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1.
Med J Aust ; 218(11): 528-541, 2023 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239586

ABSTRACT

Vaccination in pregnancy is the best strategy to reduce complications from influenza or pertussis infection in infants who are too young to be protected directly from vaccination. Pregnant women are also at risk of influenza complications preventable through antenatal vaccination. Both vaccines are funded under the National Immunisation Program for pregnant women in Australia, but coverage is not routinely reported nationally. We reviewed all reported Australian maternal influenza and pertussis vaccine coverage data for the period 2016-2021, to identify gaps and information needs. Maternal influenza vaccine coverage was suboptimal at < 58% for 2016-2018, with higher coverage of 62-75% reported in two states (Victoria and Western Australia) for 2019-2021. Maternal pertussis vaccine coverage from 2016 was generally higher than for influenza at > 70%, with the highest jurisdictional coverage of 89% reported in Western Australia in 2020. Vaccination rates were often suboptimal among First Nations pregnant women and up to 20% lower than among non-First Nations Australian women; while data were limited, coverage was low among culturally and linguistically diverse women and among women of lower socio-economic status. Jurisdictional perinatal data collections were the best source of information on antenatal vaccine coverage but were only available for a minority of the population; a nationally consistent systematic approach is lacking. Timely and comprehensive data are needed to provide feedback to improve maternal vaccination coverage, particularly among groups with higher risk and/or low uptake, and as new vaccines are recommended, including COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Whooping Cough , Infant , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pertussis Vaccine , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pregnant Women , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Victoria
2.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 32(3): 260-270, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271732

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women* and their infants are at increased risk for serious influenza, pertussis, and COVID-19-related complications, including preterm birth, low-birth weight, and maternal and fetal death. The advisory committee on immunization practices recommends pregnant women receive tetanus-toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy, and influenza and COVID-19 vaccines before or during pregnancy. Vaccination coverage estimates and factors associated with maternal vaccination are measured by various surveillance systems. The objective of this report is to provide a detailed overview of the following surveillance systems that can be used to assess coverage of vaccines recommended for pregnant women: Internet panel survey, National Health Interview Survey, National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, Vaccine Safety Datalink, and MarketScan. Influenza, Tdap, and COVID-19 vaccination coverage estimates vary by data source, and select estimates are presented. Each surveillance system differs in the population of pregnant women, time period, geographic area for which estimates can be obtained, how vaccination status is determined, and data collected regarding vaccine-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers. Thus, multiple systems are useful for a more complete understanding of maternal vaccination. Ongoing surveillance from the various systems to obtain vaccination coverage and information regarding disparities and barriers related to vaccination are needed to guide program and policy improvements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Premature Birth , Whooping Cough , Adult , Infant , Female , United States , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Humans , Pregnant Women , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 219, 2023 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the uptake of maternal pertussis and COVID-19 vaccination and the intention towards accepting the maternal influenza vaccination. Insights into different socio-demographic factors related to maternal vaccination coverage might help to address vaccine acceptance and improve maternal vaccine uptake in the future. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among pregnant women and recent mothers, up to 6 months post-partum. The primary outcome measures of this study were behaviour for maternal pertussis and COVID-19 vaccination, and maternal influenza vaccination intention. Associations between socio-demographic factors and maternal pertussis vaccination and maternal COVID-19 vaccination behaviour; and socio-demographic factors and maternal influenza vaccination intention were assessed using binary logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: In total 1361 respondents filled out the questionnaire. Almost all women (95%) were vaccinated against pertussis during pregnancy, while almost two-third were vaccinated against COVID-19 during pregnancy (58%) and almost one-third (28%) had a positive intention towards receiving the maternal influenza vaccination. Results show that young maternal age and low education level were associated with lower maternal vaccination acceptance. CONCLUSION: Vaccination campaigns focusing on the severity of diseases that are prevented, are needed to increase maternal vaccine acceptance in younger and low-educated pregnant women. We expect that differences in vaccination coverage between the three maternal vaccinations might partly be explained by existing recommendations, campaigns and whether the vaccination is part of the national immunisation program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Whooping Cough , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pertussis Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pregnant Women , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
4.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(3): 362-370, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205908

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological situation of infectious diseases in Poland in 2020, including pertussis cases, was significantly influenced by the limitation of interpersonal contacts introduced to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus. There was a reduction by more than half in the number of recorded pertussis cases, from 1,629 in 2019 to 753 in 2020. Pertussis is most dangerous for young children, however, it can get sick at any age, and the disease does not leave permanent immunity. Severe pertussis can also develop in the elderly, which may increase the risk of mortality. Adults usually have pertussis is mildly symptomatic and constitute an important reservoir of B. pertussis. The most effective strategy for the prevention of pertussis is still immunization of children in accordance with the Protective Vaccination Program, and in the case of adults, vaccination with the pertussis component in acellular form, repeated regularly every 10 years. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of pertussis in Poland in 2020 compared to the situation in previous years, with particular emphasis on the assessment of the vaccination status of children against pertussis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The assessment of the epidemiological situation of pertussis in Poland was performed on the basis of the results of the analysis of unit reports of pertussis registered in the NIPH NIH - NRI in the EpiBaza system and data from the annual bulletin "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2020" and the bulletin "Vaccinations in Poland in 2020". RESULTS: In 2020, 753 cases of pertussis were registered. The incidence was 1.96 per 100,000 population and was lower compared to the incidence in 2019 (4.24). The highest incidence of pertussis occurred in the age group 0-4 years (9.9), and high in children and adolescents aged 5-9 years (5.1) and 10-14 years (6.0 per 100,000 population). About half of the cases concerned people over 15 years of age. In general, a higher incidence of women was observed than that of men, as well as a greater number of cases in cities than in rural areas. In 2020, among people suffering from pertussis, 206 people (i.e. 27%) required hospitalization. In 2020, one fatal case of the disease was reported to the epidemiological surveillance system. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: In Poland, in 2020, there was a decrease in the number of pertussis cases by more than a half compared to the previous year. Despite the decline in disease rates, pertussis remains a public health problem as immunization-induced immunity is not sustained throughout life. Increasing the number of people susceptible to pertussis may lead to compensatory epidemics in the future, therefore the highest possible level of vaccination of the population, >92-94%, should be maintained to prevent new cases of pertussis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Whooping Cough , Child , Adult , Adolescent , Aged , Male , Humans , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Urban Population , Rural Population , Age Distribution , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Registries , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1054617, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199534

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The dramatic decrease in the number of reported cases of pertussis during COVID-19 pandemic has been underestimated. The objective was to compare the estimated incidence rate of pertussis in populations pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemic by analyzing the anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT) IgG and anti-filamentous hemagglutininant (anti-FHA) IgG antibodies in healthy Chinese population from 2018 to 2021. Methods: All serum samples (N = 1,000) were collected from healthy population (aged ≥ 15 years) who attended an annual monitoring project of antibody levels in Jiangsu province in 2018-2021 were measured by ELISA. Results: The positive rates of anti-PT IgG and anti-FHA IgG antibodies were 11.4% (114/1,000) and 20.2% (202/1,000) (≥40 IU/ml), the GMC were 17.25 (95% CI: 15.49-19.03) IU/mL and 24.94 (95% CI: 22.73-27.16) IU/mL in the study population, respectively. The percentage of participants with anti-PT IgG antibodies higher than 40 IU/mL was 5.20% (11/212) in 2018, 5.5% (19/348) in 2019, 21.2% (46/217) in 2020 and 17.0% (38/223) in 2021, respectively. The non-detectable rate (<5 IU/mL) of anti-PT IgG antibodies was 16.9, 17.7, 28.1, and 37.3% in 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021, respectively. We assumed that the infection occurred within 58.6 days, and based on the overall proportion (2.9%) of individuals with anti-PT IgG antibody ≥100 IU/ml, the incidence rate (/100) was estimated by the formula to be 18.08 (95% CI: 12.40-26.11). In addition, the estimated incidence of Post-COVID-19 was higher than that of Pre-COVID-19 (36.33/100 vs. 12.84/100), and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest a high rate of under-reporting of pertussis in Jiangsu Province both pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemic, and there are a large number of adults of childbearing age who are susceptible to pertussis. It seems imperative that vaccination of adolescents and adults should be considered for inclusion in vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Whooping Cough , Adult , Adolescent , Humans , Incidence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Pandemics , Antibodies, Bacterial , Immunoglobulin G , COVID-19/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Pertussis Toxin , China/epidemiology
6.
Vaccine ; 40(48): 6956-6962, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the resurgence of pertussis has posed a public health challenge in many countries. This study aimed to evaluate the immunity levels against pertussis among populations of different ages in China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional serological survey in Zhejiang Province, China in 2020. Serum IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (anti-PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (anti-FHA), and pertactin (anti-PRN) were quantitatively measured. The geometric mean concentration (GMC) of three antibodies was calculated. An anti-PT level < 5 IU/mL was considered undetectable, ≥20 IU/mL as seropositive and ≥80 IU/mL as an indicator of recent infection. Mathematical models were fitted for anti-PT concentrations over time in children after four doses of the pertussis vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 4459 participants aged 0-59 years were included in the analyses. The overall positivity rate of anti-PT was 29.80% with the highest (81.44%) rate in the 1-2 years old and the lowest (4.72%) in 10-14 years old. The GMCs of anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-PRN for the whole participants were 9.67 (95%CI: 9.25-10.10),18.93 (18.24-19.67), and 8.99 (8.61-9.38) IU/mL, respectively. Over 50% of subjects aged ≥ 7 years had undetectable anti-PT IgG antibodies (<5IU/mL). The proportions of the populations with anti-PT IgG ≥ 80 IU/mL were approximately 0.9%, 0.3% and 1.1% among the 10-14, 15-29, and 40-59 years old groups, respectively. The power regression equation of the attenuation model after last dose of pertussis vaccine was y = 41.088x-1.238 (R2 = 0.935, p < 0.001). The fitted anti-PT concentrations was only 5.60 IU/mL at 5 years following the last vaccination dose. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pertussis decreased during the study period in the COVID-19 pandemic; however, there was still a certain proportion of adolescents and adults with evidence of recent infection. The decline in antibody levels after pertussis vaccination was observed, and booster doses are in urgent need in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Whooping Cough , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Antibodies, Bacterial , China/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics , Pertussis Toxin , Pertussis Vaccine , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Young Adult , Middle Aged
7.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(7): 899-907, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062689

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite high vaccination coverage among children and adolescents, pertussis remains a public health problem, with large outbreaks occurring periodically in the US and other developed countries. AREAS COVERED: We examine lessons learned more than 20 years after implementation of programs which use only acellular pertussis vaccines and propose avenues for possible effective use of acellular pertussis vaccine to prevent large outbreaks. EXPERT OPINION: Acellular pertussis vaccines were introduced more than 20 years ago, yet the incidence of pertussis has been increasing over the past decade, with periodic large outbreaks marked by notable shifts in disease burden from infants and young children toward fully vaccinated adolescents and young adults. This age shift is mainly driven by the waning of vaccine immunity. To better protect adolescents against pertussis, modification of the current acellular pertussis vaccination schedule or adoption of new vaccination strategies should be considered. For infants not yet eligible to be vaccinated, maternal vaccination against pertussis during pregnancy is an effective way to protect infants from infection, severe disease and death. Implementation of maternal vaccination programs should be encouraged in countries without one or efforts to improve coverage should be supported in countries with existing program.


Subject(s)
Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , Whooping Cough , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Pertussis Vaccine , Pregnancy , Vaccination , Vaccine Efficacy , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275105, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043213

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to infection. Furthermore, infection from pertussis, influenza and COVID-19 increases the likelihood of adverse consequences to the mother and developing baby such as stillbirth, ICU admission, and pre-term caesarean birth. Increased rates of transmission and risk of adverse consequences from infection justifies the provision of national maternal vaccination programmes. Additionally, maternal vaccination helps protect the infant until they are able to receive their own vaccinations; a time when they are most at risk of mortality from influenza and pertussis. Vaccination during pregnancy has been repeatedly demonstrated as safe and effective in reducing harm, although rates of uptake remain low compared to the general population. The current protocol describes the methodology for an umbrella review aiming to explore the barriers and facilitators of vaccination during pregnancy for pertussis, influenza, and COVID-19. Systematic reviews that investigate the barriers and facilitators of at least one of either pertussis, influenza, or COVID-19 will be included in this review. Multiple databases will be searched, and included reviews assessed for quality (using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) quality assessment for systematic reviews) and degree of overlap of included primary studies. Included reviews will be analysed according to the WHO SAGE model of determinants of vaccine hesitancy and separated by whether these explore influenza and pertussis, or COVID-19. The outcomes of this review will help inform the development of interventions to increase uptake of vaccination during pregnancy, and on whether interventions need to be tailored depending on the infectious disease. The key findings will identify the specific barriers and facilitators of vaccination hesitancy by considering contextual influences (e.g. sociodemographic variables), individual/social group influences (e.g. trust in the institutions), and vaccine-specific issues (e.g. safety and recommendations).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Whooping Cough , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/chemically induced , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pertussis Vaccine/therapeutic use , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987747

ABSTRACT

The incidence of scarlet fever and pertussis has increased significantly in China in recent years. During the COVID-19 pandemic, stringent non-pharmaceutical intervention measures were widely adopted to contain the spread of the virus, which may also have essential collateral impacts on other infectious diseases, such as scarlet fever and pertussis. We compared the incidence data of scarlet fever and pertussis in Mainland China and Hong Kong from 2004 to 2021 before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that the incidence of both diseases decreased significantly in 2020-2021 compared to the after-re-emergence stage in these two locations. Specifically, in 2020, scarlet fever decreased by 73.13% and pertussis by 76.63% in Mainland China, and 83.70% and 76.10%, respectively, in Hong Kong. In the absence of COVID-19, the predicted incidence of both diseases was much higher than the actual incidence in Mainland China and Hong Kong in 2020-2021. This study demonstrates that non-pharmaceutical measures implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic can partially reduce scarlet fever and pertussis re-emergence in Mainland China and Hong Kong.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Scarlet Fever , Whooping Cough , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Scarlet Fever/epidemiology , Scarlet Fever/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
10.
Vaccine ; 40(27): 3746-3751, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunization against Bordetella pertussis during pregnancy reduces morbidity from severe pertussis in young infants via trans-placental transfer of anti-B. pertussis Immunoglobulin G (IgG). Studies have reported a near disappearance of respiratory pathogens including B. pertussis following implementation of mitigation strategies to control Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We explored how immunity against B. pertussis changed in women of childbearing-age through the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Paired blood samples from females of childbearing-age collected at the beginning (May-June 2020) and nearly one year into the COVID-19 pandemic (February-May 2021) in British Columbia (BC), Canada were tested for anti-B. pertussis IgG levels. To ascertain whether early-pandemic IgG levels in 2020 reflected levels in pregnant women early in gestation, 1st trimester sera collected from age-matched healthy pregnant women in 2018 and 2019 were tested for anti-B. pertussis IgG. Levels were compared by t tests. P-value of 0.05 was assigned and statistical significance was set as p < 0.016 using Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: Annual provincial B. pertussis incidences per 100,000 in BC in 2020 (3/100,000) and 2021 (<1/100,000) approximated the lowest levels since 1990. In 2021 vs. 2020, anti-pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN) IgG levels declined in women of childbearing-age: 6.8 IU/ml (95 %CI, 4.2-10.9) vs. 8.4 IU/ml (5.1-13.9; p = 0.004); 18.8 IU/ml (10.9-32.2) vs. 23.6 IU/ml (13.2-42.1; p < 0.001); and 37.1 IU/ml (18.1-75.9) vs. 47.2 IU/ml (24.8-89.9; p = 0.092), respectively. Although all values were slightly higher, anti-PT, FHA and PRN IgG levels in women of childbearing age did not significantly differ in 2020 compared with early-gestation pregnant women in 2018-2019, 8.4 IU/ml (95% CI, 5.1-13.9) vs. 5.4 IU/ml (95% CI, 3.8-7.7; p = 0.166), 23.6 IU/ml (95% CI, 13.2-42.1) vs. 20.1 IU/ml (95% CI, 13.4-30.2; p = 0.656), and 47.2 IU/ml (24.8-89.9) vs. 17.3 IU/ml (95% CI, 10.5-28.7; p = 0.021), respectively. DISCUSSION: B. pertussis infections should be closely monitored during the relaxing of mitigation measures for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Whooping Cough , Antibodies, Bacterial , Bordetella pertussis , British Columbia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Pandemics , Pertussis Toxin , Placenta , Pregnancy , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
11.
Euro Surveill ; 27(25)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910958

ABSTRACT

BackgroundInterventions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic may impact other respiratory diseases.AimsWe aimed to study the course of pertussis in France over an 8-year period including the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and its association with COVID-19 mitigation strategies, using multiple nationwide data sources and regression models.MethodsWe analysed the number of French pertussis cases between 2013 and 2020, using PCR test results from nationwide outpatient laboratories (Source 1) and a network of the paediatric wards from 41 hospitals (Source 2). We also used reports of a national primary care paediatric network (Source 3). We conducted a quasi-experimental interrupted time series analysis, relying on negative binomial regression models. The models accounted for seasonality, long-term cycles and secular trend, and included a binary variable for the first national lockdown (start 16 March 2020).ResultsWe identified 19,039 pertussis cases from these data sources. Pertussis cases decreased significantly following the implementation of mitigation measures, with adjusted incidence rate ratios of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.04-0.26) and 0.22 (95% CI: 0.07-0.66) for Source 1 and Source 2, respectively. The association was confirmed in Source 3 with a median of, respectively, one (IQR: 0-2) and 0 cases (IQR: 0-0) per month before and after lockdown (p = 0.0048).ConclusionsThe strong reduction in outpatient and hospitalised pertussis cases suggests an impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on pertussis epidemiology. Pertussis vaccination recommendations should be followed carefully, and disease monitoring should be continued to detect any resurgence after relaxation of mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Whooping Cough , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , France/epidemiology , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Pandemics , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
12.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 75(4): 604-612, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1904173

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pertussis is an endemic, highly contagious disease that can be prevented through vaccination. In Poland, since the second half of the nineties, changes in the epidemiology of pertussis have been observed - an increase in the number of cases, despite the high level of vaccination of the population. The highest percentage of registered cases of pertussis concerned people aged 15 and over. The causes of the increased incidence of pertussis are a complex problem. Immunity after pertussis vaccination is unstable, disappears within 4-12 years, and the risk of the disease increases with time after the last dose of the vaccine. Due to the loss of protection against pertussis in adults, it is important to repeat immunization with dTpa every 10 years. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of pertussis in Poland in 2018-2019 compared to the situation in previous years, with particular emphasis on the assessment of the vaccination status of children against pertussis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The assessment of the epidemiological situation of pertussis in Poland was performed on the basis of the results of the analysis of unit reports of pertussis registered in the NIPH-NIH through the SRWE system and data from the bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland" for 2018 and 2019 and the bulletins "Vaccinations in Poland" for 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: In 2018, 1 548 were registered, and in 2019 - 1 629 cases of pertussis. The incidence was respectively: 4.0 and 4.2 per 100 000 population and was lower compared to the incidence in 2017 (8.0). The highest incidence of pertussis was in the age group 0-4 years (20.6 and 23.6 respectively), and high in children and adolescents aged 5-9 (10.9 and 11.5 respectively) and 10-14 years (respectively: 12.2 and 11.2 - per 100 000 population). About half of the cases concerned people over 15 years of age. In general, a higher incidence among women was observed than in men, as well as a higher incidence in cities than in rural areas. In 2018, among people with pertussis, 434 people (i.e. 28%) and in 2019 - 482 people (i.e. 29.6%) were hospitalized. In 2019, one fatal case of the disease was reported to the epidemiological surveillance system. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: In Poland, in the years 2018-2019, there was a decrease in the number of cases of pertussis, the most common were children under the age of four (the highest incidence). A worrying trend is the decreasing number of vaccinations in children aged 2 years against pertussis covered by compulsory primary vaccinations in individual provinces. In the current epidemiological situation, the best way to prevent new cases of pertussis is to use vaccination according to the current regimen and to recommend to adults a single dose of dTpa vaccination, which should be repeated every 10 years.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Whooping Cough , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Child , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Pentetic Acid , Pertussis Vaccine/therapeutic use , Poland/epidemiology , Registries , Rural Population , Urban Population , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
13.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 40(9): 499-502, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whooping cough has had an increased incidence and severity specially in infants and maternal immunization has been implemented as a prevention strategy. COVID-19 pandemic seems to decrease the incidence of other respiratory diseases. METHODS: Retrospective study from 2012 to 2021 to assess the influence of pertussis maternal immunizations and the first year of COVID-19 pandemic in the cases of whooping cough. RESULTS: 960 suspected cases from primary care and hospital, with 130 cases (104 children and 26 adults) being diagnosed of whooping cough. In the post-vaccination period, a reduction in the cases and severity in infants up to 6 months old was observed as well as in the pertussis diagnosis in adult women. There were no whooping cough cases during the COVID-19 period. CONCLUSIONS: Both the pertussis vaccination in pregnancy and the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic have decreased the number of pertussis cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Whooping Cough , Infant , Child , Adult , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Pertussis Vaccine , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cough/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics
14.
Euro Surveill ; 27(17)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834262

ABSTRACT

IntroductionIn France, three complementary surveillance networks involving hospitals and paediatrician practices currently allow pertussis surveillance among infants (<1 year old) and children (1-12 years old). Data on incidences among adolescents (13-17 years old) and adults (≥ 18 years) are scarce. In 2017, a sentinel surveillance system called Sentinelles network, was implemented among general practitioners (GPs).AimThe purpose of Sentinelles network is to assess pertussis incidence, monitor the cases' age distribution and evaluate the impact of the country's vaccination policy. We present the results from the first 4 years of this surveillance.MethodsGPs of the French Sentinelles network reported weekly numbers of epidemiologically or laboratory-confirmed cases and their characteristics.ResultsA total of 132 cases were reported over 2017-2020. Estimated national incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants were 17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 12-22) in 2017, 10 (95% CI: 6-14) in 2018, 15 (95% CI: 10-20) in 2019 and three (95% CI: 1-5) in 2020. The incidence rate was significantly lower in 2020 than in 2017-2019. Women were significantly more affected than men (83/132; 63% of women, p = 0.004); 66% (87/132) of cases were aged 15 years or over (median age: 31.5 years; range: 2 months-87 years). Among 37 vaccinated cases with data, 33 had received the recommended number of doses for their age.ConclusionsThese results concur with incidences reported in other European countries, and with studies showing that the incidences of several respiratory diseases decreased in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results also suggest a shift of morbidity towards older age groups, and a rapid waning of immunity after vaccination, justifying to continue this surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Whooping Cough , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Whooping Cough/diagnosis , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
15.
Vaccine ; 40(25): 3455-3460, 2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821520

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine pertussis and influenza vaccination coverage during pregnancy among women delivering in all the maternities of Geneva (Switzerland), during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: All women delivering in all the maternity centres of the canton of Geneva from 1st November 2020 to 30th November 2020 (beginning of the flu vaccination season) and from 8th March 2021 to 7th April 2021 (end of the flu vaccination season) had their records checked upon admission to the labour ward regarding pertussis and influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Reasons for non-vaccination were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done to identify predictors of vaccine uptake. RESULTS: 951 women delivered in Geneva during the two study periods, of which 950 were included in the study. 86.2% were vaccinated against pertussis, with no significant difference between the study periods (87.5% vs 85% at the beginning and end of the flu vaccination season respectively). 49.8% were vaccinated against influenza, with no significant difference between the study periods (48.8% vs 50.7% beginning and end of the flu vaccination season respectively). The influenza vaccine was 5 times more likely not to be proposed (8.9% vs. 1.7%) and 3 times more likely to be refused (26.6% vs. 8%) than the pertussis vaccine. Main reason for refusal was a lack of maternal desire for both vaccines, but not vaccine fear. Maternal parity ≥ 1 was significantly associated with pertussis vaccine uptake at univariate analysis. Women were significantly more likely to accept the influenza vaccine if they had a university degree or if they did not deliver in a midwife-only run delivery unit in both univariate and multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In Geneva, most gynaecologists offer pertussis immunization during antenatal care and uptake is high, but more efforts must be done to increase influenza vaccination coverage. Education level impacts maternal flu vaccination uptake, but other social disparities did not.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Whooping Cough , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pertussis Vaccine , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
16.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 48: 102348, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819613

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has promoted stringent public health measures such as hand hygiene, face mask wearing, and physical distancing to contain the spread of the viral infection. In this retrospective study, the secondary outcomes of those public health measures on containing other respiratory infections among the Thai population were investigated. Hospitalization data spanning from 2016 to 2021 of six respiratory infectious diseases, namely influenza, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, scarlet fever, and tuberculosis (TB), were examined. First, the expected respiratory infectious cases where no public health measures are in place are estimated using the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Then the expected number of cases and the observed cases were compared. The results showed a significant drop in the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases by an average of 61%. The reduction in hospitalization is significant for influenza, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, and scarlet fever (p < 0.05), while insignificant for TB (p = 0.54). The notable decrease in the incidence of cases is ascribed to the implementation of public health measures that minimized the opportunity for spread of disease. This decline in cases following relaxation of pandemic countermeasure is contingent on its scope and nature, and it is proof that selective physical distancing, hand hygiene, and use of face masks in public places is a viable route for mitigating respiratory morbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , Measles , Scarlet Fever , Whooping Cough , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Scarlet Fever/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/epidemiology
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 405, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, England went into its first lockdown in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Restrictions eased temporarily, followed by second and third waves in October 2020 and January 2021. Recent data showed that the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduced transmission of some invasive diseases. We assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pertussis incidence and on the immunisation programme in England. METHODS: We assessed trends in pertussis cases from 2012 to 2020 by age group and month. Incidence from the time that England eased its initial lockdown measures in July 2020 through to summer 2021 was calculated and the incidence rate ratios of pertussis cases from five years prior to the pandemic (July 2014 - June 2019) compared to the same time period during the pandemic (July 2020 - June 2021). Vaccine coverage estimates for pertussis containing vaccines were reviewed for the maternal and childhood programmes. RESULTS: A substantial decline in pertussis cases was observed from April 2020 onwards, marking the lowest number of cases in the last decade. Pertussis incidence dropped in all age groups, particularly among infants less than one year old (0.50 / 100,000 during July 2020 to June 2021 compared to 24.49/ 100,000 from July 2014 to June 2019). The incidence rate ratio was 0.02 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.02) for July 2014 to June 2019 (pre-pandemic) compared to the pandemic period of July 2020 to June 2021. None of the cases had a co-infection with SARS-CoV-2. Vaccine coverage for infants born between January to March 2020 with three doses of pertussis vaccine by 12 months of age decreased by 1.1% points compared to infants born between January to March 2019 (91.6% and 92.7%, respectively). Prenatal pertussis coverage for the 2020 to 2021 financial year was 2.7% points lower than the year prior to the pandemic (70.5% and 76.8%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown measures due to the COVID-19 pandemic have had a significant impact on pertussis transmission. With the easing of restrictions it is important to continue monitoring pertussis cases in England alongside coverage of the maternal and childhood immunisation programmes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Whooping Cough , Bordetella pertussis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pertussis Vaccine , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
18.
Vaccine ; 40(8): 1170-1179, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633691

ABSTRACT

The Global Pertussis Initiative (GPI) Roundtable Meeting held in 2019, which preceded the COVID-19 pandemic, focused on the incidence, surveillance, and immunization practices for pertussis in the Asian region. Participants from China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand presented country-specific information on pertussis prevalence, diagnosis, surveillance, vaccine administration and schedules, maternal and neonatal disease rates, and policies and practice of vaccination during pregnancy. In recent years, many Asian countries have seen an increase in pertussis cases, although underreporting of the disease is a concern. Currently, most Asian countries have only passive surveillance for pertussis in place. There is a need for improved surveillance to determine the disease burden and justify vaccination policies and recommendations, such as essential vaccination, boosters, and vaccination during pregnancy. Better awareness of the disease in adolescents and adults is necessary, and infant and childhood vaccination schedules need to be improved in many countries. Differences between private versus public sector vaccination schedules and between whole-cell and acellular pertussis vaccines should continue to be examined. It can be anticipated that unmet needs in the prevention and management of pertussis will continue as the COVID-19 pandemic evolves and that key recommendations highlighted in this meeting report will be of ongoing importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Whooping Cough , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Pertussis Vaccine , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
19.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(3): e19, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550915

ABSTRACT

Measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 have been associated with reduction in other respiratory infections. Results of a national Swedish cohort study of infant pertussis during April 2020-September 2021 were compared with those during January 2014-March 2020. The number of pertussis cases decreased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic, from an average of 21 infant cases per quarter of a year before the pandemic to an average of 1 case per quarter during the pandemic. Swedish strategies to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 seem to have had an impact on pertussis incidence in infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Physical Distancing , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Sweden/epidemiology
20.
Vaccine ; 40(11): 1572-1582, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several countries have introduced maternal immunisation with pertussis vaccine to provide protection against pertussis in early infancy. There is increasing interest in non-specific effects of vaccines including that non-live vaccines may enhance susceptibility to non-targeted infections in females. Some studies have shown increased risk of chorioamnionitis among women receiving pertussis vaccine during pregnancy. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal pertussis immunisation on the risk of chorioamnionitis, as well as the secondary outcomes of non-pertussis infections in women, non-pertussis infections in infants, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, maternal death and infant death. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for articles published until January 14, 2021. We screened articles for eligibility and extracted data using Covidence. Quality was assessed using Cochrane RoB tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were imported into RevMan for pooling and conduction of a meta-analysis stratified by study type. Outcomes are presented as risk ratios. RESULTS: We identified 13 observational studies and six randomized controlled trials eligible for inclusion. We pooled data on chorioamnionitis from six observational studies and found maternal pertussis vaccine (mostly compared with other maternal immunizations with non-live vaccines) to be associated with an increased risk among the pertussis vaccinated women, RR = 1.27 [CI 95%: 1.14-1.42]. We found no difference in the analysis of our secondary outcomes of non-pertussis infections, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth and death. CONCLUSION: We found an increased risk of chorioamnionitis among women who received pertussis vaccine in pregnancy. The large number of women receiving pertussis vaccine during pregnancy, as well as the growing evidence of non-live vaccines causing increased susceptibility to infections, indicates a need for further randomised trials to assess potential adverse effects of maternal immunisation with pertussis-containing vaccines.


Subject(s)
Chorioamnionitis , Communicable Diseases , Whooping Cough , Chorioamnionitis/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/complications , Female , Humans , Infant , Pertussis Vaccine/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Whooping Cough/complications , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
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