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1.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 228, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020 outpatient care of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients was severely reduced due to lockdown. Missed visits are known to be detrimental to patients in need of continued anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injections (IVIs). The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of a month-long pause of regular visits and anti-VEGF IVIs in nAMD patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed. Patients were treated in a pro re nata ("as needed") scheme. Distance (logMAR) and near (logRAD) visual acuity (VA), optical coherence tomography, delay between planned and actual visit date and the indication for IVI were assessed for 3 continous visits in the 6 months before lockdown (V-3, -2, -1) and the 2 visits after lockdown (V0, V + 1). For analysis of long-term impact, records for visits 1 years before and after lockdown (V-3, V + 2) were gathered. RESULTS: We included 166 patients (120 female, 46 male) with a median (range) age of 80.88 (59.8-99.36) years. Compared to V-1, distance VA was significantly worse at both V0 (0.27 ± 0.21 vs 0.31 ± 0.23 logMAR, p < 0.001) and V + 1 (0.27 ± 0.21 vs 0.30 ± 0.23 logMAR, p = 0.021). Near VA was significantly worse at both V0 (0.31 ± 0.21 vs 0.34 ± 0.22 logRAD, p = 0.037) and V + 1 (0.31 ± 0.21 vs 0.34 ± 0.22 logRAD, p = 0.02). Visit delay (VD) at V0 was significantly longer than at V + 1 (30.81 ± 20.44 vs 2.02 ± 6.79 days, p < 0.0001). Linear regression analysis showed a significant association between visit delay and a reduction of near VA between V-1 and V + 1 (p = 0.0223). There was a significant loss of distance VA (p = 0.02) in the year after the lockdown period (n = 125) compared to the year before. Loss of reading acuity was not significantly increased (p = 0.3). One year post lockdown, there was no correlation between VA change and visit delay after lockdown (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In nAMD patients whose visits and treatment were paused for a month during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, we found a loss of VA immediately after lockdown, which persisted during follow-up despite re-established anti-VEGF treatment. In the short term, length of delay was predictive for loss of reading VA. The comparison of development of VA during the year before and after the lockdown showed a progression of nAMD related VA loss which may have been accelerated by the disruption of regular visits and treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This article does not report the outcome of a health care intervention. This retrospective study was therefore not registered in a clinical trials database.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Degeneration , Wet Macular Degeneration , Aged, 80 and over , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Male , Pandemics , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Wet Macular Degeneration/epidemiology
2.
Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed) ; 97(4): 184-190, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused chaos in all health systems on the planet. It has been difficult to cope with COVID 19, but also to maintain the activity in other specialties. In ophthalmology, the scientific societies recommended providing urgent care, including the intravitreal treatment of patients with active neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), since a delay in treatment implies a potential loss of visual acuity (VA). The main objective of this study was to measure the impact of the coronavirus lockdown on the activity and visual results in patients with neovascular AMD in Area 3 of Madrid. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective observational study was conducted of all patients with neovascular AMD who attended a consultation and/or received intravitreal treatment in the 3 months before the lockdown. RESULTS: In the 3 months before the lockdown, 144 patients with neovascular AMD were treated, of whom only 51 attended a consultation during the lockdown and, at 6 months after it, only 117 patients had resumed their follow-up. Mean VA before the lockdown was 58.0 ±â€¯23.7 letters and was statistically significantly reduced to 53.0 ±â€¯27.1 letters at 6 months after the lockdown. We also observed a significant decrease in the number of visits during the lockdown, despite the security measures implemented. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that patients with neovascular AMD have had a statistically significant decrease in VA due to the lockdown. A VA of almost 58 letters was reduced to 53 at 6 months after the lockdown. The percentage of patients who lost 15 or more letters doubled. We observed a 63.3% loss of temporary follow-up during the lockdown and a 14.58% loss of permanent follow-up at 6 months after the lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Visual Acuity , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057269, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report the reduction in new neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) referrals during the COVID-19 pandemic and estimate the impact of delayed treatment on visual outcomes at 1 year. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical audit and simulation model. SETTING: Multiple UK National Health Service (NHS) ophthalmology centres. PARTICIPANTS: Data on the reduction in new nAMD referrals were obtained from four NHS Trusts comparing April 2020 with April 2019. To estimate the potential impact on 1-year visual outcomes, a stratified bootstrap simulation model was developed drawing on an electronic medical records dataset of 20 825 nAMD eyes from 27 NHS Trusts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Simulated mean visual acuity and proportions of eyes with vision ≤6/60, ≤6/24 and ≥6/12 at 1 year under four hypothetical scenarios: 0-month, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month treatment delays. Estimated additional number of eyes with vision ≤6/60 at 1 year nationally. RESULTS: The number of nAMD referrals dropped on average by 72% (range 65%-87%). Simulated 1-year visual outcomes for 1000 nAMD eyes with a 3-month treatment delay suggested an increase in the proportion of eyes with vision ≤6/60 from 15.5% (13.2%-17.9%) to 23.3% (20.7%-25.9%), and a decrease in the proportion of eyes with vision ≥6/12 (driving vision) from 35.1% (32.1%-38.1%) to 26.4% (23.8%-29.2%). Outcomes worsened incrementally with longer modelled delays. Assuming nAMD referrals are reduced to this level for 1 month nationally, these simulated results suggest an additional 186-365 eyes with vision ≤6/60 at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: We report a large decrease in nAMD referrals during the COVID-19 lockdown and provide an important public health message regarding the risk of delayed treatment. As a conservative estimate, a treatment delay of 3 months could lead to a >50% relative increase in the number of eyes with vision ≤6/60 and 25% relative decrease in the number of eyes with driving vision at 1 year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Degeneration , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Audit , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Macular Degeneration/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , State Medicine , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vision Disorders , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Wet Macular Degeneration/epidemiology
4.
Int Ophthalmol ; 42(6): 1749-1762, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the most common reasons for blindness in the world today. The most common treatment for wet AMD is the intravitreal injections for inhibiting vascular-endothelial-derived growth factor (VEGF). This treatment usually involves multiple injections and thus multiple clinic visits, which not only causes increased cost on national health services but also causes exposure to the hospital environment, which is sometimes high risk considering current COVID crisis. The treatment, in spite of the above concerns, is usually effective. However, in some cases, either the medicine fails to produce the anticipated favourable outcome, resulting in waste of time, medication, efforts, and above all, psychological distress to the patients. Hence, early predictability of anatomical as well as functional effectiveness of the treatment appears to be a very desirable capability to have. METHOD: A machine learning approach using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) of two-sample prediction model has been presented that requires only the baseline measurements and changes in visual acuity (VA) as well as macular thickness (MAC) after four months of treatment to estimate the values of VA and MAC at 8 and 12 months. In contrast to most of the AI techniques, ANFIS approach has shown the capability of the algorithm to work with very small dataset as well, which makes it a perfect candidate for the presented solution. RESULTS: The presented model has shown to have a very high accuracy (> 92%) and works in near-real-time scenarios. It has been converted into a smart phone App, OphnosisAMD, for convenient usage. With this App, the clinician can visualize the progression of the patient for a specific treatment and can decide on continuing or changing the treatment accordingly. The complete AI engine developed with the ANFIS algorithm is localized to the phone through the App, implying that there is no need for internet or cloud connectivity for this App to function. This makes it ideal for remote usage, especially under the current COVID scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: With a smart AI-based App on their fingertips, the presented system provides ample opportunity to the doctors to make a better decision based on the estimated progression, if the same drug is continued with (good/fair prognosis) or alternate treatment should be sought (bad prognosis). From a functional point of view, a prediction algorithm is triggered through simple entry of the relevant parameters (baseline and 4 months only). No internet/cloud connectivity is needed since the algorithm and the trained network are fully embedded in the App locally. Hence, using the App in remote and/or non-connected isolated areas is possible, especially in the secluded patients during the COVID scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Phone , Wet Macular Degeneration , Aged, 80 and over , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Prognosis , Ranibizumab , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
5.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 260(6): 1907-1914, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616128

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the impact of COVID-19-related delay in intravitreal injection timing on macular structure and visual acuity (VA) among patients treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). METHODS: We reviewed demographic and clinical data and macular ocular computerized tomographic images of 34 patients (48 eyes, group A) who did not follow their injection schedule during the first wave of COVID-19 and compared them to 46 patients (71 eyes, group B) who did. Functional worsening was defined as a loss of at least 0.1 in decimal VA. Anatomic worsening was defined as new or increased subretinal/intraretinal fluids or new hemorrhage. RESULTS: The planned mean ± standard deviation intervals between the intravitreal injections were 5.7 ± 2.7 weeks for group A and 5.5 ± 2.4 weeks for group B (P = 0.60). The actual intervals were 13.6 ± 6.8 (7.9 ± 5.2 weeks' delay) and 5.3 ± 2.4 weeks (no delay), respectively (P < 0.001). The best corrected visual acuity worsened in 23 group A eyes (47.9%) and in 6 group B eyes (8.5%) (odds ratio [OR] 9.97, P < 0.001). Anatomic features indicative of nvAMD worsening were detected in 31 group A eyes (64.6%) and in 16 group B eyes (22.5%) (OR 5.73, P < 0.001). A new macular hemorrhage was observed in 4 group A eyes (8.3%) and in no group B eyes (P = 0.09). CONCLUSION: Delay in timely retinal care during the COVID-19 restrictions period resulted in short-term negative outcomes, including macular bleeding, in nvAMD patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Degeneration , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Ranibizumab , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
6.
Retina ; 42(4): 634-642, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575085

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the visual and anatomical impact of intravitreal injection treatment deferral because of the COVID-19 lockdown on patients affected by neovascular age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 314 patients (394 eyes) who were scheduled to receive the impact of intravitreal injections during the Swiss lockdown. We compared patients who continued to receive scheduled impact of intravitreal treatment without clinical consultation (Group Continue ?C"; n = 215) and patients for whom the impact of intravitreal treatment was completely deferred (Group Stop, ?S"; n = 179). Functional and anatomical parameters were collected at four time points before and after the lockdown. RESULTS: In Group C, the visual acuity at baseline and after the lockdown did not differ significantly. In Group S, the visual acuity deteriorated significantly compared with baseline and then improved slightly after the resumption of treatment, but it did not recover to baseline values. The mean central subfield thickness remained stable in Group C, whereas it increased in Group S and then returned to prelockdown values after the resumption of treatment. CONCLUSION: An "injection-only" approach was effective in managing patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration during the pandemic lockdown, whereas patients who deferred their scheduled treatment showed partially irreversible deterioration of visual function. We recommend treatment continuation in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration during a lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Degeneration , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
7.
Adv Ther ; 39(4): 1568-1581, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530424

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To explore the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the stability of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) receiving the treat and extend (T&E) or the pro re nata (PRN) treatment regimen and to identify indicators that may predict the disease stability of nAMD. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with nAMD treated at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University whose treatment schedule was interrupted at least once between 1 February and 31 May 2020. The demographic and clinical characteristics, including the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) features, subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), interval between the last injection and the beginning of the pandemic, and the number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections, were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 209 stable patients with nAMD (122 eyes received the T&E regimen; 87 eyes received the PRN regimen) were identified. Compared to those who received the PRN regimen, the patients who received the T&E regimen were more stable during the first visit after COVID-19 (53.3% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.004), the BCVA was significantly better (58.5 letters vs. 56 letters, P = 0.006), and the CRT fluctuated only slightly (15 µm vs. 35 µm, P = 0.001). Furthermore, a multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that stable patients with nAMD with type 1 choroidal neovascularization (CNV) (OR 2.493 [95% CI 1.179-5.272], compared with type 2 CNV; P = 0.017; OR 2.912 [95% CI 1.133-7.485], compared with retinal angiomatous proliferation; P = 0.026) or with pigment epithelial detachment (PED) were more likely to remain stable when treatment was interrupted (OR 0.392 [95% CI 0.181-0.852], compared with no PED; P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Compared to patients who received the PRN treatment regimen, stable patients with nAMD who received the T&E treatment regimen could better maintain stability when the treatments were suddenly interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, patients with type 1 CNV or patients with PED were more likely to remain stable. At present, the COVID-19 pandemic is becoming increasingly normalized, and the T&E regimen can become a more advanced treatment option for patients undergoing therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Choroidal Neovascularization , Macular Degeneration , Retinal Detachment , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/complications , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Pandemics , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity , Wet Macular Degeneration/complications , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
8.
Retina ; 41(4): 701-705, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe our managing strategy for COVID-19 emergency, to evaluate the adherence to intravitreal treatment (AtT) rate during the outbreak in a referral hospital in Milan, and to correlate it with patients' clinical features. METHODS: The AtT rate of patients with scheduled intravitreal injections during the COVID-19 outbreak from February 23, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was compared with the previous trimester and with March 2019. The impact of age, sex, visual function, and diagnosis on the AtT rate during unlocked/locked weeks (from March 8th) was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 650 consecutive patients with scheduled intravitreal injections, the AtT rate during the COVID-19 outbreak was 0.37. This was significantly lower compared with AtT registered in the previous trimester (0.92) and in the same weeks in 2019 (0.90) (both P < 0.001). Patients adherent to treatment were significantly younger (P < 0.001) and had a lower best-corrected visual acuity in the fellow eye (P = 0.046). During the lockdown weeks, the AtT rate was significantly lower than in the two unlocked weeks (0.19 vs. 0.73, P < 0.001). In addition, the AtT rate in patients classified as "emergent" during the lockdown weeks was 0.60. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results can help the retina specialist community to foresee this unique scenario and to develop successful management strategies.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19/epidemiology , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Macular Edema/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Choroidal Neovascularization/diagnostic imaging , Choroidal Neovascularization/physiopathology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intravitreal Injections , Italy/epidemiology , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Male , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity/physiology , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnostic imaging , Wet Macular Degeneration/physiopathology
9.
Retina ; 41(12): 2456-2461, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348074

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of delay in care secondary to the coronavirus pandemic in patients requiring intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed, and subjects were divided into two groups: 1) a study group of patients who experienced a treatment delay of ≥6 weeks from the intended follow-up during the coronavirus pandemic and resumed treatment with ≥2 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections over 6 months following treatment delay, and 2) a control group of patients who received regular care throughout the coronavirus pandemic. RESULTS: Totally, 234 subjects were analyzed. The mean treatment delay from the intended follow-up in the study group was 11.8 (±4.0) weeks. Visual acuity and central macular thickness worsened from baseline to 6 months after resuming anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in the study group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Visual acuity and central macular thickness were better in the control group compared with the study group at the end of the 6-month study period (P < 0.0001 for both). CONCLUSION: Treatment delay in subjects undergoing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for retina disease during the coronavirus pandemic had worse visual and anatomical outcomes despite reinitiating treatment over 6 months compared with a control group, suggesting irreversibility and permanence of outcomes.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Choroidal Neovascularization/physiopathology , Continuity of Patient Care , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retinal Diseases/physiopathology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment , United States/epidemiology , Visual Acuity/physiology , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Wet Macular Degeneration/physiopathology
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e049495, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199793

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of visual impairment, affecting central vision. Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of the non-neovascular (dry) type of AMD. Late-stage clinical trials suggest that intravitreal injections of novel therapeutics may slow down the rate of GA progression by up to 30% in 1 year, thus allowing people with GA to preserve central vision for a longer period. While intravitreal injections have become an established treatment modality for neovascular (wet) AMD, it is unknown whether patients with (more gradually progressing) GA would accept regular injections that slow down, but do not stop or reverse, vision loss. Therefore, this mixed-methods pilot study will aim to explore whether regular intravitreal injections will be acceptable as treatment for patients with GA, and the factors that may affect treatment acceptability. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A mixed-methods survey has been designed in collaboration with a GA patient advisory group. The survey comprises of structured questionnaires, semi-structured interview questions regarding patients' perceptions of intravitreal injections and the burden of treatment, and a task eliciting preferences between different potential treatments. Due to COVID-19 restrictions, this study will be conducted remotely by telephone. Thirty individuals will be recruited from NHS Medical Retina clinics at Central Middlesex Hospital, London. Half of the participants will be naïve to intravitreal injections, while half will have previous experience of intravitreal injections for neovascular (wet) AMD. Qualitative data analysis will be conducted using the Framework Method of analysis to identify key themes from participants' accounts. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study received Health Research Authority approval on 23 March 2021 (IRAS Project ID: 287824). Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations to the medical retina community, as well as through dialogue with patients and macular disease charities.


Subject(s)
Geographic Atrophy , Telemedicine , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Geographic Atrophy/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , London , Pilot Projects , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
12.
Int Ophthalmol ; 41(9): 2951-2961, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188134

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the adherence rate of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients in treat-and-extend (TAE) protocol to their anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) intravitreal injection (IVI) appointments and to evaluate the functional and anatomical outcomes of the patients who attended and did not attend their IVI appointments during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) restriction period (RP). METHODS: The patients with nAMD having IVI appointments between March 16 and June 1, 2020 (RP in Turkey) were included in this retrospective study. For adherence analysis, the patients who attended (Group 1, n = 44) and who did not attend (Group 2, n = 60) their IVI appointment visits during the RP (VRP) were evaluated according to their last visit before the RP (V0). For outcome analysis, the patients who attend VRP and have follow-up (Group 1a, 46 eyes) and who did not attend VRP but later attended for follow-up (Group 2a, 33 eyes) were evaluated for functional (best-corrected visual acuity, BCVA [logMAR]) and anatomical (optical coherence tomography [OCT] disease activity) outcomes at the first visit after RP (V1) and last visit within six months after RP (V2). Patients received a complete ophthalmologic evaluation with anti-VEGF (Aflibercept) IVI administration at all visits. RESULTS: The adherence rate of the patients to VRP was 42.3% (44/104). The patients in Group 1 were significantly younger (mean ± SD years, 71.0 ± 8.1 vs. 74.7 ± 8.0, p = 0.024), had better median [IQR] BCVA at their first presentation (0.30 [0.54] vs. 0.61 [1.08], p = 0.023) and V0 (0.40 [0.48] vs. 0.52 [0.70], p = 0.031), and had less hypertension (36.4% vs. 58.3%, p = 0.044) than Group 2. The mean ± SD delay of planned IVI at VRP in Group 2a was 13.9 ± 6.2 weeks. Disease activity in OCT was significantly higher in Group 2a than Group 1a at V1 (60.6% vs. 32.6%, p = 0.025). In Group 2a, the median (IQR) BCVA was significantly worse at V1 (0.70 [0.58]) and V2 (0.70 [0.59]) than V0 (0.52 [0.40], p = 0.047 and p = 0.035, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the scheduled nAMD patients in TAE protocol missed their IVI visits during the RP, which resulted in a delay of their treatments. The delay of IVI treatment in those patients resulted in an increase in OCT disease activity and a decrease in BCVA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Pandemics , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Visual Acuity , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
14.
Eye (Lond) ; 35(10): 2793-2801, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Some clinicians may be forced to temporarily extend treatment intervals in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) eyes with frequent retreatments to reduce the number of visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. To provide an indication of what these outcomes may be, we studied eyes with active lesions with unplanned treatment interval extensions before the pandemic occurred. METHODS: We compared eyes with active disease despite ≤6 weekly injections whose next injection was extended to ≥7 weeks and those whose intervals were not extended. We identified 1559 (16%) of 9602 eyes from the Fight Retinal Blindness! (FRB!) registry (2013 and 2018) that fit this criteria. Eyes were further stratified into four groups by the mean interval over the following 6 months: (1) ≤6 weeks (81%), (2) 7-9 weeks (9%), (3) 10-12 weeks (5%) and (4) >12 weeks (5%). RESULTS: There was a significant loss in VA in eyes extended to >12 weeks compared to the non-extended group (adjusted VA change, mean (95% CI): ≤6 weeks, 0.4 (-1.5 to 2.2), versus >12 weeks, -4.7 (-7.4 to -2.1), letters, p = 0.03 and a threefold increase in relative risk of losing ≥15 letters (absolute risk (14% versus 4%, p < 0.01)). CONCLUSION: Mean VA remained stable for 6 months in eyes requiring frequent treatment despite retreatment interval extension up to 10-12 weeks. There was a significant short-term risk to vision when retreatment interval was extended beyond 12 weeks, hence extensions to this level should be considered cautiously. These data may be useful for physicians who are considering reducing visits to mitigate the risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Pandemics , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retreatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
15.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 258(12): 2621-2628, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812593

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To estimate the impact of delayed care during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the outcomes of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Consecutive patients with diagnosis of neovascular AMD were consecutively enrolled between March 9, 2020, and June 12, 2020, (during and immediately after the Italian COVID-19 quarantine). During the inclusion (or pandemic) visit (V0), patients received a complete ophthalmologic evaluation, including optical coherence tomography (OCT). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and OCT findings from the two preceding visits (V-1 and V-2) were compared with data at V0. RESULTS: One-hundred patients (112 eyes) were enrolled in this study. The time interval between following visits was 110.7 ± 37.5 days within V0 and V-1 and 80.8 ± 39.7 days within V-1 and V-2, respectively (P < 0.0001). BCVA was statistically worse at the V0 visit as compared with the immediately preceding (V-1) visit (0.50 ± 0.43 LogMAR and 0.45 ± 0.38 LogMAR at the V0 and V-1 visits, respectively; P = 0.046). On structural OCT, 91 out of 112 (81.2%) neovascular AMD eyes displayed the evidence of exudative disease activity at the V0 visit, while 77 (68.7%) eyes exhibited signs of exudation at the V-1 visit (P = 0.022). No differences in terms of BCVA and OCT findings were detected between the V-1 and V-2 visits. In multiple regression analysis, the difference in BCVA between V0 and V-1 visits was significantly associated with the interval time within these two visits (P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic-related postponement in patient care proved to be significantly associated with worse short-term outcomes in these patients.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retinal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Choroidal Neovascularization/diagnostic imaging , Choroidal Neovascularization/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/therapeutic use , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/therapeutic use , Retinal Neovascularization/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Neovascularization/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subretinal Fluid , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Visual Acuity/physiology , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnostic imaging , Wet Macular Degeneration/physiopathology
16.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 258(12): 2639-2645, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the treatment position of all patients who have had an anti-VEGF injection in 2020, prior to the UK lockdown on 23 March. To assess methods of service quality evaluation in setting benchmarks for comparison after the situation stabilized. To consider what proportion could be delayed based on national guidelines and varying vision parameters. Finally, to measure how many patients actually attended. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of data collected from our electronic medical record was performed. Age, sex, reason for injection, visual acuity (VA) for both treated and untreated eyes and number of injections were recorded. The proportion of patients and eyes with ≥ 70 letters were calculated as an assessment of quality of service provision. The proportion of patients that could be delayed was estimated based on published guidelines and varying the parameters of difference between treated and untreated eyes. Finally, the number of patients who actually attended was recorded. RESULTS: About 3364 eyes (2229 neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), 427 diabetic macular oedema (DMO), 599 retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and 109 other) from 2924 patients were analysed. At the last appointment with injection, 64.4% of patients achieved ≥ 70 letters in their better-seeing eye. Mean VA of the treated eye was 61.5 letters, and 36.9% achieved ≥ 70. The mean number of injections was 16, 90% with aflibercept. Of the patients receiving treatment to one eye, 57.6% was receiving treatment to their worse seeing eye. In 18.2% this eye was > 20 letters worse and in 5.07% > 40 letters worse than the untreated eye. Using Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOphth) guidelines, (treat nAMD 8 weekly, delay majority of RVO and DMO) 24.8% would be delayed. From 2738 appointments during the first 4 weeks of lockdown (booked prior to lockdown), doctors rescheduled 1025 and patients did not attend 820, leaving 893 who were seen (33%). CONCLUSIONS: Assessing the treatment position of patients prior to COVID-19 lockdown enables objective stratification for prioritization for continued treatment. If RCOphth guidelines were followed 24.8% could be delayed and if treating the worse seeing eye up to 57.6%. Many scheduled patients elected not to attend, with 67% not seen in the first 4 weeks. The impact of non-attendance and delays may be evaluated later.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Female , Health Priorities , Health Services Research , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Visual Acuity/physiology , Young Adult
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