on suitability of viral as well as biochemical markers as a population normalizing factor. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA before, after, and during the peaking in number of COVID-19 cases suggests that WBE is a useful tool for COVID-19 case estimation in developing countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Water , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Nepal/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , Rivers , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Water
16.
Artif Organs ; 46(5): 735-746, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multi-organ failure characterized by acute kidney injury, liver dysfunction, and respiratory failure is a complex condition associated with high mortality, for which multiple individual support devices may be simultaneously required. This review aims to appraise the current evidence for the ADVanced Organ Support (ADVOS) system, a novel device integrating liver, lung, and kidney support with blood detoxification. METHODS: We performed a literature review of the PubMed database to identify human and animal studies evaluating the ADVOS system. RESULTS: In porcine models of acute liver injury and small clinical studies in humans, ADVOS significantly enhanced the elimination of water-soluble and protein-bound toxins and metabolites, including creatinine, ammonia, blood urea nitrogen, and lactate. Cardiovascular parameters (mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, and cardiac index) and renal function were improved. ADVOS clears carbon dioxide (CO2 ) effectively with rapid correction of pH abnormalities, achieving normalization of CO2 , and bicarbonate levels. In patients with COVID-19 infection, ADVOS enables rapid correction of acid-base disturbance and respiratory acidosis. ADVOS therapy reduces mortality in multi-organ failure and has been shown to be safe with minimal adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: From the small observational studies analyzed, ADVOS demonstrates excellent detoxification of water-soluble and protein-bound substances. In particular, ADVOS permits the correction of metabolic and respiratory acidosis through the fluid-based direct removal of acid and CO2 . ADVOS is associated with significant improvements in hemodynamic and biochemical parameters, a trend toward improved survival in multi-organ failure, and is well-tolerated. Larger randomized trials are now necessary to further validate these encouraging results.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Respiratory , COVID-19 , Animals , Carbon Dioxide , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Swine , Water
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1352: 159-172, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669702

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The emergence of a new member of the Coronaviridae family, which caused the 2020 pandemic, requires detailed research on the evolution of coronaviruses, their structure and properties, and interaction with cells. Modern nanobiotechnologies can address the many clinical challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, they offer new therapeutic approaches using biocompatible nanostructures with "specific" antiviral activity. Therefore, the nanosized spherical-like molecule (0.72 nm in diameter) composed of 60 carbon atoms, C60 fullerene, is of interest in terms of fighting coronaviruses due to its high biological activity. In here, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of anticoronavirus action of water-soluble pristine C60 fullerene in the model and in vitro systems. As a model, apathogenic for human coronavirus, we used transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine (TGEV), which we adapted to the BHK-21 cell culture (kidney cells of a newborn Syrian hamster). METHODS: The shape and size of the particles present in C60 fullerene aqueous colloidal solution (C60FAS) of given concentration, as well as C60FAS stability (value of zeta potential) were studied using microscopic (STM, scanning tunneling microscopy, and AFM, atomic force microscopy) and spectroscopic (DLS, dynamic light scattering) methods. The cytopathic effect of TGEV was determined with the help of a Leica DM 750 microscope and the degree of monolayer changes in cells was assessed. The microscopy of the viral suspension was performed using a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM; JEM-1230, Japan). Finally, the search for and design of optimal possible complexes between C60 fullerene and target proteins in the structure of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, evaluation of their stability in the simulated cellular environment were performed using molecular dynamics and docking methods. RESULTS: It was found that the maximum allowable cytotoxic concentration of C60 fullerene is 37.5 ± 3.0 µg/ml. The investigated C60FAS reduces the titer of coronavirus infectious activity by the value of 2.00 ± 0.08 TCID50/ml. It was shown that C60 fullerene interacts directly with SARS-CoV-2 proteins, such as RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) and 3CLpro (3-chymotrypsin-like protease), which is critical for the life cycle of the coronavirus and, thus, inhibits its functional activity. In both cases, C60 fullerene fills the binding pocket and gets stuck there through stacking and steric interactions. CONCLUSION: Pioneer in vitro study to identify the anticoronavirus activity of water-soluble pristine C60 fullerenes indicates that they are highly promising for further preclinical studies, since a significant inhibition of the infectious activity of swine coronavirus of transmissible gastroenteritis in BHK-21 cell culture was found. According to molecular modeling results, it was shown that C60 fullerene can create the stable complexes with 3CLpro and RdRp proteins of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and, thus, suppress its functional activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fullerenes , Animals , Fullerenes/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Water
18.
Proteins ; 90(5): 1090-1101, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669631

ABSTRACT

An attractive drug target to combat COVID-19 is the main protease (Mpro ) because of its key role in the viral life cycle by processing the polyproteins translated from the viral RNA. Studying the crystal structures of the protease is important to enhance our understanding of its mechanism of action at the atomic-level resolution, and consequently may provide crucial structural insights for structure-based drug discovery. In the current study, we report a comparative structural analysis of the Mpro substrate binding site for both apo and holo forms to identify key interacting residues and conserved water molecules during the ligand-binding process. It is shown that in addition to the catalytic dyad residues (His41 and Cys145), the oxyanion hole residues (Asn142-Ser144) and residues His164-Glu166 form essential parts of the substrate-binding pocket of the protease in the binding process. Furthermore, we address the issue of the substrate-binding pocket flexibility and show that two adjacent loops in the Mpro structures (residues Thr45-Met49 and Arg188-Ala191) with high flexibility can regulate the binding cavity' accessibility for different ligand sizes. Moreover, we discuss in detail the various structural and functional roles of several important conserved and mobile water molecules within and around the binding site in the proper enzymatic function of Mpro . We also present a new docking protocol in the framework of the ensemble docking strategy. The performance of the docking protocol has been evaluated in predicting ligand binding pose and affinity ranking for two popular docking programs; AutoDock4 and AutoDock Vina. Our docking results suggest that the top-ranked poses of the most populated clusters obtained by AutoDock Vina are the most important representative docking runs that show a very good performance in estimating experimental binding poses and affinity ranking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Endopeptidases , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
19.
Virus Res ; 311: 198701, 2022 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655223

ABSTRACT

The virucidal activities were evaluated by spraying slightly acidic hypochlorous acid waters (SAHWs) containing various concentrations of free available chlorine - 100, 200, 300 and 500 ppm (SAHW-100, -200, -300 and -500, respectively) - toward aerosol of an avian coronavirus (infectious bronchitis virus: IBV). The viral solution was supplemented with 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to simulate normal human droplets generated by sneezing or coughing in a real-life scenario. The virus containing 0.5% FBS was sprayed and exposed to SAHWs for a few seconds in a closed chamber, before reaching the air sampler. The results showed that IBV exposed to SAHW-100 and -200 for a few seconds decreased by 0.21 log10 and 0.80 log10, respectively, compared to the pre-exposed samples to SAHWs as controls. On the other hand, reductions of 1.16 log10 and 1.67 log10 were achieved following the exposure to SAHW-300 and -500, respectively, within a few seconds. These results suggest that SAHWs have rapid in vitro virucidal activity toward aerosolized IBV. The findings obtained for IBV might basically be applicable in relation to SARS-CoV-2, given the resemblance between the two viruses. To prevent human-to-human transmissions by aerosols, the inactivation of viruses in the air by exposure to SAHWs for a few seconds seems to be an effective way.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Hypochlorous Acid , Infectious bronchitis virus , COVID-19 , Humans , Hypochlorous Acid/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 823: 153398, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655143

ABSTRACT

This research examines water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) accessibility and opportunity in Kibera and Mathare during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. Kibera and Mathare are two of the largest urban informal settlements in Nairobi (the capital city of Kenya) as well as Sub-Saharan Africa. Accessibility indicates how easily a person can reach WASH facilities from their home by walking. Opportunity represents how many WASH options a person has near their home. We utilize the data on water and toilet facilities collected by GroundTruth Initiative in partnership with Map Kibera Trust (local community partners) between February and April 2021 - amid the COVID-19 pandemic. By conducting quantitative geospatial analysis, we illustrate WASH accessibility and related issues that were not evident in previous studies: (1) 77.4% of people living in Kibera have limited WASH facility accessibility or opportunity; (2) 60.6% of people living in Mathare have limited WASH facility accessibility or opportunity; (3) there is a clear geographic pattern in WASH facility accessibility and opportunity; and (4) overall accessibility and opportunity is better in Mathare than in Kibera. This study is one of the first studies to examine WASH accessibility and opportunity in urban informal settlements during the COVID-19 pandemic by utilizing the current data and quantitative geospatial methods. Based on the results, we discuss important public health policy implications for people living in urban informal settlements to improve their WASH facility accessibility and opportunity during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sanitation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hygiene , Kenya , Pandemics , Poverty Areas , Water
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