Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 154
Filter
1.
Lancet ; 400(10350): 441-451, 2022 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is an endolumenal, organ-sparing therapy for obesity, with wide global adoption. We aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of ESG with lifestyle modifications compared with lifestyle modifications alone. METHODS: We conducted a randomised clinical trial at nine US centres, enrolling individuals aged 21-65 years with class 1 or class 2 obesity and who agreed to comply with lifelong dietary restrictions. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1·5; with stratified permuted blocks) to ESG with lifestyle modifications (ESG group) or lifestyle modifications alone (control group), with potential retightening or crossover to ESG, respectively, at 52 weeks. Lifestyle modifications included a low-calorie diet and physical activity. Participants in the primary ESG group were followed up for 104 weeks. The primary endpoint at 52 weeks was the percentage of excess weight loss (EWL), with excess weight being that over the ideal weight for a BMI of 25 kg/m2. Secondary endpoints included change in metabolic comorbidities between the groups. We used multiple imputed intention-to-treat analyses with mixed-effects models. Our analyses were done on a per-protocol basis and a modified intention-to-treat basis. The safety population was defined as all participants who underwent ESG (both primary and crossover ESG) up to 52 weeks. FINDINGS: Between Dec 20, 2017, and June 14, 2019, 209 participants were randomly assigned to ESG (n=85) or to control (n=124). At 52 weeks, the primary endpoint of mean percentage of EWL was 49·2% (SD 32·0) for the ESG group and 3·2% (18·6) for the control group (p<0·0001). Mean percentage of total bodyweight loss was 13·6% (8·0) for the ESG group and 0·8% (5·0) for the control group (p<0·0001), and 59 (77%) of 77 participants in the ESG group reached 25% or more of EWL at 52 weeks compared with 13 (12%) of 110 in the control group (p<0·0001). At 52 weeks, 41 (80%) of 51 participants in the ESG group had an improvement in one or more metabolic comorbidities, whereas six (12%) worsened, compared with the control group in which 28 (45%) of 62 participants had similar improvement, whereas 31 (50%) worsened. At 104 weeks, 41 (68%) of 60 participants in the ESG group maintained 25% or more of EWL. ESG-related serious adverse events occurred in three (2%) of 131 participants, without mortality or need for intensive care or surgery. INTERPRETATION: ESG is a safe intervention that resulted in significant weight loss, maintained at 104 weeks, with important improvements in metabolic comorbidities. ESG should be considered as a synergistic weight loss intervention for patients with class 1 or class 2 obesity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03406975. FUNDING: Apollo Endosurgery, Mayo Clinic.


Subject(s)
Gastroplasty , Gastroplasty/adverse effects , Gastroplasty/methods , Humans , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/surgery , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Weight Loss
2.
N Engl J Med ; 385(6): 503-515, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tirzepatide is a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The efficacy and safety of once-weekly tirzepatide as compared with semaglutide, a selective GLP-1 receptor agonist, are unknown. METHODS: In an open-label, 40-week, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 1879 patients, in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive tirzepatide at a dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg or semaglutide at a dose of 1 mg. At baseline, the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 8.28%, the mean age 56.6 years, and the mean weight 93.7 kg. The primary end point was the change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. RESULTS: The estimated mean change from baseline in the glycated hemoglobin level was -2.01 percentage points, -2.24 percentage points, and -2.30 percentage points with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg of tirzepatide, respectively, and -1.86 percentage points with semaglutide; the estimated differences between the 5-mg, 10-mg, and 15-mg tirzepatide groups and the semaglutide group were -0.15 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.28 to -0.03; P = 0.02), -0.39 percentage points (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.26; P<0.001), and -0.45 percentage points (95% CI, -0.57 to -0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Tirzepatide at all doses was noninferior and superior to semaglutide. Reductions in body weight were greater with tirzepatide than with semaglutide (least-squares mean estimated treatment difference, -1.9 kg, -3.6 kg, and -5.5 kg, respectively; P<0.001 for all comparisons). The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal and were primarily mild to moderate in severity in the tirzepatide and semaglutide groups (nausea, 17 to 22% and 18%; diarrhea, 13 to 16% and 12%; and vomiting, 6 to 10% and 8%, respectively). Of the patients who received tirzepatide, hypoglycemia (blood glucose level, <54 mg per deciliter) was reported in 0.6% (5-mg group), 0.2% (10-mg group), and 1.7% (15-mg group); hypoglycemia was reported in 0.4% of those who received semaglutide. Serious adverse events were reported in 5 to 7% of the patients who received tirzepatide and in 3% of those who received semaglutide. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, tirzepatide was noninferior and superior to semaglutide with respect to the mean change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. (Funded by Eli Lilly; SURPASS-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03987919.).


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/administration & dosage , Glucagon-Like Peptides/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/adverse effects , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Glucagon-Like Peptides/adverse effects , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Incretins/therapeutic use , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Nausea/chemically induced , Weight Loss/drug effects
3.
Patient Educ Couns ; 105(7): 2371-2381, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report on patients' satisfaction and experience of care across three different modes of weight loss counseling. METHODS: 1407 patients with obesity in the rural Midwest were enrolled to a 2-year weight management trial through their primary care practice and assigned to one of three treatment conditions: in-clinic individual, in-clinic group, phone group counseling. Patients completed surveys assessing seven domains of satisfaction and experience of care at 6 and 24-months. Post-treatment interviews were conducted to add context to survey responses. RESULTS: 1295 (92.0%) and 1230 (87.4%) completed surveys at 6 and 24-months, respectively. Patients in phone group counseling reported lower satisfaction than patients who received in-clinic group or in-clinic individual counseling across all domains at 6-months and five out of seven domains at 24-months. Interviews revealed that patients were more satisfied when they received face-to-face counseling and had meaningful interactions with their primary care provider (PCP) about their weight. CONCLUSION: Rural patients with obesity have higher satisfaction and experience of care when weight loss counseling is delivered in a face-to-face environment and when their PCP is involved with their treatment. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Primary care practices looking to offer weight loss treatment should consider incorporating some level of face-to-face treatment plans that involves meaningful interaction with the PCP.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Weight Loss , Counseling/methods , Humans , Obesity/psychology , Obesity/therapy , Primary Health Care/methods , Rural Population , Weight Loss/physiology
4.
J Telemed Telecare ; 28(10): 764-770, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138416

ABSTRACT

Long-term weight loss can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes for people living with obesity and reduce complications for patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether a telehealth lifestyle-coaching program (Liva) leads to long-term (24 months) weight loss compared to usual care. In a randomized controlled trial, n = 340 participants living with obesity with or without type 2 diabetes were enrolled and randomized via an automated computer algorithm to an intervention group (n = 200) or to a control group (n = 140). The telehealth lifestyle-coaching program comprised of an initial one-hour face-to-face motivational interview followed by asynchronous telehealth coaching. The behavioural change techniques used were enabled by individual live monitoring. The primary outcome was a change in body weight from baseline to 24 months. Data were assessed for n = 136 participants (40%), n = 81 from the intervention group and n = 55 from the control group, who completed the 24-month follow-up. After 24 months mean body weight and body mass index were reduced significantly for completers in both groups, but almost twice as much was registered for those in the intervention group which was not significant between groups -4.4 (CI -6.1; -2.8) kg versus -2.5 (CI -3.9; -1.1) kg, P = 0.101. Haemoglobin A1c was significantly reduced in the intervention group -3.1 (CI -5.0; -1.2) mmol/mol, but not in the control group -0.2 (CI -2.4; -2.0) mmol/mol without a significant between group difference (P = 0.223). Low completion was partly due to coronavirus disease 2019. Telehealth lifestyle coaching improve long-term weight loss (> 24 months) for obese people with and without type 2 diabetes compared to usual care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Mentoring , Telemedicine , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Weight Loss , Telemedicine/methods , Life Style , Obesity/therapy , Primary Health Care
6.
Ir Med J ; 115(8): 653, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083474

ABSTRACT

Aim Explore the impact of COVID-19 on numbers and clinical profile of Eating Disorder (ED) presentations to a specialist ED program pre- and during COVID-19. Methods Retrospective chart review of referrals pre- COVID-19 (January 2018 - February 2020) and during COVID-19 (March 2020 - August 2021) were compared. Results 128 youth were assessed with significantly higher rates of referrals each month during COVID-19 compared to pre- COVID-19 (3.78 vs. 2.31, p = 0.02). Youth referred during COVID-19 showed a higher rate of % Ideal Body Weight (IBW) loss (4.8% = vs. 2.6%, p = < 0.001) and had a shorter duration of illness pre-referral (4.8 months vs. 7.4 months, p = 0.001). Fewer youth during COVID- 19 (19% vs. 43%, p = 0.011) were prescribed psychotropic medication. Many youth (80%), self-declared COVID-19 as a contributory factor in the development of their ED. Conclusion This study supports the growing consensus of a COVID-19 specific impact on ED services with higher rates of referrals, youth presenting with a faster pace of weight loss and earlier referral to specialist services. Whether this represents a true increase in EDs or an overall increase in CAMHS referrals with a faster transfer to ED services requires further exploration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Weight Loss
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17339, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077115

ABSTRACT

The relationship between fluid management and the severity of illness, duration of treatment, and outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate whether weight change during hospitalization was associated with COVID-19 severity, length of hospital stay, and route of admission. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of fluid restriction management in patients with severe COVID-19. COVID-19 patients admitted to our hospital between July 2020 and October 2021 were analyzed. Patients were treated with standard drug therapy based on the Japanese guidelines and respiratory support according to the severity of the disease. Early enteral nutrition, defecation management, and anticoagulation therapy were also administered. Fluid restriction management was performed using furosemide and continuous renal replacement therapy as needed unless hemodynamic instability or hyperlactatemia was present. Patient background, route of admission (ambulance, A; transfer, T), weight at admission and discharge, the severity of illness (oxygen therapy, G1; mechanical ventilation, G2; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, G3), in-hospital mortality, and length of hospital stay were analyzed. There were 116 subjects: G1 (n = 48), G2 (n = 43), and G3 (n = 25), with ages (median [IQR]) of 58 (47-70), 65 (53-71.5), 56 (51-62) years, 40 (83.3%), 31 (72.1%), and 19 (76.0%) males, respectively. Hospital stays were 4.5 (2-7), 10 (7-16), and 18 (15-26) days, and the in-hospital mortality rates were 0 (0%), 7 (16.3%), and 8 (32%), respectively. Body mass index on admission was 26 (23.1-30.2), 27.1 (22.7-31.1), and 31.5 (27.1-33.1) kg/m2, and weight loss during admission was 1.1 (0-2.9), 4.6 (2.3-5.7), 9.2 (5.6-10.5) kg (P < 0.001, Jonckheere-Terpstra test. Weight loss in the severe group (G2 + G3) was 3.4 (0.5-5.8) kg [A, n = 12] and 5.6 (4.4-9) kg [T, n = 43] [P = 0.026, Mann-Whitney U test]. The lengths of hospital stay were 5 (2-7), 9 (7-15), and 18 (12-26) days [P < 0.001, Jonckheere-Terpstra test]. In our fluid restriction management, patients with severe COVID-19 had significant longer hospital length of stay, weight loss, especially those who were transferred to the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Furosemide , Humans , Male , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
8.
Cir Cir ; 90(S1): 25-30, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067551

ABSTRACT

We aimed to discuss the weight loss success of the revision of RYGB to sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Between January 2019 and June 2020, four patients' files were analyzed retrospectively. Post-RYGB mean minimal BMI was 27.4 ± 9.47 kg/m², before SG the mean BMI was 43.41 ± 4.16 kg/m2. Post-operative gastric fistula developed in two patients. The mean follow-up time after revision surgery was 17.25 ± 6.89 months, mean excess weight loss (EWL) was 74.77 ± 8.94%, and mean BMI was 32.65 ± 2.9 kg/m2. Despite high rate of major complications, revision of RYGB to SG is successful in weight loss and resolving certain complications of RYGB.


Nuestro objetivo era discutir el éxito en la pérdida de peso de la revisión de BGYR a gastrectomía en manga (SG). Entre enero de 2019 y junio de 2020, se analizaron retrospectivamente los archivos de cuatro pacientes. El IMC mínimo medio post BGYR fue 27.4 ± 9.47 kg/m², antes de SG el IMC medio fue 43.41 ± 4.16 kg/m2. En dos pacientes se desarrolló una fístula gástrica posoperatoria. El tiempo medio de seguimiento después de la cirugía de revisión fue de 17.25 ± 6.89 meses, la pérdida media de exceso de peso (PEP) fue de 74.77 ± 8.94% y el IMC medio fue de 32.65 ± 2.9 kg/m2. A pesar de la alta tasa de complicaciones mayores, la revisión de BGYR a SG tiene éxito en la pérdida de peso y la resolución de ciertas complicaciones de BGYR.


Subject(s)
Gastric Bypass , Obesity, Morbid , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Weight Loss
9.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066302

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) is associated with malnutrition risk in hospitalised individuals. COVID-19 and malnutrition studies in large European cohorts are limited, and post-discharge dietary characteristics are understudied. This study aimed to assess the rates of and risk factors for ≥10% weight loss in inpatients with COVID-19, and the need for post-discharge dietetic support and the General Practitioner (GP) prescription of oral nutritional supplements, during the first COVID-19 wave in a large teaching hospital in the UK. Hospitalised adult patients admitted between March and June 2020 with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were included in this retrospective cohort study. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, and nutritional parameters associated with ≥10% weight loss and post-discharge characteristics were described. Logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for ≥10% weight loss and post-discharge requirements for ongoing dietetic input and oral nutritional supplement prescription. From the total 288 patients analysed (40% females, 72 years median age), 19% lost ≥ 10% of their admission weight. The length of hospital stay was a significant risk factor for ≥10% weight loss in multivariable analysis (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.08-1.38; p = 0.001). In addition, ≥10% weight loss was positively associated with higher admission weight and malnutrition screening scores, dysphagia, ICU admission, and artificial nutrition needs. The need for more than one dietetic input after discharge was associated with older age and ≥10% weight loss during admission. A large proportion of patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 experienced significant weight loss during admission. Longer hospital stay is a risk factor for ≥10% weight loss, independent of disease severity, reinforcing the importance of repeated malnutrition screening and timely referral to dietetics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , Aftercare , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/etiology , Nutritional Status , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066253

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Among the extra-pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19, neuromuscular signs and symptoms are frequent. We aimed to assess the correlation between neuromuscular abnormalities (electrophysiological) and mobility measures (Berg Balance Scale and Timed-Up-and-Go test) twice, at least 6 weeks after hospital discharge and 6 months later, taking into account cognitive performance, nutrition, muscle strength, and submaximal exercise capacity. Materials and Methods: 43 patients (51.4 ± 9.3 years old) accepted to participate in the study; they had a dyspnea score ≤ 3 (Borg scale), and no history of neurology/neuromuscular/orthopedic disorders, but high frequency of overweight/obesity and weight loss during hospital stay. The two evaluations included physical examination, cognitive assessment, nutritional evaluation, muscle strength (hand-grip and quadriceps dynamometry), electromyography, Barthel Index, Six-Minute- Walk-Test (6MWT), Berg Balance Scale and Timed-Up-and-Go test. Bivariate and repeated measures covariance analyses were performed (significance level of 0.05). Results: Electrophysiological abnormalities were evident in 67% of the patients, which were associated with diminished performance on the 6MWT, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed-Up-and-Go test. At each evaluation and between evaluations, scores on the Berg Balance Scale were related to the body mass index (BMI) at hospital admission and the 6MWT (MANCoVA R ≥ 0.62, p = 0.0001), while the time to perform the Timed-Up-and-Go test was related to the electrophysiological abnormalities, weight loss during hospital stay, sex, handgrip strength, and the 6MWT (MANCoVA, R ≥ 0.62, p < 0.0001). We concluded that, after hospital discharge, patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 may have neuromuscular abnormalities that can be related to BMI/weight loss, and contribute to mobility decrease. In patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 and high BMI/ large weight loss, neuromuscular and intended mobility assessments could be required to provide early rehabilitation. Apart from the 6MWT, handgrip dynamometry and the Timed-Up-and-Go test were useful tools to quickly assess fitness and mobility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Postural Balance , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Postural Balance/physiology , Hand Strength , COVID-19/complications , Time and Motion Studies , Body Weight , Weight Loss
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065918

ABSTRACT

Overweight and obesity are a cause of many non-communicable diseases leading to an increased risk of death. There are many programs aimed at weight reduction, but few publications have evaluated their effectiveness according to the gender and age of the subjects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of age and gender on weight loss outcomes in subjects participating in a 12-month online weight loss program. 400 subjects, 190 men and 210 women, were included in the study. The online intervention consisted of a 15% energy deficit diet and training (RESPO method). Changes in body weight over 12 months were similar (p = 0.14) across age groups. Weight reductions by month were statistically significant (p = 0.0001) in both groups. We noted no differences in weight loss between men and women expressed in kilograms. However, women reduced their body weight to a greater extent, i.e., by 2.7 percentage points, than men. Gender is a factor that may influence the effectiveness of weight loss programs, while age demonstrates no such influence. Our study shows that significant weight reduction during weight loss therapy is achieved by both men and women, but women can expect better results.


Subject(s)
Weight Reduction Programs , Body Weight , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight/therapy , Prospective Studies , Weight Loss , Weight Reduction Programs/methods
12.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 38(6): 592-599, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063080

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the key developments with regard to FDA-approved endoscopic bariatric metabolic therapies (EBMTs) in the last 2 years. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of obesity has increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and obesity worsens COVID-19 related outcomes. Several studies have confirmed the safety and short-term efficacy of intragastric balloons (IGBs). In the short-term IGBs may improve steatosis and fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and improve quality of life and mental health. Unfortunately weight loss from these temporarily placed devices is not sustained long-term. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) may be more effective and durable than IGBs, and result in fewer adverse events compared to bariatric surgery. The recently completed MERIT trial may catapult ESG as a first-line EBMT. Aspiration therapy meets safety and effectiveness thresholds for incorporation into routine practice, but overall acceptance has been lower than other FDA-approved EBMTs. SUMMARY: The field of endobariatrics is rapidly maturing. Significant knowledge gaps remain with regards to combining EBMTs with pharmacologic therapy to improve durability of weight loss. The rapid expansion in the literature supporting safety and long-term efficacy ESG may prompt revision of existing guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastroplasty , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/therapy , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome , Weight Loss
13.
Brain Behav ; 12(11): e2772, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059301

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that obesity is associated with decreased executive function. Impaired executive functions lead to poor self-regulation, which in turn may result in persistence of unhealthy behaviors, including eating behaviors, throughout life. Increasing self-regulation in childhood and adolescence has positive effects on creating healthy behaviors such as reducing unnecessary eating and changing unhealthy eating habits. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate an intervention package based on cognitive self-regulation training in changing eating behaviors and reducing obesity in children and adolescents. METHODS: Fifty-six students with obesity aged 12-16 years participated in the study in three groups (cognitive self-regulation training [CSRT], diet, and control). The CSRT group received twenty 30-min online training sessions with a diet over 10 weeks. The diet group received only a diet with no other intervention, and the control group did not receive any intervention. RESULTS: The results of our 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVA showed that the CSRT group had a mean BMI decrease of 2.21 (kg/m2 ) after ten weeks, and 3.24 (kg/m2 ) at the follow-up time. The diet group had a BMI decrease of 0.49 (kg/m2 ) at the ten weeks. In addition, the results showed that the CSRT had a significant reduction in eating behaviors such as external eating and emotional eating. However, the other two groups showed no changes in eating behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that online cognitive self-regulation training has been effective in weight loss and eating behaviors. This study shows promising evidence for the efficacy of the online CSRT-training as a weight stabilization intervention in children with obesity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Weight Loss/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Diet , Body Mass Index
14.
J Neurol ; 269(10): 5606-5614, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041278

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is an effective treatment in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with consolidated evidence of clinical efficacy. However, only few studies have assessed long-term safety, causes of discontinuation, mortality, and relative predictors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 79 PD patients treated with LCIG between 2005 and 2020 in two Italian Neurological Centers, recording all adverse events (AEs), including weight loss (WL). Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate the time to discontinuation and survival. Cox proportional hazard model was employed to identify predictors of discontinuation and mortality, while Pearson's correlation was used to analyze predictors of WL. RESULTS: The average follow-up was 47.7 ± 40.5 months and the median survival from disease onset was 25 years. There were three cases of polyradiculoneuropathy Guillain-Barre syndrome-like, all occurred in the early years of LCIG treatment. Twenty-five patients died (32%), 18 on LCIG (including one suicide) and seven after discontinuation. The mean WL was 3.62 ± 7.5 kg, which correlated with levodopa dose at baseline (p = 0.002), levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) baseline (p = 0.017) and off-duration (p = 0.0014), but not dyskinesia. Peristomal complications emerged as a negative predictor of discontinuation (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: LCIG has a relatively satisfactory long-term safety profile and efficacy and a relatively low rate of discontinuation. Peristomal complications may represent a predictor of longer duration of therapy. According to the mortality analysis, LCIG patients show a long lifespan. Delaying the initiation of LCIG does not affect the sustainability of LCIG therapy.


Subject(s)
Carbidopa , Parkinson Disease , Antiparkinson Agents/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Gels/therapeutic use , Humans , Levodopa/therapeutic use , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Weight Loss
15.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(9): 953-962, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041186

ABSTRACT

Importance: It is unclear how effective intermittent fasting is for losing weight and body fat, and the effects may depend on the timing of the eating window. This randomized trial compared time-restricted eating (TRE) with eating over a period of 12 or more hours while matching weight-loss counseling across groups. Objective: To determine whether practicing TRE by eating early in the day (eTRE) is more effective for weight loss, fat loss, and cardiometabolic health than eating over a period of 12 or more hours. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was a 14-week, parallel-arm, randomized clinical trial conducted between August 2018 and April 2020. Participants were adults aged 25 to 75 years with obesity and who received weight-loss treatment through the Weight Loss Medicine Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital. Interventions: All participants received weight-loss treatment (energy restriction [ER]) and were randomized to eTRE plus ER (8-hour eating window from 7:00 to 15:00) or control eating (CON) plus ER (≥12-hour window). Main Outcomes and Measures: The co-primary outcomes were weight loss and fat loss. Secondary outcomes included blood pressure, heart rate, glucose levels, insulin levels, and plasma lipid levels. Results: Ninety participants were enrolled (mean [SD] body mass index, 39.6 [6.7]; age, 43 [11] years; 72 [80%] female). The eTRE+ER group adhered 6.0 (0.8) days per week. The eTRE+ER intervention was more effective for losing weight (-2.3 kg; 95% CI, -3.7 to -0.9 kg; P = .002) but did not affect body fat (-1.4 kg; 95% CI, -2.9 to 0.2 kg; P = .09) or the ratio of fat loss to weight loss (-4.2%; 95% CI, -14.9 to 6.5%; P = .43). The effects of eTRE+ER were equivalent to reducing calorie intake by an additional 214 kcal/d. The eTRE+ER intervention also improved diastolic blood pressure (-4 mm Hg; 95% CI, -8 to 0 mm Hg; P = .04) and mood disturbances, including fatigue-inertia, vigor-activity, and depression-dejection. All other cardiometabolic risk factors, food intake, physical activity, and sleep outcomes were similar between groups. In a secondary analysis of 59 completers, eTRE+ER was also more effective for losing body fat and trunk fat than CON+ER. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, eTRE was more effective for losing weight and improving diastolic blood pressure and mood than eating over a window of 12 or more hours at 14 weeks. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03459703.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Weight Loss , Adipose Tissue , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Fasting , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/therapy , Weight Loss/physiology
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1437, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 related lockdowns may have affected engagement in health behaviours among the UK adult population. This prospective observational study assessed socio-demographic patterning in attempts to change and maintain a range of health behaviours and changes between two time points during the pandemic. METHODS: Adults aged 18 years and over (n = 4,978) were recruited using Dynata (an online market research platform) and the HealthWise Wales platform, supplemented through social media advertising. Online surveys were conducted in August/September 2020 when lockdown restrictions eased in the UK following the first major UK lockdown (survey phase 1) and in February/March 2021 during a further national lockdown (survey phase 2). Measures derived from the Cancer Awareness Measure included self-reported attempts to reduce alcohol consumption, increase fruit/vegetable consumption, increase physical activity, lose weight and reduce/stop smoking. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess individual health behaviour change attempts over time, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, employment and education. RESULTS: Around half of participants in survey phase 1 reported trying to increase physical activity (n = 2607, 52.4%), increase fruit/vegetables (n = 2445, 49.1%) and lose weight (n = 2413, 48.5%), with 19.0% (n = 948) trying to reduce alcohol consumption among people who drink. Among the 738 participants who smoked, 51.5% (n = 380) were trying to reduce and 27.4% (n = 202) to stop smoking completely. Most behaviour change attempts were more common among women, younger adults and minority ethnic group participants. Efforts to reduce smoking (aOR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.82-1.17) and stop smoking (aOR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.80-1.20) did not differ significantly in phase 2 compared to phase 1. Similarly, changes over time in attempts to improve other health behaviours were not statistically significant: physical activity (aOR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.99-1.16); weight loss (aOR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.90-1.00); fruit/vegetable intake (aOR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.91-1.06) and alcohol use (aOR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.92-1.91). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of participants reported attempts to change health behaviours in the initial survey phase. However, the lack of change observed over time indicated that overall motivation to engage in healthy behaviours was sustained among the UK adult population, from a period shortly after the first lockdown toward the end of the second prolonged lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vegetables , Weight Loss
18.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010221

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Formula low energy diets (LED) are effective at inducing weight loss and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remission. However, the effect of LED programmes in ethnic minority groups in the UK is unknown. (2) Methods: A service-evaluation was undertaken of a group-based LED, total diet replacement (TDR) programme in London, UK. The programme included: a 12-week TDR phase, 9-week food reintroduction and a 31-week weight maintenance phase and was delivered by a diabetes multi-disciplinary team. (3) Results: Between November 2018 and March 2020, 216 individuals were referred, 37 commenced the programme, with 29 completing (78%). The majority were of Black British (20%) ethnicity with a mean (SD) age of 50.4 (10.5) years, a body mass index of 34.4 (4.4) kg/m2 and a T2DM duration of 4.2 (3.6) years. At 12 months, 65.7% achieved T2DM remission, with a mean bodyweight loss of 11.6 (8.9) kg. Completers lost 15.8 (5.3) kg, with 31.4% of participants achieving ≥15 kg weight loss. Quality of life measures showed significant improvements. (4) Conclusions: This service evaluation shows for the first time in the UK that a group-based formula LED programme can be effective in achieving T2DM remission and weight loss in an ethnical diverse population.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diet , Ethnicity , Humans , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , Quality of Life , United Kingdom , Weight Loss
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 897099, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987594

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic public health measures such as stay-at-home and mandatory work-from-home orders have been associated with obesogenic lifestyle changes, increased risk of weight gain, and their metabolic sequelae. We sought to assess the impact of this pandemic on weight loss from a telemedicine-delivered very-low-carbohydrate intervention targeting nutritional ketosis (NKI). Methods: A total of 746 patients with a BMI ≥25kg/m2, enrolled between January and March 2020 and treated for at least 1 year with the NKI, were classified as pandemic cohort (PC). A separate cohort of 699 patients who received 1 year of the NKI in the preceding years, enrolled between January and March 2018, were identified as pre-pandemic cohort (Pre-PC). Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records to compare the cohorts and assess the outcomes. Using propensity score matching (PSM), balanced and matched groups of 407 patients in the Pre-PC and 407 patients in the PC were generated. Longitudinal change in absolute weight and percentage weight change from baseline to 1 year were assessed. Results: Weight significantly decreased in both PC and Pre-PC at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The weight loss trajectory was similar in both PC and Pre-PC with no significant weight differences between the two cohorts at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. On an average, the PC lost 7.5% body weight while the Pre-PC lost 7.9% over 1 year, and the percent weight loss did not differ between the two cohorts (p = 0.50). Conclusion: A very-low-carbohydrate telemedicine intervention delivered comparable and medically significant weight loss independent of pandemic stress and lifestyle limitations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbohydrates , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pandemics , Propensity Score , Weight Loss
20.
Nature ; 609(7928): 754-760, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984401

ABSTRACT

Identifying the host genetic factors underlying severe COVID-19 is an emerging challenge1-5. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 2,393 cases of COVID-19 in a cohort of Japanese individuals collected during the initial waves of the pandemic, with 3,289 unaffected controls. We identified a variant on chromosome 5 at 5q35 (rs60200309-A), close to the dedicator of cytokinesis 2 gene (DOCK2), which was associated with severe COVID-19 in patients less than 65 years of age. This risk allele was prevalent in East Asian individuals but rare in Europeans, highlighting the value of genome-wide association studies in non-European populations. RNA-sequencing analysis of 473 bulk peripheral blood samples identified decreased expression of DOCK2 associated with the risk allele in these younger patients. DOCK2 expression was suppressed in patients with severe cases of COVID-19. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis (n = 61 individuals) identified cell-type-specific downregulation of DOCK2 and a COVID-19-specific decreasing effect of the risk allele on DOCK2 expression in non-classical monocytes. Immunohistochemistry of lung specimens from patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia showed suppressed DOCK2 expression. Moreover, inhibition of DOCK2 function with CPYPP increased the severity of pneumonia in a Syrian hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, characterized by weight loss, lung oedema, enhanced viral loads, impaired macrophage recruitment and dysregulated type I interferon responses. We conclude that DOCK2 has an important role in the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of severe COVID-19, and could be further explored as a potential biomarker and/or therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , GTPase-Activating Proteins , Genome-Wide Association Study , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors , Host Microbial Interactions , SARS-CoV-2 , Alleles , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , GTPase-Activating Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics , GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/genetics , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/immunology , Japan , Lung/pathology , Macrophages , Mesocricetus , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/complications , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load , Weight Loss
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL