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1.
Microcirculation ; 29(3): e12749, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701980

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been found to be associated with encephalopathy and brain imaging abnormalities. The identification of incident white matter lesions, known to be associated with cerebral microcirculatory failure and cerebrovascular disease, in COVID-19 patients is of clinical and scientific interest. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the incidence of white matter lesions (WMLs) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies on brain imaging abnormalities in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The terms used included "white matter lesions," "white matter hyperintensity," "COVID-19," "coronavirus," and "SARS-CoV-2." A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to obtain a pooled estimate of WML prevalence in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: A total of 4 eligible studies involving 362 patients (144 with WMLs and 218 without) were included in the meta-analysis. We found the pooled estimate of WML prevalence to be 20% (ES 0.20; 95% CI 0.00-0.54; p = .03). CONCLUSIONS: The estimated pooled prevalence rate of WMLs was approximately 20% in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, albeit lower than the crude prevalence rate (39.8%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , White Matter , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Microcirculation , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
2.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(4): 402-406, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699129

ABSTRACT

We analyzed characteristics of diffusion and its kurtosis obtained using diffusion-kurtosis MRI in the hemisphere contralateral to the one affected by acute cerebrovascular accident. Diffusion characteristics in the white and gray matter were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in healthy subjects and stroke patients with consideration for the age and sex factors. Significant differences between the groups were revealed for apparent diffusion coefficient and mean kurtosis in the white matter. Age dependence was studied using regression analysis and, according to the results of ANCOVA, this factor was found to be significant for apparent diffusion coefficient and diffusion kurtosis in the white matter. Metrics are proposed that can be used to determine the risk of stroke.


Subject(s)
Stroke , White Matter , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
3.
Intern Med ; 60(19): 3167-3170, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511912

ABSTRACT

We herein report a 49-year-old man with a fever, diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. After two weeks of hospitalization, he suddenly mentioned visual field impairment. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed white matter damage and vasogenic edema. Cerebrospinal fluid showed increased levels of interleukin (IL)-6. His symptoms and white matter lesion deteriorated. After treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone therapy and plasmapheresis, his symptoms and white matter lesion improved gradually. We suspect that our patient was affected by a secondary hyperinflammatory syndrome related to cytokines, alone or in combination with direct viral injury through endothelial cell damage. The IL-6 levels were elevated only in the cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting focal central nervous system inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , White Matter , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
4.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 128(12): 1899-1906, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491158

ABSTRACT

Encephalopathy is a neurological complication of COVID-19. The objective of this exploratory study is to investigate the link between systemic inflammation and brain microstructural changes (measured by diffusion-weighted imaging) in patients with COVID-19 encephalopathy. 20 patients with COVID-19 encephalopathy (age: 67.3 [Formula: see text] 10.0 years; 90% men) hospitalized in the Geneva University Hospitals for a SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and May 2020 were included in this retrospective cohort study. COVID-19 encephalopathy was diagnosed following a comprehensive neurobiological evaluation, excluding common causes of delirium, such as hypoxemic or metabolic encephalopathy. We investigated the correlation between systemic inflammation (measured by systemic C-reactive protein (CRP)) and brain microstructural changes in radiologically normal white matter (measured by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)) in nine spatially widespread regions of the white matter previously associated with delirium. Systemic inflammation (CRP = 60.8 ± 50.0 mg/L) was positively correlated with ADC values in the anterior corona radiata (p = 0.0089), genu of the corpus callosum (p = 0.0064) and external capsule (p = 0.0086) after adjusting for patients' age. No statistically significant association between CRP and ADC was found in the other six white matter regions. Our findings indicate high risk of white matter abnormalities in COVID-19 encephalopathy patients with high peripheral inflammatory markers, suggesting aggressive imaging monitoring may be warranted in these patients. Future studies should clarify a possible specificity of the spatial patterns of CRP-white matter microstructure association in COVID-19 encephalopathy patients and disentangle the role of individual cytokines on brain inflammatory mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , White Matter , Brain/diagnostic imaging , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
6.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(10): 1912-1917, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367743

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) myelitis is a rare condition, most commonly presenting with nonenhancing central expansile cord T2 signal changes. A single case report has also described longitudinal involvement of the dorsal columns. We present 5 cases of COVID-19-associated myelitis with tract-specific involvement of the dorsal and lateral columns and discuss potential pathophysiologic pathways for this unique pattern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myelitis , White Matter , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myelitis/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
7.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(8): 1755-1759, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347387

ABSTRACT

The objective of this pilot study was to assess a 2-year change in innate immune burden in 15 progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients using PK11195-PET. Sixteen age-matched healthy controls (HC) were included for baseline comparison. PK11195 uptake was higher in MS patients compared to HC within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and multiple gray matter regions. In patients, PK11195 uptake increased in NAWM (p = 0.01), cortex (p = 0.04), thalamus (p = 0.04), and putamen (p = 0.02) at 12 months. Among patients remaining at 24 months, there was no further increase in PK11195. Our data suggest that innate immune activity may increase over time in patients with progressive MS.


Subject(s)
Gray Matter/metabolism , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/metabolism , Receptors, GABA/metabolism , White Matter/metabolism , Adult , Female , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Isoquinolines/pharmacokinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/diagnostic imaging , Pilot Projects , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
8.
J Adolesc ; 91: 110-118, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340503

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has resulted in major life changes to the majority of the world population, particularly adolescents, with social-distancing measures such as home-based schooling likely to impact sleep quality. Increased worry is also likely considering the substantial financial, educational and health concerns accompanying COVID-19. White matter (WM) integrity has been shown to be associated with anxiety and depression symptoms, including worry, as well being closely associated with sleep quality. This study aimed to investigate the associations between pre-COVID sleep quality, WM structural integrity and levels of worry and rumination about COVID. METHODS: N = 30 adolescent participants from Queensland, Australia, completed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scanning pre-COVID, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) pre and during COVID, and 9 items designed to measure 3 constructs, perceived impact of COVID, general worry, and COVID-specific worry and rumination. RESULTS: Sleep quality (PSQI total) was significantly poorer during COVID compared with pre-COVID. Sleep onset latency measured pre-COVID was significantly associated with COVID-specific worry and rumination. While the structural integrity of a number of WM tracts (measured pre-COVID) were found to be significantly associated with COVID-specific worry and rumination. Follow-up regression analysis using a model including pre-COVID sleep onset latency, structural integrity of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), gender and change in PSQI explained a significant 47% of the variance in COVID-specific worry and rumination. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that adolescents with poor sleep quality and perturbed WM integrity may be at risk of heightened reactivity to future stressful events and interventions should focus on improving sleep onset latency.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Sleep , White Matter , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Queensland/epidemiology , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
9.
J Clin Invest ; 131(8)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly progressed to a global pandemic. Although some patients totally recover from COVID-19 pneumonia, the disease's long-term effects on the brain still need to be explored.METHODSWe recruited 51 patients with 2 subtypes of COVID-19 (19 mild and 32 severe) with no specific neurological manifestations at the acute stage and no obvious lesions on the conventional MRI 3 months after discharge. Changes in gray matter morphometry, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and white matter (WM) microstructure were investigated using MRI. The relationship between brain imaging measurements and inflammation markers was further analyzed.RESULTSCompared with healthy controls, the decrease in cortical thickness/CBF and the changes in WM microstructure were more severe in patients with severe disease than in those with mild disease, especially in the frontal and limbic systems. Furthermore, changes in brain microstructure, CBF, and tract parameters were significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukin 6.CONCLUSIONIndirect injury related to inflammatory storm may damage the brain, altering cerebral volume, CBF, and WM tracts. COVID-19-related hypoxemia and dysfunction of vascular endothelium may also contribute to neurological changes. The abnormalities in these brain areas need to be monitored during recovery, which could help clinicians understand the potential neurological sequelae of COVID-19.FUNDINGNatural Science Foundation of China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Brain/blood supply , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Echo-Planar Imaging , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Gray Matter/pathology , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Procalcitonin/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 307, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237992

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the associations between cerebral white matter (WM) alterations, mental health status, and metabolism in recovered COVID-19 patients. We included 28 recovered COVID-19 patients and 27 healthy controls between April 2020 and June 2020. Demographic data, the mental health scores, diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) data, and plasma metabolomics were collected and compared between the two groups. Tract-based spatial statistics and graph theory approaches were used for DTI data analysis. Untargeted metabolomics analysis of the plasma was performed. Correlation analyses were performed between these characteristics. Recovered COVID-19 patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy, increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity values in widespread brain regions, and significantly lower global efficiency, longer shortest path length, and less nodal local efficiency in superior occipital gyrus (all, P < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected). Our results also demonstrated significantly different plasma metabolic profiling in recovered COVID-19 patients even at 3 months after their hospital discharge, which was mainly related to purine pathways, amino acids, lipids, and amine metabolism. Certain regions with cerebral WM alterations in the recovered patients showed significant correlations with different metabolites and the mental health scores. We observed multiple alterations in both WM integrity and plasma metabolomics that may explain the deteriorated mental health of recovered COVID-19 patients. These findings may provide potential biomarkers for the mental health evaluation for the recovered COVID-19 patients and potential targets for novel therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , White Matter , Anisotropy , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Mental Health , Metabolomics , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
11.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(7): 1190-1195, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurologic events have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, a model-based evaluation of the spatial distribution of these events is lacking. PURPOSE: Our aim was to quantitatively evaluate whether a network diffusion model can explain the spread of small neurologic events. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and LitCovid data bases were searched from January 1, 2020, to July 19, 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Thirty-five case series and case studies reported 317 small neurologic events in 123 unique patients with COVID-19. DATA ANALYSIS: Neurologic events were localized to gray or white matter regions of the Illinois Institute of Technology (gray-matter and white matter) Human Brain Atlas using radiologic images and descriptions. The total proportion of events was calculated for each region. A network diffusion model was implemented, and any brain regions showing a significant association (P < .05, family-wise error-corrected) between predicted and measured events were considered epicenters. DATA SYNTHESIS: Within gray matter, neurologic events were widely distributed, with the largest number of events (∼10%) observed in the bilateral superior temporal, precentral, and lateral occipital cortices, respectively. Network diffusion modeling showed a significant association between predicted and measured gray matter events when the spread of pathology was seeded from the bilateral cerebellum (r = 0.51, P < .001, corrected) and putamen (r = 0.4, P = .02, corrected). In white matter, most events (∼26%) were observed within the bilateral corticospinal tracts. LIMITATIONS: The risk of bias was not considered because all studies were either case series or case studies. CONCLUSIONS: Transconnectome diffusion of pathology via the structural network of the brain may contribute to the spread of neurologic events in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Gray Matter/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
12.
J Clin Invest ; 131(8)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly progressed to a global pandemic. Although some patients totally recover from COVID-19 pneumonia, the disease's long-term effects on the brain still need to be explored.METHODSWe recruited 51 patients with 2 subtypes of COVID-19 (19 mild and 32 severe) with no specific neurological manifestations at the acute stage and no obvious lesions on the conventional MRI 3 months after discharge. Changes in gray matter morphometry, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and white matter (WM) microstructure were investigated using MRI. The relationship between brain imaging measurements and inflammation markers was further analyzed.RESULTSCompared with healthy controls, the decrease in cortical thickness/CBF and the changes in WM microstructure were more severe in patients with severe disease than in those with mild disease, especially in the frontal and limbic systems. Furthermore, changes in brain microstructure, CBF, and tract parameters were significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukin 6.CONCLUSIONIndirect injury related to inflammatory storm may damage the brain, altering cerebral volume, CBF, and WM tracts. COVID-19-related hypoxemia and dysfunction of vascular endothelium may also contribute to neurological changes. The abnormalities in these brain areas need to be monitored during recovery, which could help clinicians understand the potential neurological sequelae of COVID-19.FUNDINGNatural Science Foundation of China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Brain/blood supply , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Echo-Planar Imaging , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Gray Matter/pathology , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Procalcitonin/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
14.
Neurocrit Care ; 35(2): 491-500, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evolution of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 4530 critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to three tertiary care hospitals in New York City from March 1 to June 30, 2020 to identify patients who had more than one brain MRI. We reviewed the initial and final MRI for each patient to (1) measure the percent change in the bicaudate index and third ventricular diameter and (2) evaluate changes in the presence and severity of white matter changes. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients had two MRIs separated by a median of 22 [Interquartile range (IQR) 14-30] days. Ventricle size increased for 15 patients (71%) between scans [median bicaudate index 0.16 (IQR 0.126-0.181) initially and 0.167 (IQR 0.138-0.203) on final imaging (p < 0.001); median third ventricular diameter 6.9 mm (IQR 5.4-10.3) initially and 7.2 mm (IQR 6.4-10.8) on final imaging (p < 0.001)]. Every patient had white matter changes on the initial and final MRI; between images, they worsened for seven patients (33%) and improved for three (14%). CONCLUSIONS: On serial imaging of critically ill patients with COVID-19, ventricle size frequently increased over several weeks. White matter changes were often unchanged, but in some cases they worsened or improved, demonstrating there is likely a spectrum of pathophysiological processes responsible for these changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , White Matter , Critical Illness , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
15.
Neurology ; 95(14): e2016-e2027, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105774

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is considered to have potential neuroinvasiveness that might lead to acute brain disorders or contribute to respiratory distress in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study investigates the occurrence of structural brain abnormalities in non-survivors of COVID-19 in a virtopsy framework. METHODS: In this prospective, monocentric, case series study, consecutive patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria benefited from an early postmortem structural brain MRI: death <24 hours, SARS-CoV-2 detection on nasopharyngeal swab specimen, chest CT scan suggestive of COVID-19, absence of known focal brain lesion, and MRI compatibility. RESULTS: Among the 62 patients who died of COVID-19 from March 31, 2020, to April 24, 2020, at our institution, 19 decedents fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Parenchymal brain abnormalities were observed in 4 decedents: subcortical microbleeds and macrobleeds (2 decedents), cortico-subcortical edematous changes evocative of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES; 1 decedent), and nonspecific deep white matter changes (1 decedent). Asymmetric olfactory bulbs were found in 4 other decedents without downstream olfactory tract abnormalities. No brainstem MRI signal abnormality was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Postmortem brain MRI demonstrates hemorrhagic and PRES-related brain lesions in non-survivors of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2-related olfactory impairment seems to be limited to olfactory bulbs. Brainstem MRI findings do not support a brain-related contribution to respiratory distress in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Olfactory Bulb/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Postmortem Changes , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
16.
Neurology ; 96(10): e1437-e1442, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027729

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We report a case series of patients with prolonged but reversible unconsciousness after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related severe respiratory failure. METHODS: A case series of patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit due to COVID-19-related acute respiratory failure is described. RESULTS: After cessation of sedatives, the described cases all showed a prolonged comatose state. Diagnostic neurologic workup did not show signs of devastating brain injury. The clinical pattern of awakening started with early eye opening without obeying commands and persistent flaccid weakness in all cases. Time between cessation of sedatives to the first moment of being fully responsive with obeying commands ranged from 8 to 31 days. CONCLUSION: Prolonged unconsciousness in patients with severe respiratory failure due to COVID-19 can be fully reversible, warranting a cautious approach for prognostication based on a prolonged state of unconsciousness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coma/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Adult , Aged , Coma/diagnostic imaging , Coma/pathology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
17.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(4): 632-638, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients infected with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can develop a spectrum of neurological disorders, including a leukoencephalopathy of variable severity. Our aim was to characterize imaging, lab, and clinical correlates of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leukoencephalopathy, which may provide insight into the SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven consecutive patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 who had brain MR imaging following intensive care unit admission were included. Seven (7/27, 26%) developed an unusual pattern of "leukoencephalopathy with reduced diffusivity" on diffusion-weighted MR imaging. The remaining patients did not exhibit this pattern. Clinical and laboratory indices, as well as neuroimaging findings, were compared between groups. RESULTS: The reduced-diffusivity group had a significantly higher body mass index (36 versus 28 kg/m2, P < .01). Patients with reduced diffusivity trended toward more frequent acute renal failure (7/7, 100% versus 9/20, 45%; P = .06) and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate values (49 versus 85 mL/min; P = .06) at the time of MRI. Patients with reduced diffusivity also showed lesser mean values of the lowest hemoglobin levels (8.1 versus 10.2 g/dL, P < .05) and higher serum sodium levels (147 versus 139 mmol/L, P = .04) within 24 hours before MR imaging. The reduced-diffusivity group showed a striking and highly reproducible distribution of confluent, predominantly symmetric, supratentorial, and middle cerebellar peduncular white matter lesions (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight notable correlations between severe COVID-19 leukoencephalopathy with reduced diffusivity and obesity, acute renal failure, mild hypernatremia, anemia, and an unusual brain MR imaging white matter lesion distribution pattern. Together, these observations may shed light on possible SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with leukoencephalopathy, including borderzone ischemic changes, electrolyte transport disturbances, and silent hypoxia in the setting of the known cytokine storm syndrome that accompanies severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units , Leukoencephalopathies/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Adult , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
18.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(4): 315-322, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cerebral microhaemorrhages are increasingly being recognised as a complication of COVID-19. This observational retrospective study aims to further investigate the potential pathophysiology through assessing the pattern of microhaemorrhage and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 and microhaemorrhage. By comparing with similar patterns of microhaemorrhage in other non-COVID-19 disease, this study aims to propose possible common pathogenic mechanisms. METHODS: A retrospective observational case series was performed identifying all patients with COVID-19 complicated by cerebral microhaemorrhage on MRI. The distribution and number of microhaemorrhages were recorded using the microbleed anatomical scale, and patients' baseline characteristics and salient test results were also recorded. RESULTS: Cerebral microhaemorrhages were noted to have a predilection for the corpus callosum, the juxtacortical white matter and brainstem. All patients had a preceding period of critical illness with respiratory failure and severe hypoxia necessitating intubation and mechanical ventilation. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrates a pattern of cerebral microhaemorrhage that is similar to the pattern reported in patients with non-COVID-19 related critical illness and other causes of severe hypoxia. This raises questions regarding whether microhaemorrhage occurs from endothelial dysfunction due the direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection or from the secondary effects of critical illness and hypoxia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Aged , Brain Stem/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Corpus Callosum/diagnostic imaging , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
19.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(2): 279-284, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Various patterns of leukoencephalopathy have been described in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this article, we aimed to describe the clinical and imaging features of acute disseminated leukoencephalopathy in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and the imaging evolution during a short-term follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified and reviewed the clinical data, laboratory results, imaging findings, and outcomes for 8 critically ill patients with COVID-19 with acute disseminated leukoencephalopathy. RESULTS: All patients demonstrated multiple areas of white matter changes in both cerebral hemispheres; 87.5% (7/8) of patients had a posterior predilection. Four patients (50%) had short-term follow-up imaging within a median of 17 days after the first MR imaging; they developed brain atrophy, and their white matter lesions evolved into necrotizing cystic cavitations. All (8/8) patients had inflammatory cytokine release syndrome as demonstrated by elevated interleukin-6, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and ferritin levels. Most (7/8; 87.5%) patients were on prolonged ventilator support (median, 44.5 days; interquartile range, 20.5 days). These patients had poor functional outcomes (6/8 [75%] patients were discharged with mRS 5) and high mortality (2/8, 25%). CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 can develop acute disseminated leukoencephalopathy that evolves into cystic degeneration of white matter lesions with brain atrophy during a short period, which we dubbed virus-associated necrotizing disseminated acute leukoencephalopathy. This may be the result of COVID-19-related endothelial injury, cytokine storm, or thrombotic microangiopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Atrophy , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Female , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/etiology , Leukoencephalopathies/mortality , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Treatment Outcome , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
20.
Neuroradiol J ; 33(6): 528-531, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760511

ABSTRACT

A wide range of neurological complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is increasingly recognised. Although the majority of these remain ischaemic and haemorrhagic events, various disorders are being reported. In particular, several cases of diffuse acute leukoencephalopathy have been observed in critically ill patients with COVID-19 disease. We report the case of a 59-year-old man with multiple comorbidities and severe COVID-19 pneumonia who developed a diffuse leukoencephalopathy with microhaemorrhages and extensive associated white matter necrosis. Although this is the first documented case of extensive COVID-19-associated white matter necrosis, we highlight the relatively constant features of this injury similar to previously reported cases, including symmetrical involvement of the supratentorial white matter, sparing of the peripheral subcortical regions except in the precentral gyri, frequently associated microhaemorrhages, relative sparing of the deep gray matter structures and infratentorial structures, and lack of enhancement.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , Bacteremia/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Candidemia/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Leukoencephalopathies/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Necrosis , Renal Dialysis , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , White Matter/pathology
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