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1.
J Obes ; 2021: 4881430, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595062

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the associations between patient struggles, health, and weight management changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: 585 patients attending a publicly funded clinical weight management program responded to an electronic survey. Results: Over half of the patients reported worsened overall health, mental health, physical activity, or diet during the pandemic. Approximately 30% of patients lost ≥3% of their body weight and 21% gained ≥3% of their body weight between March and July of the pandemic. Reports of social isolation was associated with increased odds for weight loss in women (OR = 2.0, 1.2-3.3), while low motivation (OR = 1.9, 1.0-3.7), depression (OR = 2.5, 1.0-6.3), and struggles with carbohydrate intake (OR = 2.1, 1.0-4.3) were associated with weight gain. Cooking more at home/eating less take out was associated with increased likelihood of weight loss (OR = 2.1, 1.1-3.9) and lower odds for weight gain (OR = 0.2, 0.1 to 0.97). Working from home was not associated with weight loss or weight gain (P > 0.6). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with certain factors that may facilitate weight loss and other factors that promote weight gain. Thus, depending on the patient experience during the pandemic, prevention of weight gain may be more appropriate than weight loss.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Gain , Weight Loss
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6566-6574, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530179

ABSTRACT

Post recovery manifestations have become another concern in patients who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Numerous reports have shown that COVID-19 has a variety of long-term effects on almost all systems including respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neurological, psychiatric, and dermatological systems. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of the post-COVID syndrome among COVID-19 survivors and to determine the factors associated with persistent symptoms. This prospective study enrolled in patients with COVID-19 followed in hospital or outpatient clinics in Ankara City Hospital. We performed a special questionnaire to inquire about the presence of persistent symptoms beyond 12 weeks from the first diagnosis. Demographic data, comorbid diseases, characteristics of acute COVID-19, presence of persistent symptoms by systems, and knowledge about outpatient clinic visits after recovery were assessed. Of a total of 1007 participants, 39.0% had at least one comorbidity, and 47.5% had persistent symptoms. Fatigue/easy fatigability, myalgia, and loss of weight were the most frequent persistent symptoms (overall 29.3%) followed by respiratory symptoms (25.4%). A total of 235 participants had visited outpatient clinics due to several reasons during the post-COVID-19 period, and 17 of them were hospitalized. Severe acute COVID-19, hospitalization, and presence of comorbidity were independent factors for the development of persistent symptoms. Fully understanding the spectrum of the post-COVID syndrome is essential for appropriate management of all its long-term effects. Our study once again underlined the fact that the prevalence of post-COVID syndrome is higher than expected and concerns many systems, and a multidisciplinary follow-up should be provided to COVID-19 survivors in the post recovery period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Weight Loss , Young Adult
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512307

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of continuous energy restriction (CER) and intermittent energy restriction (IER) in bodyweight loss plan in sedentary individuals with normal bodyweight and explore the influence factors of effect and individual retention. METHODS: 26 participants were recruited in this randomized controlled and double-blinded trial and allocated to CER and IER groups. Bodyweight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and resting metabolic rate (RMR) would be collected before and after a 4-week (28 days) plan which included energy restriction (CER or IER) and moderate-intensity exercise. Daily intake of three major nutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fat) and calories were recorded. RESULTS: A significant decrease in BW and BMI were reported within each group. No statistically significant difference in the change of RMR in CERG. No statistically significant difference was reported in the effect between groups, neither as well the intake of total calories, three major nutrients, and individual plan retention. The influence factors of IER and CER are different. CONCLUSION: Both CER and IER are effective and safe energy restriction strategies in the short term. Daily energy intake and physical exercise are important to both IER and CER.


Subject(s)
Caloric Restriction , Diet, Reducing , Body Weight , Energy Intake , Humans , Weight Loss
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6304, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500462

ABSTRACT

Accumulating mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein can increase the possibility of immune escape, challenging the present COVID-19 prophylaxis and clinical interventions. Here, 3 receptor binding domain (RBD) specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 58G6, 510A5 and 13G9, with high neutralizing potency blocking authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus display remarkable efficacy against authentic B.1.351 virus. Surprisingly, structural analysis has revealed that 58G6 and 13G9 both recognize the steric region S470-495 on the RBD, overlapping the E484K mutation presented in B.1.351. Also, 58G6 directly binds to another region S450-458 in the RBD. Significantly, 58G6 and 510A5 both demonstrate prophylactic efficacy against authentic SARS-CoV-2 and B.1.351 viruses in the transgenic mice expressing human ACE2 (hACE2), protecting weight loss and reducing virus loads. Together, we have evidenced 2 potent neutralizing Abs with unique mechanism targeting authentic SARS-CoV-2 mutants, which can be promising candidates to fulfill the urgent needs for the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load/drug effects , Weight Loss/drug effects
5.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448908

ABSTRACT

The role of post-therapeutic support after weight loss in obesity treatment is not fully understood. Therefore, weight maintenance after a successful weight loss intervention is not very common, especially in obese individuals. This randomized controlled study was conducted to explore the efficacy of following dietary and psychological support in a group of 36 obese individuals. Participants (22 women, 14 men aged 35.58 ± 9.85 years, BMI 35.04 ± 3.80 kg/m2) who completed a 12-month weight loss phase (balanced energy-restricted diet) were randomly allocated to receive 18-month support (SG) or no additional care (CG). The support phase included some elements of Ten Top Tips (TTT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), motivational interviewing (MI) in combination with nutritional education and assessment of the level of physical activity. The primary outcome was the maintenance of anthropometric parameters at an 18-month follow-up. The secondary outcomes included evaluation of biochemical parameters and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes connected with obesity. A comparison of SG vs. CG after a 30-month period of the study revealed significant differences in weight changes (-3.83 ± 6.09 vs. 2.48 ± 6.24 kg), Body Mass Index (-1.27 ± 2.02 vs. 0.72 ± 2.12 kg/m2), visceral adipose tissue (-0.58 ± 0.63 vs. 0.45 ± 0.74 L), and waist circumference (-4.83 ± 4.05 vs. 1.83 ± 5.97 cm). Analysis of SNPs (rs9939609 FTO, rs987237 TFAP2B, and rs894160 PLIN1) provided further insight into the potential modulating effect of certain genotypes on weight loss and maintenance and extended the knowledge of the potential benefits of personalized medicine. Post-therapeutical support in current clinical practice may increase the chances of long-term weight loss maintenance in obesity treatment even in patients with a genetic predisposition to excessive weight.


Subject(s)
Body Weight Maintenance , Counseling , Nutritionists , Obesity/therapy , Weight Loss , Weight Reduction Programs , Adult , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Body Composition , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Motivational Interviewing , Perilipin-1/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Transcription Factor AP-2/genetics
6.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 121, 2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414142

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is causing a global crisis. It is still unresolved. Although many therapies and vaccines are being studied, they are still in their infancy. As this pandemic continues, rapid and accurate research for the development of therapies and vaccines is needed. Therefore, it is necessary to understand characteristics of diseases caused by SARS-CoV-2 through animal models. Syrian hamsters are known to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. They were intranasally inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. At 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 days post-infection (dpi), these hamsters were euthanized, and tissues were collected for ultrastructural and microstructural examinations. Microscopic lesions were prominent in the upper and lower respiratory tracts from 2 and 4 dpi groups, respectively. The respiratory epithelium in the trachea, bronchiole, and alveolar showed pathological changes. Inflammatory cells including neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils were infiltrated in/around tracheal lamina propria, pulmonary vessels, alveoli, and bronchiole. In pulmonary lesions, alveolar wall was thickened with infiltrated inflammatory cells, mainly neutrophils and macrophages. In the trachea, epithelial damages started from 2 dpi and recovered from 8 dpi, consistent with microscopic results, High levels of SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein were detected at 2 dpi and 4 dpi. In the lung, lesions were most severe at 8 dpi. Meanwhile, high levels of SARS-CoV-2 were detected at 4 dpi. Electron microscopic examinations revealed cellular changes in the trachea epithelium and alveolar epithelium such as vacuolation, sparse micro-organelle, and poor cellular margin. In the trachea epithelium, the number of cytoplasmic organelles was diminished, and small vesicles were prominent from 2 dpi. Some of these electron-lucent vesicles were filled with virion particles. From 8 dpi, the trachea epithelium started to recover. Because of shrunken nucleus and swollen cytoplasm, the N/C ratio of type 2 pneumocyte decreased at 8 and 12 dpi. From 8 dpi, lamellar bodies on type 2 pneumocyte cytoplasm were increasingly observed. Their number then decreased from 16 dpi. However, there was no significant change in type 1 pneumocyte. Viral vesicles were only observed in the cytoplasm of type 2 pneumocyte. In conclusion, ultra- and micro-structural changes presented in this study may provide useful information for SARS-CoV-2 studies in various fields.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Respiratory System/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Cricetinae , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Male , Mesocricetus , Pilot Projects , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Respiratory System/chemistry , Respiratory System/ultrastructure , Respiratory System/virology , Time Factors , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/ultrastructure , Trachea/virology , Weight Loss
7.
Nutrition ; 93: 111433, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392467

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: NutriCoviD30 is a longitudinal multicenter cohort study that aimed to provide nutritional objective data of inpatients during COVID-19 infection. The aims of this study were to describe the nutritional effects of COVID-19 infection on adult inpatients on the short- to mid-term (≤30 d after hospital discharge), using food intake and weight measurements and to identify factors associated with a decrease in food intake and weight. METHODS: Food intake and weight trajectories, as well as clinical signs of the disease, preexisting chronic diseases, and nutritional strategies were collected and analyzed during the course of the disease. Their association was estimated using mixed-effect regression modeling. Patients were recruited from French university hospitals from May to July 2020. For the 403 included patients (mean 62.2 ± 14.2 y of age; 63% men), median (interquartile range [IQR]) hospital length of stay was 13 d (IQR = 8, 20), and 30% of patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. RESULTS: Patients declared a median 70% food intake decrease in the acute phase, and the disease resulted in an average loss of 8% of predisease weight (corresponding to -6.5 kg). Although most patients recovered their usual food intake 1 month after hospital discharge, they only regained half of their weight loss, such that malnutrition, which affected 67% of patients during hospitalization, persisted in 41%. Patients with overweight, obesity, and diabetes reported an additional weight loss of >1.5% of their initial bodyweight during hospitalization and recovery phase. CONCLUSIONS: To prevent malnutrition and its long-term effects, mainly combined with a rapid weight loss predominantly affecting lean body mass, implementation of nutritional support is needed for COVID-19 inpatients. It should be started early in the course of the infection, and be extended up to the recovery phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inpatients , Adult , Cohort Studies , Eating , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
8.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 40: 100922, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386629

ABSTRACT

Primary intracranial hypertension (PIH) is characterized by clinical signs of increased intracranial pressure, papilledema, elevated opening pressure, and absence of mass lesion, hydrocephalus, or meningeal enhancement on neuroimaging. Visual changes are a common presenting feature and if untreated there is risk of irreversible vision loss. There have been recent proposed changes to the criteria for PIH along with studies looking at the differences in imaging characteristics between adult and pediatric PIH. The presence of transverse sinus stenosis alone was highly sensitive and specific for pediatric PIH. The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial was an adult, multicenter study that examined the use of acetazolamide and weight loss on the course of PIH. The study confirmed many previously held beliefs including the most common presenting symptom in PIH is headache. Most patients present with bilateral papilledema with 58.2% of patients having symmetric Frisen scale grading and within one grade in 92.8%. Although diplopia is a common reported symptom, very few have evidence of cranial nerve palsy. Male gender, high-grade papilledema, and decreased visual acuity at presentation are risk factors for treatment failure. Acetazolamide use is associated with mild metabolic acidosis. During acetazolamide treatment, monitoring for hypokalemia or aplastic anemia is not recommended. Monitoring transaminases in the titration phase of treatment should be considered due to a case of transaminitis and pancreatitis with elevated lipase. Newer case reports have also seen associations of secondary intracranial hypertension with concurrent COVID-19 infection and MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Acetazolamide/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Headache/diagnosis , Intracranial Hypertension , Papilledema/diagnosis , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Weight Loss , Acetazolamide/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Child , Combined Modality Therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension/complications , Intracranial Hypertension/diagnosis , Intracranial Hypertension/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Papilledema/etiology , Pseudotumor Cerebri/complications , Pseudotumor Cerebri/diagnosis , Pseudotumor Cerebri/etiology , Pseudotumor Cerebri/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vision Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
9.
Nature ; 583(7818): 834-838, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387423

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus with high nucleotide identity to SARS-CoV and to SARS-related coronaviruses that have been detected in horseshoe bats, has spread across the world and had a global effect on healthcare systems and economies1,2. A suitable small animal model is needed to support the development of vaccines and therapies. Here we report the pathogenesis and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in golden (Syrian) hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated the presence of viral antigens in nasal mucosa, bronchial epithelial cells and areas of lung consolidation on days 2 and 5 after inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, followed by rapid viral clearance and pneumocyte hyperplasia at 7 days after inoculation. We also found viral antigens in epithelial cells of the duodenum, and detected viral RNA in faeces. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted efficiently from inoculated hamsters to naive hamsters by direct contact and via aerosols. Transmission via fomites in soiled cages was not as efficient. Although viral RNA was continuously detected in the nasal washes of inoculated hamsters for 14 days, the communicable period was short and correlated with the detection of infectious virus but not viral RNA. Inoculated and naturally infected hamsters showed apparent weight loss on days 6-7 post-inoculation or post-contact; all hamsters returned to their original weight within 14 days and developed neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that features associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in golden hamsters resemble those found in humans with mild SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Aerosols , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/isolation & purification , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Duodenum/virology , Fomites/virology , Housing, Animal , Kidney/virology , Male , Mesocricetus/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Weight Loss
10.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376921

ABSTRACT

Bariatric surgery is the most efficacious treatment for obesity, though it is not free from complications. Preoperative conditioning has proved beneficial in various clinical contexts, but the evidence is scarce on the role of prehabilitation in bariatric surgery. We describe the protocol and pilot study of a randomized (ratio 1:1), parallel, controlled trial assessing the effect of a physical conditioning and respiratory muscle training programme, added to a standard 8-week group intervention based on therapeutical education and cognitive-behavioural therapy, in patients awaiting bariatric surgery. The primary outcome is preoperative weight-loss. Secondary outcomes include associated comorbidity, eating behaviour, physical activity, quality of life, and short-term postoperative complications. A pilot sample of 15 participants has been randomized to the intervention or control groups and their baseline features and results are described. Only 5 patients completed the group programme and returned for assessment. Measures to improve adherence will be implemented and once the COVID-19 pandemic allows, the clinical trial will start. This is the first randomized, clinical trial assessing the effect of physical and respiratory prehabilitation, added to standard group education and cognitive-behavioural intervention in obese patients on the waiting list for bariatric surgery. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT0404636.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Preoperative Care/methods , Preoperative Exercise , Adult , Breathing Exercises/methods , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Education as Topic , Pilot Projects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Weight Loss
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD008274, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All major guidelines for antihypertensive therapy recommend weight loss. Dietary interventions that aim to reduce body weight might therefore be a useful intervention to reduce blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular events associated with hypertension. OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives To assess the long-term effects of weight-reducing diets in people with hypertension on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, and adverse events (including total serious adverse events, withdrawal due to adverse events, and total non-serious adverse events). Secondary objectives To assess the long-term effects of weight-reducing diets in people with hypertension on change from baseline in systolic blood pressure, change from baseline in diastolic blood pressure, and body weight reduction. SEARCH METHODS: For this updated review, the Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomised controlled trials up to April 2020: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, CENTRAL (2020, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also contacted authors of relevant papers about further published and unpublished work. The searches had no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least 24 weeks' duration that compared weight-reducing dietary interventions to no dietary intervention in adults with primary hypertension. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed risks of bias and extracted data. Where appropriate and in the absence of significant heterogeneity between studies (P > 0.1), we pooled studies using a fixed-effect meta-analysis. In case of moderate or larger heterogeneity as measured by Higgins I2, we used a random-effects model. MAIN RESULTS: This second review update did not reveal any new trials, so the number of included trials remains the same: eight RCTs involving a total of 2100 participants with high blood pressure and a mean age of 45 to 66 years. Mean treatment duration was 6 to 36 months. We judged the risks of bias as unclear or high for all but two trials. No study included mortality as a predefined outcome. One RCT evaluated the effects of dietary weight loss on a combined endpoint consisting of the necessity of reinstating antihypertensive therapy and severe cardiovascular complications. In this RCT, weight-reducing diet lowered the endpoint compared to no diet: hazard ratio 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 0.87). None of the trials evaluated adverse events as designated in our protocol. The certainty of the evidence was low for a blood pressure reduction in participants assigned to weight-loss diets as compared to controls: systolic blood pressure: mean difference (MD) -4.5 mm Hg (95% CI -7.2 to -1.8 mm Hg) (3 studies, 731 participants), and diastolic blood pressure: MD -3.2 mm Hg (95% CI -4.8 to -1.5 mm Hg) (3 studies, 731 participants). We judged the certainty of the evidence to be high for weight reduction in dietary weight loss groups as compared to controls: MD -4.0 kg (95% CI -4.8 to -3.2) (5 trials, 880 participants). Two trials used withdrawal of antihypertensive medication as their primary outcome. Even though we did not consider this a relevant outcome for our review, the results of these RCTs strengthen the finding of a reduction of blood pressure by dietary weight-loss interventions. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In this second update, the conclusions remain unchanged, as we found no new trials. In people with primary hypertension, weight-loss diets reduced body weight and blood pressure, but the magnitude of the effects are uncertain due to the small number of participants and studies included in the analyses. Whether weight loss reduces mortality and morbidity is unknown. No useful information on adverse effects was reported in the relevant trials.


Subject(s)
Diet, Reducing/adverse effects , Hypertension/diet therapy , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Bias , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Weight Loss
12.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374473

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related restrictions impacted weight and weight-related factors during the initial months of the pandemic. However, longitudinal analyses are scarce. An online, longitudinal study was conducted among self-selected UK adults (n = 1818), involving three surveys (May-June, August-September, November-December 2020), covering anthropometric, sociodemographic, COVID-19-related and behavioural measures. Data were analysed using generalised estimating equations. Self-reported average weight/body mass index (BMI) significantly increased between the May-June period and the August-September period (74.95 to 75.33 kg/26.22 kg/m2 to 26.36kg/m2, p < 0.001, respectively), and then significantly decreased to November-December (to 75.06 kg/26.27 kg/m2, p < 0.01), comparable to May-June levels (p = 0.274/0.204). However, there was great interindividual variation, 37.0%/26.7% increased (average 3.64 kg (95% confidence interval: 3.32, 3.97)/1.64 kg/m2 (1.49, 1.79)), and 34.5%/26.3% decreased (average 3.59 kg (3.34, 3.85)/1.53 kg/m2 (1.42, 1.63)) weight/BMI between May-June and November-December. Weight/BMI increase was significantly negatively associated with initial BMI, and positively associated with monthly high fat, salt and sugar (HFSS) snacks intake and alcohol consumption, and for BMI only, older age. Associations were time-varying; lower initial BMI, higher HFSS snacks intake and high-risk alcohol consumption were associated with maintaining weight/BMI increases between August-September and November-December. The average weight/BMI of UK adults fluctuated between May-June and November-December 2020. However, the substantial interindividual variation in weight/BMI trajectories indicates long-term health impacts from the pandemic, associated with food and alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Feeding Behavior , Overweight/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Biological Variation, Population , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Snacks , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Weight Gain , Weight Loss , Young Adult
13.
Obes Surg ; 31(11): 4926-4932, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is one of the most effective treatments for patients with severe and complex obesity. Lifestyle modifications in diet and exercise habits have long been important adjunct to the long-term success after bariatric surgery. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the postoperative bariatric patient is not well understood. We sought to evaluate the impact the COVID-19 pandemic on postoperative weight loss at 1 year in a bariatric cohort. METHODS: All patients who underwent bariatric surgery from January 1, 2020, to March 12, 2020, were included. Patients who underwent bariatric surgery during the same period of the two preceding years (2018 and 2019) were included as control groups. Primary end point was %EBMIL at 1 year. A telephone survey was administered to all patients from 2020 to assess for their perception on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on weight loss. RESULTS: A total of 596 patients were included: 181 from 2020, 199 from 2019, and 216 from 2018. The response rate was 97% and 53.4% of patients reported that the lockdown affected their ability to lose weight. The %EBMIL at 1 year was 64.1%, 63.7%, and 68.1% for 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively. There was no difference in weight loss at 1 year (p = 0.77) despite a decrease in exercise activity in those who had surgery just before the pandemic. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in target weight loss at 1 year in a cohort who underwent bariatric surgery before the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
14.
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(5): 1655-1665, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) serves protective functions in metabolic, cardiovascular, renal, and pulmonary diseases and is linked to COVID-19 pathology. The correlates of temporal changes in soluble ACE2 (sACE2) remain understudied. OBJECTIVES: We explored the associations of sACE2 with metabolic health and proteome dynamics during a weight loss diet intervention. METHODS: We analyzed 457 healthy individuals (mean ± SD age: 39.8 ± 6.6 y) with BMI 28-40 kg/m2 in the DIETFITS (Diet Intervention Examining the Factors Interacting with Treatment Success) study. Biochemical markers of metabolic health and 236 proteins were measured by Olink CVDII, CVDIII, and Inflammation I arrays at baseline and at 6 mo during the dietary intervention. We determined clinical and routine biochemical correlates of the diet-induced change in sACE2 (ΔsACE2) using stepwise linear regression. We combined feature selection models and multivariable-adjusted linear regression to identify protein dynamics associated with ΔsACE2. RESULTS: sACE2 decreased on average at 6 mo during the diet intervention. Stronger decline in sACE2 during the diet intervention was independently associated with female sex, lower HOMA-IR and LDL cholesterol at baseline, and a stronger decline in HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and fat mass. Participants with decreasing HOMA-IR (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.03) and triglycerides (OR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.72, 4.26) had significantly higher odds for a decrease in sACE2 during the diet intervention than those without (P ≤ 0.0073). Feature selection models linked ΔsACE2 to changes in α-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor, E-selectin, hydroxyacid oxidase 1, kidney injury molecule 1, tyrosine-protein kinase Mer, placental growth factor, thrombomodulin, and TNF receptor superfamily member 10B. ΔsACE2 remained associated with these protein changes in multivariable-adjusted linear regression. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in sACE2 during a weight loss diet intervention was associated with improvements in metabolic health, fat mass, and markers of angiotensin peptide metabolism, hepatic and vascular injury, renal function, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Our findings may improve the risk stratification, prevention, and management of cardiometabolic complications.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01826591.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Body Composition , COVID-19/metabolism , Diet, Reducing , Obesity/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , Weight Loss/physiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/diet therapy , Oxidative Stress , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides/blood , Weight Reduction Programs
16.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2605-2611, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To analyze lifestyle habits and weight evolution during the COVID-19 pandemic-associated lockdown, in diabetes and overweight/obesity patients (body mass index (BMI) [25-29.9] and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively). METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected information on participants' characteristics and behavior regarding lifestyle before and during the lockdown, through the CoviDIAB web application, which is available freely for people with diabetes in France. We stratified the cohort according to BMI (≥25 kg/m2vs < 25 kg/m2) and examined the determinants of weight loss (WL), WL > 1 kg vs no-WL) in participants with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 5280 participants (mean age, 52.5 years; men, 49%; diabetes, 100% by design), 69.5% were overweight or obese (mean BMI, 28.6 kg/m2 (6.1)). During the lockdown, patients often quit or decreased smoking; overweight/obese participants increased alcohol consumption less frequently as compared with normal BMI patients. In addition, overweight/obese patients were more likely to improve other healthy behaviors on a larger scale than patients with normal BMI: increased intake of fruits and vegetables, reduction of snacks intake, and reduction of total dietary intake. WL was observed in 18.9% of people with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, whereas 28.6% of them gained weight. Lifestyle favorable changes characterized patients with WL. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of overweight/obese patients with diabetes seized the opportunity of lockdown to improve their lifestyle and to lose weight. Identifying those people may help clinicians to personalize practical advice in the case of a recurrent lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Healthy Lifestyle , Obesity/therapy , Risk Reduction Behavior , Weight Loss , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diet, Healthy , Exercise , Female , France/epidemiology , Habits , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Smoking Cessation , Time Factors , Weight Gain
17.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 108: 106522, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe challenges and lessons learned in conducting a remote behavioral weight loss trial. METHODS: The Personal Diet Study is an ongoing randomized clinical trial which aims to compare two mobile health (mHealth) weight loss approaches, standardized diet vs. personalized feedback, on glycemic response. Over a six-month period, participants attended dietitian-led group meetings via remote videoconferencing and were encouraged to self-monitor dietary intake using a smartphone app. Descriptive statistics were used to report adherence to counseling sessions and self-monitoring. Challenges were tracked during weekly project meetings. RESULTS: Challenges in connecting to and engaging in the videoconferencing sessions were noted. To address these issues, we provided a step-by-step user manual and video tutorials regarding use of WebEx, encouraged alternative means to join sessions, and sent reminder emails/texts about the WebEx sessions and asking participants to join sessions early. Self-monitoring app-related issue included inability to find specific foods in the app database. To overcome this, the study team incorporated commonly consumed foods as "favorites" in the app database, provided a manual and video tutorials regarding use of the app and checked the self-monitoring app dashboard weekly to identify nonadherent participants and intervened as appropriate. Among 135 participants included in the analysis, the median attendance rate for the 14 remote sessions was 85.7% (IQR: 64.3%-92.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Experience and lessons shared in this report may provide critical and timely guidance to other behavioral researchers and interventionists seeking to adapt behavioral counseling programs for remote delivery in the age of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Text Messaging , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(8): 1294-1308, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333021

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) study previously reported that intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) reduced incident depressive symptoms and improved health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over nearly 10 years of intervention compared with a control group (the diabetes support and education group [DSE]) in participants with type 2 diabetes and overweight or obesity. The present study compared incident depressive symptoms and changes in HRQOL in these groups for an additional 6 years following termination of the ILI in September 2012. METHODS: A total of 1,945 ILI participants and 1,900 DSE participants completed at least one of four planned postintervention assessments at which weight, mood (via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9), antidepressant medication use, and HRQOL (via the Medical Outcomes Scale, Short Form-36) were measured. RESULTS: ILI participants and DSE participants lost 3.1 (0.3) and 3.8 (0.3) kg [represented as mean (SE); p = 0.10], respectively, during the 6-year postintervention follow-up. No significant differences were observed between groups during this time in incident mild or greater symptoms of depression, antidepressant medication use, or in changes on the physical component summary or mental component summary scores of the Short Form-36. In both groups, mental component summary scores were higher than physical component summary scores. CONCLUSIONS: Prior participation in the ILI, compared with the DSE group, did not appear to improve subsequent mood or HRQOL during 6 years of postintervention follow-up.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Quality of Life , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Life Style , Overweight/therapy , Weight Loss
19.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23 Suppl 1: 3-16, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324985

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a chronic multisystem disease associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The increasing prevalence of obesity makes it a major healthcare challenge across both developed and developing countries. Traditional measures such as body mass index do not always identify individuals at increased risk of comorbidities, yet continue to be used in deciding who qualifies for weight loss treatment. A better understanding of how obesity is associated with comorbidities, in particular non-metabolic conditions, is needed to identify individuals at risk in order to prioritize treatment. For metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), weight loss can prevent T2D in individuals with prediabetes. It can improve and reverse T2D if weight loss is achieved early in the course of the disease. However, access to effective weight loss treatments is a significant barrier to improved health for people with obesity. In the present paper, we review the rising prevalence of obesity and why it should be classed as a multisystem disease. We will discuss potential mechanisms underlying its association with various comorbidities and how these respond to treatment, with a particular focus on cardiometabolic disease, malignancy and mental health.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Weight Loss
20.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(7): e227-e230, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320541

ABSTRACT

Adenocarcinoma of the bladder is a rare form of malignancy accounting for fewer than 2% of bladder tumours. It is most commonly a result of direct invasion from prostatic, rectal or gynaecological primaries and less commonly presents from distant haematological or lymphatic metastasis. We report a rare case of oesophageal carcinoma metastasising to the bladder. It involves a 71-year-old man with progressive dysphagia and diagnostic computerised tomography findings of thickening in the oesophagus, bladder and common bile duct. Subsequent endoscopic biopsies of the oesophageal and bladder abnormalities showed immunohistochemical features consistent with upper gastrointestinal malignancy. This report aims to add to current clinical evidence of this route of metastasis and also highlight some of the key markers used by pathologists in interpretation of specimens. It also emphasises the essential role of a multidisciplinary approach for the diagnosis of such rare conditions.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Hydronephrosis/diagnosis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Aged , Biopsy , Cystoscopy , Esophageal Neoplasms/complications , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Esophagus/pathology , Humans , Hydronephrosis/etiology , Male , Palliative Care , Terminal Care , Urinary Bladder/diagnostic imaging , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/secondary , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/therapy , Weight Loss
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