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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(1): 41-51, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2, which encode the transmembrane proteins polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, respectively, cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Polycystins are expressed in the primary cilium, and disrupting cilia structure significantly slows ADPKD progression following inactivation of polycystins. The cellular mechanisms of polycystin- and cilia-dependent cyst progression in ADPKD remain incompletely understood. METHODS: Unbiased transcriptional profiling in an adult-onset Pkd2 mouse model before cysts formed revealed significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Pkd2 single-knockout kidneys, which were used to identify candidate pathways dysregulated in kidneys destined to form cysts. In vivo studies validated the role of the candidate pathway in the progression of ADPKD. Wild-type and Pkd2/Ift88 double-knockout mice that are protected from cyst growth served as controls. RESULTS: The RNASeq data identified cell proliferation as the most dysregulated pathway, with 15 of 241 DEGs related to cell cycle functions. Cdk1 appeared as a central component in this analysis. Cdk1 expression was similarly dysregulated in Pkd1 models of ADPKD, and conditional inactivation of Cdk1 with Pkd1 markedly improved the cystic phenotype and kidney function compared with inactivation of Pkd1 alone. The Pkd1/Cdk1 double knockout blocked cyst cell proliferation that otherwise accompanied Pkd1 inactivation alone. CONCLUSIONS: Dysregulation of Cdk1 is an early driver of cyst cell proliferation in ADPKD due to Pkd1 inactivation. Selective targeting of cyst cell proliferation is an effective means of slowing ADPKD progression caused by inactivation of Pkd1.


Subject(s)
CDC2 Protein Kinase/metabolism , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant/genetics , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant/metabolism , TRPP Cation Channels/metabolism , Animals , Apoptosis , CDC2 Protein Kinase/genetics , Catalytic Domain , Cell Proliferation , Crosses, Genetic , DNA Replication , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mutation , Phenotype , Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Acetyl-Transferring Kinase/genetics , RNA-Seq , TRPP Cation Channels/genetics , Transcription, Genetic , Whole Exome Sequencing
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 742881, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470759

ABSTRACT

Despite the high number of individuals infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who develop coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms worldwide, many exposed individuals remain asymptomatic and/or uninfected and seronegative. This could be explained by a combination of environmental (exposure), immunological (previous infection), epigenetic, and genetic factors. Aiming to identify genetic factors involved in immune response in symptomatic COVID-19 as compared to asymptomatic exposed individuals, we analyzed 83 Brazilian couples where one individual was infected and symptomatic while the partner remained asymptomatic and serum-negative for at least 6 months despite sharing the same bedroom during the infection. We refer to these as "discordant couples". We performed whole-exome sequencing followed by a state-of-the-art method to call genotypes and haplotypes across the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. The discordant partners had comparable ages and genetic ancestry, but women were overrepresented (65%) in the asymptomatic group. In the antigen-presentation pathway, we observed an association between HLA-DRB1 alleles encoding Lys at residue 71 (mostly DRB1*03:01 and DRB1*04:01) and DOB*01:02 with symptomatic infections and HLA-A alleles encoding 144Q/151R with asymptomatic seronegative women. Among the genes related to immune modulation, we detected variants in MICA and MICB associated with symptomatic infections. These variants are related to higher expression of soluble MICA and low expression of MICB. Thus, quantitative differences in these molecules that modulate natural killer (NK) activity could contribute to susceptibility to COVID-19 by downregulating NK cell cytotoxic activity in infected individuals but not in the asymptomatic partners.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , Histocompatibility Antigens , Major Histocompatibility Complex , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Histocompatibility Antigens/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology , Humans , Major Histocompatibility Complex/genetics , Major Histocompatibility Complex/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Whole Exome Sequencing
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 718744, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417083

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a rare condition mostly affecting children but also adults (MIS-A). Although severe systemic inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction are hallmarks of the syndrome, the underlying pathogenesis is unclear. We aimed to provide novel immunological and genetic descriptions of MIS-A patients. Cytokine responses (IL-6, IL-1ß, TNFα, CXCL10, type I, II and III interferons) following SARS-CoV-2 infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro were analyzed as well as antibodies against IFNα and IFNω (by ELISA) in patients and healthy controls. We also performed whole exome sequencing (WES) of patient DNA. A total of five patients (ages 19, 23, 33, 38, 50 years) were included. The patients shared characteristic features, although organ involvement and the time course of disease varied slightly. SARS-CoV-2 in vitro infection of patient PBMCs revealed impaired type I and III interferon responses and reduced CXCL10 expression, whereas production of proinflammatory cytokines were less affected, compared to healthy controls. Presence of interferon autoantibodies was not detected. Whole exome sequencing analysis of patient DNA revealed 12 rare potentially disease-causing variants in genes related to autophagy, classical Kawasaki disease, restriction factors and immune responses. In conclusion, we observed an impaired production of type I and III interferons in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and detected several rare potentially disease-causing gene variants potentially contributing to MIS-A.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Interferon-alpha/biosynthesis , Interferons/biosynthesis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Adult , Autoantibodies/blood , Chemokine CXCL10/biosynthesis , Comorbidity , Exome/genetics , Female , Humans , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Whole Exome Sequencing , Young Adult
4.
Eur J Med Genet ; 64(10): 104268, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401450

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic variants in phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class B (PIGB) gene have been first described as the cause of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 80 (EIEE-80) in 2019. This disorder, an inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiency, is associated with a complex neurologic phenotype, including developmental delay, early-onset epilepsy and peripheral neuropathy. We report on a 5 year-old girl born from consanguineous parents, manifesting severe global developmental delay with absent speech, mixed peripheral polyneuropathy, hypotonia, bilateral equino-varo-supinated-cavus foot, early-onset scoliosis, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and a single episode of febrile status epilepticus. Hypomyelination was documented on brain MRI. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) disclosed the likely pathogenic biallelic PIGB NM_004855.4: c.463G > C, p.(Asp155His) missense variant. In our patient, while other characteristic clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory findings (as described in the first research paper) were present, seizures were not a major clinical issue, thus contributing to our knowledge on this ultra-rare disorder.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiopathology , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Epilepsy/genetics , Mannosyltransferases/genetics , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Child , Developmental Disabilities/diagnosis , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Mannosyltransferases/deficiency , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Whole Exome Sequencing
5.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(6): 1146-1153, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384523

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients, including those with inborn errors of immunity (IEI), may be at increased risk for severe or prolonged infections with SARS-CoV-2 (Zhu et al. N Engl J Med. 382:727-33, 2020; Guan et al. 2020; Minotti et al. J Infect. 81:e61-6, 2020). While antibody and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins are well described in healthy convalescent donors, adaptive humoral and cellular immunity has not yet been characterized in patients with antibody deficiency (Grifoni et al. Cell. 181:1489-1501 e1415, 2020; Burbelo et al. 2020; Long et al. Nat Med. 26:845-8, 2020; Braun et al. 2020). Herein, we describe the clinical course, antibody, and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins in a cohort of adult and pediatric patients with antibody deficiencies (n = 5) and controls (related and unrelated) infected with SARS-CoV-2. Five patients within the same family (3 with antibody deficiency, 2 immunocompetent controls) showed antibody responses to nucleocapsid and spike proteins, as well as SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity at days 65-84 from onset of symptoms. No significant difference was identified between immunocompromised patients and controls. Two additional unrelated, adult patients with common variable immune deficiency were assessed. One did not show antibody response, but both demonstrated SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity when evaluated 33 and 76 days, respectively, following SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. This report is the first to show robust T cell activity and humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins in some patients with antibody deficiency. Given the reliance on spike protein in most candidate vaccines (Folegatti et al. Lancet. 396:467-78, 2020; Jackson et al. N Engl J Med. 383:1920-31, 2020), the responses are encouraging. Additional studies will be needed to further define the timing of onset of immunity, longevity of the immune response, and variability of response in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Carrier State , Cells, Cultured , Child , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation/genetics , Pedigree , Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing , Young Adult
6.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365266

ABSTRACT

A recent report found that rare predicted loss-of-function (pLOF) variants across 13 candidate genes in TLR3- and IRF7-dependent type I IFN pathways explain up to 3.5% of severe COVID-19 cases. We performed whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing of 1,864 COVID-19 cases (713 with severe and 1,151 with mild disease) and 15,033 ancestry-matched population controls across 4 independent COVID-19 biobanks. We tested whether rare pLOF variants in these 13 genes were associated with severe COVID-19. We identified only 1 rare pLOF mutation across these genes among 713 cases with severe COVID-19 and observed no enrichment of pLOFs in severe cases compared to population controls or mild COVID-19 cases. We found no evidence of association of rare LOF variants in the 13 candidate genes with severe COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/immunology , Loss of Function Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interferon Regulatory Factor-7/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
7.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348605

ABSTRACT

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by the development and accumulation of granulomas, the hallmark of an inflammatory process induced by environmental and/or infectious and or genetic factors. This auto-inflammatory disease mainly affects the lungs, the gateway to environmental aggressions and viral infections. We have shown previously that genetic predisposition to sarcoidosis occurring in familial cases is related to a large spectrum of pathogenic variants with, however, a clustering around mTOR (mammalian Target Of Rapamycin)-related pathways and autophagy regulation. The context of the COVID-19 pandemic led us to evaluate whether such genetic defects may increase the risk of a severe course of SARS-CoV2 infection in patients with sarcoidosis. We extended a whole exome screening to 13 families predisposed to sarcoidosis and crossed the genes sharing mutations with the list of genes involved in the SARS-CoV2 host-pathogen protein-protein interactome. A similar analysis protocol was applied to a series of 100 healthy individuals. Using ENRICH.R, a comprehensive gene set enrichment web server, we identified the functional pathways represented in the set of genes carrying deleterious mutations and confirmed the overrepresentation of autophagy- and mitophagy-related functions in familial cases of sarcoidosis. The same protocol was applied to the set of genes common to sarcoidosis and the SARS-CoV2-host interactome and found a significant enrichment of genes related to mitochondrial factors involved in autophagy, mitophagy, and RIG-I-like (Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene 1) Receptor antiviral response signaling. From these results, we discuss the hypothesis according to which sarcoidosis is a model for studying genetic abnormalities associated with host response to viral infections as a consequence of defects in autophagy and mitophagy processes.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Sarcoidosis/physiopathology , COVID-19/enzymology , Genomics , Humans , Mitophagy , Sarcoidosis/enzymology , Whole Exome Sequencing
8.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324576

ABSTRACT

In single cell analyses, cell types are conventionally identified based on expressions of known marker genes, whose identifications are time-consuming and irreproducible. To solve this issue, many supervised approaches have been developed to identify cell types based on the rapid accumulation of public datasets. However, these approaches are sensitive to batch effects or biological variations since the data distributions are different in cross-platforms or species predictions. In this study, we developed scAdapt, a virtual adversarial domain adaptation network, to transfer cell labels between datasets with batch effects. scAdapt used both the labeled source and unlabeled target data to train an enhanced classifier and aligned the labeled source centroids and pseudo-labeled target centroids to generate a joint embedding. The scAdapt was demonstrated to outperform existing methods for classification in simulated, cross-platforms, cross-species, spatial transcriptomic and COVID-19 immune datasets. Further quantitative evaluations and visualizations for the aligned embeddings confirm the superiority in cell mixing and the ability to preserve discriminative cluster structure present in the original datasets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Species Specificity , Whole Exome Sequencing
9.
Nat Genet ; 53(7): 942-948, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307333

ABSTRACT

The UK Biobank Exome Sequencing Consortium (UKB-ESC) is a private-public partnership between the UK Biobank (UKB) and eight biopharmaceutical companies that will complete the sequencing of exomes for all ~500,000 UKB participants. Here, we describe the early results from ~200,000 UKB participants and the features of this project that enabled its success. The biopharmaceutical industry has increasingly used human genetics to improve success in drug discovery. Recognizing the need for large-scale human genetics data, as well as the unique value of the data access and contribution terms of the UKB, the UKB-ESC was formed. As a result, exome data from 200,643 UKB enrollees are now available. These data include ~10 million exonic variants-a rich resource of rare coding variation that is particularly valuable for drug discovery. The UKB-ESC precompetitive collaboration has further strengthened academic and industry ties and has provided teams with an opportunity to interact with and learn from the wider research community.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks , Drug Discovery , Human Genetics , Research , Whole Exome Sequencing , Drug Discovery/methods , Genomics/methods , Humans , United Kingdom
10.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247462

ABSTRACT

A recent report found that rare predicted loss-of-function (pLOF) variants across 13 candidate genes in TLR3- and IRF7-dependent type I IFN pathways explain up to 3.5% of severe COVID-19 cases. We performed whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing of 1,864 COVID-19 cases (713 with severe and 1,151 with mild disease) and 15,033 ancestry-matched population controls across 4 independent COVID-19 biobanks. We tested whether rare pLOF variants in these 13 genes were associated with severe COVID-19. We identified only 1 rare pLOF mutation across these genes among 713 cases with severe COVID-19 and observed no enrichment of pLOFs in severe cases compared to population controls or mild COVID-19 cases. We found no evidence of association of rare LOF variants in the 13 candidate genes with severe COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/immunology , Loss of Function Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interferon Regulatory Factor-7/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244036

ABSTRACT

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) found locus 3p21.31 associated with severe COVID-19. CCR5 resides at the same locus and, given its known biological role in other infection diseases, we investigated if common noncoding and rare coding variants, affecting CCR5, can predispose to severe COVID-19. We combined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that met the suggestive significance level (P ≤ 1 × 10-5) at the 3p21.31 locus in public GWAS datasets (6406 COVID-19 hospitalized patients and 902,088 controls) with gene expression data from 208 lung tissues, Hi-C, and Chip-seq data. Through whole exome sequencing (WES), we explored rare coding variants in 147 severe COVID-19 patients. We identified three SNPs (rs9845542, rs12639314, and rs35951367) associated with severe COVID-19 whose risk alleles correlated with low CCR5 expression in lung tissues. The rs35951367 resided in a CTFC binding site that interacts with CCR5 gene in lung tissues and was confirmed to be associated with severe COVID-19 in two independent datasets. We also identified a rare coding variant (rs34418657) associated with the risk of developing severe COVID-19. Our results suggest a biological role of CCR5 in the progression of COVID-19 as common and rare genetic variants can increase the risk of developing severe COVID-19 by affecting the functions of CCR5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , Alleles , Bronchi/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chromosomes, Human/genetics , Cohort Studies , Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Whole Exome Sequencing
12.
Brain Behav Immun ; 97: 13-21, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233366

ABSTRACT

SARS-Cov-2 infection is frequently associated with Nervous System manifestations. However, it is not clear how SARS-CoV-2 can cause neurological dysfunctions and which molecular processes are affected in the brain. In this work, we examined the frontal cortex tissue of patients who died of COVID-19 for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, comparing qRT-PCR with ddPCR. We also investigated the transcriptomic profile of frontal cortex from COVID-19 patients and matched controls by RNA-seq analysis to characterize the transcriptional signature. Our data showed that SARS-CoV-2 could be detected by ddPCR in 8 (88%) of 9 examined samples while by qRT-PCR in one case only (11%). Transcriptomic analysis revealed that 11 genes (10 mRNAs and 1 lncRNA) were differential expressed when frontal cortex of COVID-19 patients were compared to controls. These genes fall into categories including hypoxia, hemoglobin-stabilizing protein, hydrogen peroxide processes. This work demonstrated that the quantity of viral RNA in frontal cortex is minimal and it can be detected only with a very sensitive method (ddPCR). Thus, it is likely that SARS-CoV-2 does not actively infect and replicate in the brain; its topography within encephalic structures remains uncertain. Moreover, COVID-19 may have a role on brain gene expression, since we observed an important downregulation of genes associated to hypoxia inducting factor system (HIF) that may inhibit the capacity of defense system during infection and oxigen deprivation, showing that hypoxia, well known multi organ condition associated to COVID-19, also marked the brain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Transcriptome , Whole Exome Sequencing
13.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(6): 1146-1153, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226229

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients, including those with inborn errors of immunity (IEI), may be at increased risk for severe or prolonged infections with SARS-CoV-2 (Zhu et al. N Engl J Med. 382:727-33, 2020; Guan et al. 2020; Minotti et al. J Infect. 81:e61-6, 2020). While antibody and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins are well described in healthy convalescent donors, adaptive humoral and cellular immunity has not yet been characterized in patients with antibody deficiency (Grifoni et al. Cell. 181:1489-1501 e1415, 2020; Burbelo et al. 2020; Long et al. Nat Med. 26:845-8, 2020; Braun et al. 2020). Herein, we describe the clinical course, antibody, and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins in a cohort of adult and pediatric patients with antibody deficiencies (n = 5) and controls (related and unrelated) infected with SARS-CoV-2. Five patients within the same family (3 with antibody deficiency, 2 immunocompetent controls) showed antibody responses to nucleocapsid and spike proteins, as well as SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity at days 65-84 from onset of symptoms. No significant difference was identified between immunocompromised patients and controls. Two additional unrelated, adult patients with common variable immune deficiency were assessed. One did not show antibody response, but both demonstrated SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity when evaluated 33 and 76 days, respectively, following SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. This report is the first to show robust T cell activity and humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins in some patients with antibody deficiency. Given the reliance on spike protein in most candidate vaccines (Folegatti et al. Lancet. 396:467-78, 2020; Jackson et al. N Engl J Med. 383:1920-31, 2020), the responses are encouraging. Additional studies will be needed to further define the timing of onset of immunity, longevity of the immune response, and variability of response in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Carrier State , Cells, Cultured , Child , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation/genetics , Pedigree , Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing , Young Adult
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 863-869, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196406

ABSTRACT

It has been suggested that some individuals may present genetic susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, with particular research interest in variants of the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes, involved in viral penetration into cells, in different populations and geographic regions, although insufficient information is currently available. This study addresses the apparently reasonable hypothesis that variants of these genes may modulate viral infectivity, making some individuals more vulnerable than others. Through whole-exome sequencing, the frequency of exonic variants of the ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin genes was analyzed in relation to presence or absence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a familial multiple sclerosis cohort including 120 individuals from Madrid. The ACE2 gene showed a low level of polymorphism, and none variant was significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. These variants have previously been detected in Italy. While TMPRSS2 is highly polymorphic, the variants found do not coincide with those described in other studies, with the exception of rs75603675, which may be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The synonymous variants rs61735792 and rs61735794 showed a significant association with infection. Despite the limited number of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, some variants, especially in TMPRSS2, may be associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Furin/genetics , Multiple Sclerosis/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Furin/metabolism , Gene Expression , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/metabolism , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spain , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Surveys and Questionnaires , Virus Internalization , Whole Exome Sequencing
15.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 6635925, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175215

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was initially identified in China and currently worldwide dispersed, resulting in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Notably, COVID-19 is characterized by systemic inflammation. However, the potential mechanisms of the "cytokine storm" of COVID-19 are still limited. In this study, fourteen peripheral blood samples from COVID-19 patients (n = 10) and healthy donors (n = 4) were collected to perform the whole-transcriptome sequencing. Lung tissues of COVID-19 patients (70%) presenting with ground-glass opacity. Also, the leukocytes and lymphocytes were significantly decreased in COVID-19 compared with the control group (p < 0.05). In total, 25,482 differentially expressed messenger RNAs (DE mRNA), 23 differentially expressed microRNAs (DE miRNA), and 410 differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (DE lncRNAs) were identified in the COVID-19 samples compared to the healthy controls. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that the upregulated DE mRNAs were mainly involved in antigen processing and presentation of endogenous antigen, positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity, and positive regulation of gamma-delta T cell activation. The downregulated DE mRNAs were mainly concentrated in the glycogen biosynthetic process. We also established the protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of up/downregulated DE mRNAs and identified 4 modules. Functional enrichment analyses indicated that these module targets were associated with positive regulation of cytokine production, cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, leukocyte differentiation, and migration. A total of 6 hub genes were selected in the PPI module networks including AKT1, TNFRSF1B, FCGR2A, CXCL8, STAT3, and TLR2. Moreover, a competing endogenous RNA network showed the interactions between lncRNAs, mRNAs, and miRNAs. Our results highlight the potential pathogenesis of excessive cytokine production such as MSTRG.119845.30/hsa-miR-20a-5p/TNFRSF1B, MSTRG.119845.30/hsa-miR-29b-2-5p/FCGR2A, and MSTRG.106112.2/hsa-miR-6501-5p/STAT3 axis, which may also play an important role in the development of ground-glass opacity in COVID-19 patients. This study gives new insights into inflammation regulatory mechanisms of coding and noncoding RNAs in COVID-19, which may provide novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic avenues for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , RNA/blood , RNA/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/genetics , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , MicroRNAs/genetics , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/blood , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/blood , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Signal Transduction , Whole Exome Sequencing , Young Adult
16.
Hum Hered ; 85(2): 66-68, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145387

ABSTRACT

It is plausible that variants in the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes might contribute to variation in COVID-19 severity and that these could explain why some people become very unwell whereas most do not. Exome sequence data was obtained for 49,953 UK Biobank subjects, of whom 82 had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and could be presumed to have severe disease. A weighted burden analysis was carried out using SCOREASSOC to determine whether there were differences between these cases and the other sequenced subjects in the overall burden of rare, damaging variants in ACE2 or TMPRSS2. There were no statistically significant differences in weighted burden scores between cases and controls for either gene. There were no individual DNA sequence variants with a markedly different frequency between cases and controls. Whether there are small effects on severity, or whether there might be rare variants with major effect sizes, would require studies in much larger samples. Genetic variants affecting the structure and function of the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteins are not the main explanation for why some people develop severe symptoms in response to infection with SARS-CoV-2. This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Biological Specimen Banks/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genetic Variation , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , United Kingdom , Whole Exome Sequencing/methods
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5639, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132098

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer demonstrate particularly poor outcomes from COVID-19. To provide information essential for understanding the biologic underpinnings of this association, we analyzed whole-transcriptome RNA expression data obtained from a large cohort of cancer patients to characterize expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and other proteases that are involved in viral attachment to and entry into target cells. We find substantial variability of expression of these factors across tumor types and identify subpopulations expressing ACE2 at very high levels. In some tumor types, especially in gastrointestinal cancers, expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 is highly correlated. Furthermore, we found infiltration with T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell infiltration to be particularly pronounced in ACE2-high tumors. These findings suggest that subsets of cancer patients exist with gene expression profiles that may be associated with heightened susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, in whom malignant tumors function as viral reservoir and possibly promote the frequently detrimental hyper-immune response in patients infected with this virus.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/enzymology , Neoplasms/enzymology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , RNA/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment , Whole Exome Sequencing
20.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242534, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934336

ABSTRACT

Clinical and molecular characterization by Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) is reported in 35 COVID-19 patients attending the University Hospital in Siena, Italy, from April 7 to May 7, 2020. Eighty percent of patients required respiratory assistance, half of them being on mechanical ventilation. Fiftyone percent had hepatic involvement and hyposmia was ascertained in 3 patients. Searching for common genes by collapsing methods against 150 WES of controls of the Italian population failed to give straightforward statistically significant results with the exception of two genes. This result is not unexpected since we are facing the most challenging common disorder triggered by environmental factors with a strong underlying heritability (50%). The lesson learned from Autism-Spectrum-Disorders prompted us to re-analyse the cohort treating each patient as an independent case, following a Mendelian-like model. We identified for each patient an average of 2.5 pathogenic mutations involved in virus infection susceptibility and pinpointing to one or more rare disorder(s). To our knowledge, this is the first report on WES and COVID-19. Our results suggest a combined model for COVID-19 susceptibility with a number of common susceptibility genes which represent the favorite background in which additional host private mutations may determine disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Whole Exome Sequencing , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis
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