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1.
J Infect Dis ; 222(4): 551-555, 2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704462

ABSTRACT

We simulated 3 transmission modes, including close-contact, respiratory droplets and aerosol routes, in the laboratory. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be highly transmitted among naive human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) mice via close contact because 7 of 13 naive hACE2 mice were SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositive 14 days after being introduced into the same cage with 3 infected-hACE2 mice. For respiratory droplets, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from 3 of 10 naive hACE2 mice showed seropositivity 14 days after introduction into the same cage with 3 infected-hACE2 mice, separated by grids. In addition, hACE2 mice cannot be experimentally infected via aerosol inoculation until continued up to 25 minutes with high viral concentrations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Aerosols , Anal Canal/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/virology , Risk , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Weight Loss
3.
Clin Obes ; 10(5): e12386, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679741

ABSTRACT

How the impact of the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders is influencing physical, mental and financial health among vulnerable populations, including those with obesity is unknown. The aim of the current study was to explore the health implications of COVID-19 among a sample of adults with obesity. A retrospective medical chart review identified patients with obesity from an obesity medicine clinic and a bariatric surgery (MBS) practice. Patients completed an online survey from April 15, 2020 to May 31, 2020 to assess COVID-19 status and health behaviours during stay-at-home orders. Logistic regression models examined the impact of these orders on anxiety and depression by ethnic group. A total of 123 patients (87% female, mean age 51.2 years [SD 13.0]), mean BMI 40.2 [SD 6.7], 49.2% non-Hispanic white (NHW), 28.7% non-Hispanic black, 16.4% Hispanic, 7% other ethnicity and 33.1% completed MBS were included. Two patients tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and 14.6% reported symptoms. Then, 72.8% reported increased anxiety and 83.6% increased depression since stay-at-home orders were initiated. Also 69.6% reported more difficultly in achieving weight loss goals, less exercise time (47.9%) and intensity (55.8%), increased stockpiling of food (49.6%) and stress eating (61.2%). Hispanics were less likely to report anxiety vs NHWs (adjusted odds ratios 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05-0.49; P = .009). Results here showed the COVID-19 pandemic is having a significant impact on patients with obesity regardless of infection status. These results can inform clinicians and healthcare professionals about effective strategies to minimize COVID-19 negative outcomes for this vulnerable population now and in post-COVID-19 recovery efforts.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Exercise , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Behavior , Obesity/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Weight Loss , Adult , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Bariatric Medicine , Bariatric Surgery , Betacoronavirus , Depression/epidemiology , European Continental Ancestry Group/psychology , European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hispanic Americans/psychology , Hispanic Americans/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/psychology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Am J Primatol ; 82(8): e23158, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526544

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has radically changed the human activities worldwide. Although we are still learning about the disease, it is necessary that primatologists, veterinarians, and all that are living with nonhuman primates (NHP) be concerned about the probable health impacts as these animals face this new pandemic. We want to increase discussion with the scientific community that is directly involved with these animals, because preliminary studies report that NHP may become infected and develop symptoms similar to those in human beings.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Primate Diseases/virology , Primates/virology , Animals , Animals, Zoo , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Primate Diseases/blood , Primate Diseases/etiology , Primate Diseases/transmission , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Viral Load/veterinary , Weight Loss
6.
Cell ; 182(1): 50-58.e8, 2020 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343611

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread worldwide since 2019 and is now a severe threat to public health. We previously identified the causative agent as a novel SARS-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that uses human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) as the entry receptor. Here, we successfully developed a SARS-CoV-2 hACE2 transgenic mouse (HFH4-hACE2 in C3B6 mice) infection model. The infected mice generated typical interstitial pneumonia and pathology that were similar to those of COVID-19 patients. Viral quantification revealed the lungs as the major site of infection, although viral RNA could also be found in the eye, heart, and brain in some mice. Virus identical to SARS-CoV-2 in full-genome sequences was isolated from the infected lung and brain tissues. Last, we showed that pre-exposure to SARS-CoV-2 could protect mice from severe pneumonia. Our results show that the hACE2 mouse would be a valuable tool for testing potential vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Transgenic , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Animals , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic/genetics , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Viral Tropism , Weight Loss
7.
J Infect Dis ; 222(4): 551-555, 2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343436

ABSTRACT

We simulated 3 transmission modes, including close-contact, respiratory droplets and aerosol routes, in the laboratory. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be highly transmitted among naive human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) mice via close contact because 7 of 13 naive hACE2 mice were SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositive 14 days after being introduced into the same cage with 3 infected-hACE2 mice. For respiratory droplets, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from 3 of 10 naive hACE2 mice showed seropositivity 14 days after introduction into the same cage with 3 infected-hACE2 mice, separated by grids. In addition, hACE2 mice cannot be experimentally infected via aerosol inoculation until continued up to 25 minutes with high viral concentrations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Aerosols , Anal Canal/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/virology , Risk , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Weight Loss
8.
Nature ; 583(7818): 834-838, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-261141

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus with high nucleotide identity to SARS-CoV and to SARS-related coronaviruses that have been detected in horseshoe bats, has spread across the world and had a global effect on healthcare systems and economies1,2. A suitable small animal model is needed to support the development of vaccines and therapies. Here we report the pathogenesis and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in golden (Syrian) hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated the presence of viral antigens in nasal mucosa, bronchial epithelial cells and areas of lung consolidation on days 2 and 5 after inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, followed by rapid viral clearance and pneumocyte hyperplasia at 7 days after inoculation. We also found viral antigens in epithelial cells of the duodenum, and detected viral RNA in faeces. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted efficiently from inoculated hamsters to naive hamsters by direct contact and via aerosols. Transmission via fomites in soiled cages was not as efficient. Although viral RNA was continuously detected in the nasal washes of inoculated hamsters for 14 days, the communicable period was short and correlated with the detection of infectious virus but not viral RNA. Inoculated and naturally infected hamsters showed apparent weight loss on days 6-7 post-inoculation or post-contact; all hamsters returned to their original weight within 14 days and developed neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that features associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in golden hamsters resemble those found in humans with mild SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Aerosols , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/isolation & purification , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Duodenum/virology , Fomites/virology , Housing, Animal , Kidney/virology , Male , Mesocricetus/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Viral Load , Weight Loss
9.
Nature ; 583(7818): 830-833, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-220333

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has become a public health emergency of international concern1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)2. Here we infected transgenic mice that express human ACE2 (hereafter, hACE2 mice) with SARS-CoV-2 and studied the pathogenicity of the virus. We observed weight loss as well as virus replication in the lungs of hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. The typical histopathology was interstitial pneumonia with infiltration of considerable numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes into the alveolar interstitium, and the accumulation of macrophages in alveolar cavities. We observed viral antigens in bronchial epithelial cells, macrophages and alveolar epithelia. These phenomena were not found in wild-type mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Notably, we have confirmed the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 mice. This mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection will be valuable for evaluating antiviral therapeutic agents and vaccines, as well as understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Lung/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Transgenes , Animals , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Complement 3d/genetics , Receptors, Complement 3d/metabolism , Virus Replication , Weight Loss
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