Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 64
Filter
1.
Anesth Analg ; 134(3): 524-531, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases continue to surge in the United States with the emergence of new variants. Statewide variability and inconsistency in implementing risk mitigation strategies are widespread, particularly in regards to enforcing mask mandates and encouraging the public to become fully vaccinated. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on July 31, 2021, utilizing publicly available data from the Wisconsin Department of Health Services. The authors abstracted data on total COVID-19-related cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in the state of Wisconsin. The primary objective was comparison of total COVID-19-related cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in vaccinated versus unvaccinated people in the state of Wisconsin over a 31-day period (July 2021). Furthermore, we also performed a narrative review of the literature on COVID-19-related outcomes based on mask use and vaccination status. RESULTS: In the state of Wisconsin during July 2021, total COVID-19 cases was 125.4 per 100,000 fully vaccinated people versus 369.2 per 100,000 not fully vaccinated people (odds ratio [OR] = 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.35; P < .001). Total COVID-19 hospitalizations was 4.9 per 100,000 fully vaccinated people versus 18.2 per 100,000 not fully vaccinated people (OR = 0.27, 98% CI, 0.22-0.32; P < .001). Total COVID-19 deaths was 0.1 per 100,000 fully vaccinated people versus 1.1 per 100,000 not fully vaccinated people (OR = 0.09, 95% CI, 0.03-0.29; P < .001). Narrative review of the literature demonstrated high vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 infection prevention (79%-100% among fully vaccinated people), COVID-19-related hospitalization (87%-98% among fully vaccinated people), and COVID-19-related death (96.7%-98% among fully vaccinated people). Studies have also generally reported that mask use was associated with increased effectiveness in preventing COVID-19 infection ≤70%. CONCLUSIONS: Strict adherence to public mask use and fully vaccinated status are associated with improved COVID-19-related outcomes and can mitigate the spread, morbidity, and mortality of COVID-19. Anesthesiologists and intensivists should adhere to evidence-based guidelines in their approach and management of patients to help mitigate spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cost of Illness , Hospitalization/trends , Mandatory Programs/trends , Masks/trends , Vaccination/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mandatory Programs/statistics & numerical data , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Wisconsin/epidemiology
2.
Pediatrics ; 149(3)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Examine age differences in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission risk from primary cases and infection risk among household contacts and symptoms among those with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: People with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Nashville, Tennessee and central and western Wisconsin and their household contacts were followed daily for 14 days to ascertain symptoms and secondary transmission events. Households were enrolled between April 2020 and April 2021. Secondary infection risks (SIR) by age of the primary case and contacts were estimated using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: The 226 primary cases were followed by 198 (49%) secondary SARS-CoV-2 infections among 404 household contacts. Age group-specific SIR among contacts ranged from 36% to 53%, with no differences by age. SIR was lower in primary cases age 12 to 17 years than from primary cases 18 to 49 years (risk ratio [RR] 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.91). SIR was 55% and 45%, respectively, among primary case-contact pairs in the same versus different age group (RR 1.47; 95% CI 0.98-2.22). SIR was highest among primary case-contact pairs age ≥65 years (76%) and 5 to 11 years (69%). Among secondary SARS-CoV-2 infections, 19% were asymptomatic; there was no difference in the frequency of asymptomatic infections by age group. CONCLUSIONS: Both children and adults can transmit and are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. SIR did not vary by age, but further research is needed to understand age-related differences in probability of transmission from primary cases by age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tennessee/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Pediatrics ; 149(3)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To establish statewide consensus priorities for safer in-person school for children with medical complexity (CMC) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic using a rapid, replicable, and transparent priority-setting method. METHODS: We adapted the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative Method, which allows for crowdsourcing ideas from diverse stakeholders and engages technical experts in prioritizing these ideas using predefined scoring criteria. Crowdsourcing surveys solicited ideas from CMC families, school staff, clinicians and administrators through statewide distribution groups/listservs using the prompt: "It is safe for children with complex health issues and those around them (families, teachers, classmates, etc.) to go to school in-person during the COVID-19 pandemic if/when…" Ideas were aggregated and synthesized into a unique list of candidate priorities. Thirty-four experts then scored each candidate priority against 5 criteria (equity, impact on COVID-19, practicality, sustainability, and cost) using a 5-point Likert scale. Scores were weighted and predefined thresholds applied to identify consensus priorities. RESULTS: From May to June 2021, 460 stakeholders contributed 1166 ideas resulting in 87 candidate priorities. After applying weighted expert scores, 10 consensus CMC-specific priorities exceeded predetermined thresholds. These priorities centered on integrating COVID-19 safety and respiratory action planning into individualized education plans, educating school communities about CMC's unique COVID-19 risks, using medical equipment safely, maintaining curricular flexibility, ensuring masking and vaccination, assigning seats during transportation, and availability of testing and medical staff at school. CONCLUSIONS: Priorities for CMC, identified by statewide stakeholders, complement and extend existing recommendations. These priorities can guide implementation efforts to support safer in-person education for CMC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Multiple Chronic Conditions , Safety , Schools , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child Health , Consensus , Crowdsourcing , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stakeholder Participation , Wisconsin , Young Adult
4.
Pediatrics ; 149(12 Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674085

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact of distancing practices on secondary transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the degree of sports-associated secondary transmission across a large diverse cohort of schools during spring 2021. METHODS: Participating districts in North Carolina and Wisconsin and North Carolina charter schools offering in-person instruction between March 15, 2021 and June 25, 2021 reported on distancing policies, community- and school-acquired infections, quarantines, and infections associated with school-sponsored sports. We calculated the ratio of school-acquired to community-acquired infection, secondary attack rates, and the proportion of secondary transmission events associated with sports. To estimate the effect of distancing and bus practices on student secondary transmission, we used a quasi-Poisson regression model with the number of primary student cases as the denominator. RESULTS: During the study period, 1 102 039 students and staff attended in-person instruction in 100 North Carolina school districts, 13 Wisconsin school districts, and 14 North Carolina charter schools. Students and staff had 7865 primary infections, 386 secondary infections, and 48 313 quarantines. For every 20 community-acquired infections, there was 1 within-school transmission event. Secondary transmissions associated with school sports composed 46% of secondary transmission events in middle and high schools. Relaxed distancing practices (<3 ft, 3 ft) and increased children per bus seat were not associated with increased relative risk of secondary transmission. CONCLUSIONS: With universal masking, in-person education was associated with low rates of secondary transmission, even with less stringent distancing and bus practices. Given the rates of sports-associated secondary transmission, additional mitigation may be warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Schools , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , North Carolina/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Sports , Wisconsin/epidemiology
5.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 28(1): 1-11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The National Neuropsychology Network (NNN) is a multicenter clinical research initiative funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH; R01 MH118514) to facilitate neuropsychology's transition to contemporary psychometric assessment methods with resultant improvement in test validation and assessment efficiency. METHOD: The NNN includes four clinical research sites (Emory University; Medical College of Wisconsin; University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); University of Florida) and Pearson Clinical Assessment. Pearson Q-interactive (Q-i) is used for data capture for Pearson published tests; web-based data capture tools programmed by UCLA, which serves as the Coordinating Center, are employed for remaining measures. RESULTS: NNN is acquiring item-level data from 500-10,000 patients across 47 widely used Neuropsychology (NP) tests and sharing these data via the NIMH Data Archive. Modern psychometric methods (e.g., item response theory) will specify the constructs measured by different tests and determine their positive/negative predictive power regarding diagnostic outcomes and relationships to other clinical, historical, and demographic factors. The Structured History Protocol for NP (SHiP-NP) helps standardize acquisition of relevant history and self-report data. CONCLUSIONS: NNN is a proof-of-principle collaboration: by addressing logistical challenges, NNN aims to engage other clinics to create a national and ultimately an international network. The mature NNN will provide mechanisms for data aggregation enabling shared analysis and collaborative research. NNN promises ultimately to enable robust diagnostic inferences about neuropsychological test patterns and to promote the validation of novel adaptive assessment strategies that will be more efficient, more precise, and more sensitive to clinical contexts and individual/cultural differences.


Subject(s)
Neuropsychology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , Psychometrics , Wisconsin
6.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262164, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607493

ABSTRACT

Given the overwhelming worldwide rate of infection and the disappointing pace of vaccination, addressing reinfection is critical. Understanding reinfection, including longevity after natural infection, will allow us to better know the prospect of herd immunity, which hinges on the assumption that natural infection generates sufficient, protective immunity. The primary objective of this observational cohort study is to establish the incidence of reinfection of COVID-19 among healthcare employees who experienced a prior COVID-19 infection over a 10-month period. Of 2,625 participants who experienced at least one COVID-19 infection during the 10-month study period, 156 (5.94%) experienced reinfection and 540 (20.57%) experienced recurrence after prior infection. Median days were 126.50 (105.50-171.00) to reinfection and 31.50 (10.00-72.00) to recurrence. Incidence rate of COVID-19 reinfection was 0.35 cases per 1,000 person-days, with participants working in COVID-clinical and clinical units experiencing 3.77 and 3.57 times, respectively, greater risk of reinfection relative to those working in non-clinical units. Incidence rate of COVID-19 recurrence was 1.47 cases per 1,000 person-days. This study supports the consensus that COVID-19 reinfection, defined as subsequent infection ≥ 90 days after prior infection, is rare, even among a sample of healthcare workers with frequent exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Personnel , Reinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology
7.
Am J Public Health ; 111(12): 2111-2114, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562083

ABSTRACT

The University of Wisconsin Neighborhood Health Partnerships Program used electronic health record and influenza vaccination data to estimate COVID-19 relative mortality risk and potential barriers to vaccination in Wisconsin ZIP Code Tabulation Areas. Data visualization revealed four groupings to use in planning and prioritizing vaccine outreach and communication based on ZIP Code Tabulation Area characteristics. The program provided data, visualization, and guidance to health systems, health departments, nonprofits, and others to support planning targeted outreach approaches to increase COVID-19 vaccination uptake. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(12):2111-2114. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306524).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust , Wisconsin/epidemiology
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3974-e3976, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559856

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) asymptomatic infections may play a critical role in disease transmission. We aim to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection at 2 hospital systems in 2 counties in Wisconsin. The SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was 1% or lower at both systems despite the higher incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Milwaukee County.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Wisconsin/epidemiology
9.
Pediatrics ; 149(12 Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503670

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact of distancing practices on secondary transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the degree of sports-associated secondary transmission across a large diverse cohort of schools during spring 2021. METHODS: Participating districts in North Carolina and Wisconsin and North Carolina charter schools offering in-person instruction between March 15, 2021 and June 25, 2021 reported on distancing policies, community- and school-acquired infections, quarantines, and infections associated with school-sponsored sports. We calculated the ratio of school-acquired to community-acquired infection, secondary attack rates, and the proportion of secondary transmission events associated with sports. To estimate the effect of distancing and bus practices on student secondary transmission, we used a quasi-Poisson regression model with the number of primary student cases as the denominator. RESULTS: During the study period, 1 102 039 students and staff attended in-person instruction in 100 North Carolina school districts, 13 Wisconsin school districts, and 14 North Carolina charter schools. Students and staff had 7865 primary infections, 386 secondary infections, and 48 313 quarantines. For every 20 community-acquired infections, there was 1 within-school transmission event. Secondary transmissions associated with school sports composed 46% of secondary transmission events in middle and high schools. Relaxed distancing practices (<3 ft, 3 ft) and increased children per bus seat were not associated with increased relative risk of secondary transmission. CONCLUSIONS: With universal masking, in-person education was associated with low rates of secondary transmission, even with less stringent distancing and bus practices. Given the rates of sports-associated secondary transmission, additional mitigation may be warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Schools , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , North Carolina/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Sports , Wisconsin/epidemiology
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2882-2886, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477768

ABSTRACT

We describe characteristics associated with having coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among students residing on a university campus. Of 2,187 students, 528 (24.1%) received a COVID-19 diagnosis during fall semester 2020. Students sharing a bedroom or suite had approximately twice the odds of contracting COVID-19 as those living alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Universities , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Wisconsin/epidemiology
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0083121, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476399

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has infected all age groups and disproportionately impacted vulnerable populations globally. Polymicrobial infections may play an important role in the development of SARS-CoV-2 infection in susceptible hosts. These coinfections may increase the risk of disease severity and pose challenges to the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of COVID-19. There have been limited SARS-CoV-2 coinfection studies. In this retrospective study, residual nucleic acid extracts from 796 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-positive specimens, collected between March 2020 and February 2021, were analyzed using a Luminex NxTAG respiratory pathogen panel (RPP). Of these, 745 returned valid results and were used for analysis; 53 (7.1%) were positive for one or more additional pathogens. Six different respiratory viruses were detected among the 53 SARS-CoV-2-positive patient specimens, and 7 of those specimens tested positive for more than one additional respiratory virus. The most common pathogens include rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV) (n = 22, 41.51%), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) (n = 18, 33.9%), and adenovirus (n = 12, 22.6%). Interestingly, there were no SARS-CoV-2 coinfections involving influenza A or influenza B in the study specimens. The median age of the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with coinfections was 38 years; 53% identified as female, and 47% identified as male. Based on our retrospective analysis, respiratory coinfections associated with SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were more common in young children (≤9 years old), with white being the most common race. Our findings will likely prompt additional investigation of polymicrobial infection associated with SARS-CoV-2 during seasonal respiratory pathogen surveillance by public health laboratories. IMPORTANCE This examination of respiratory pathogen coinfections in SARS-CoV-2 patients will likely shed light on our understanding of polymicrobial infection associated with COVID-19. Our results should prompt public health authorities to improve seasonal respiratory pathogen surveillance practices and address the risk of disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Enterovirus/genetics , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Male , Metapneumovirus/genetics , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Rhinovirus/genetics , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Wisconsin , Young Adult
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): 1805-1813, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evidence base for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is nascent. We sought to characterize SARS-CoV-2 transmission within US households and estimate the household secondary infection rate (SIR) to inform strategies to reduce transmission. METHODS: We recruited patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and their household contacts in Utah and Wisconsin during 22 March 2020-25 April 2020. We interviewed patients and all household contacts to obtain demographics and medical histories. At the initial household visit, 14 days later, and when a household contact became newly symptomatic, we collected respiratory swabs from patients and household contacts for testing by SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and sera for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We estimated SIR and odds ratios (ORs) to assess risk factors for secondary infection, defined by a positive rRT-PCR or ELISA test. RESULTS: Thirty-two (55%) of 58 households secondary infection among household contacts. The SIR was 29% (n = 55/188; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-36%) overall, 42% among children (aged <18 years) of the COVID-19 patient and 33% among spouses/partners. Household contacts to COVID-19 patients with immunocompromised conditions and household contacts who themselves had diabetes mellitus had increased odds of infection with ORs 15.9 (95% CI, 2.4-106.9) and 7.1 (95% CI: 1.2-42.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found substantial evidence of secondary infections among household contacts. People with COVID-19, particularly those with immunocompromising conditions or those with household contacts with diabetes, should take care to promptly self-isolate to prevent household transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Wisconsin
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2776-2785, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444021

ABSTRACT

University settings have demonstrated potential for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreaks; they combine congregate living, substantial social activity, and a young population predisposed to mild illness. Using genomic and epidemiologic data, we describe a COVID-19 outbreak at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. During August-October 2020, a total of 3,485 students, including 856/6,162 students living in dormitories, tested positive. Case counts began rising during move-in week, August 25-31, 2020, then rose rapidly during September 1-11, 2020. The university initiated multiple prevention efforts, including quarantining 2 dormitories; a subsequent decline in cases was observed. Genomic surveillance of cases from Dane County, in which the university is located, did not find evidence of transmission from a large cluster of cases in the 2 quarantined dorms during the outbreak. Coordinated implementation of prevention measures can reduce COVID-19 spread in university settings and may limit spillover to the surrounding community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Universities , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Wisconsin/epidemiology
14.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411082

ABSTRACT

Approximately 67% of U.S. households have pets. Limited data are available on SARS-CoV-2 in pets. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets during a COVID-19 household transmission investigation. Pets from households with ≥1 person with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were eligible for inclusion from April-May 2020. We enrolled 37 dogs and 19 cats from 34 households. All oropharyngeal, nasal, and rectal swabs tested negative by rRT-PCR; one dog's fur swabs (2%) tested positive by rRT-PCR at the first sampling. Among 47 pets with serological results, eight (17%) pets (four dogs, four cats) from 6/30 (20%) households had detectable SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. In households with a seropositive pet, the proportion of people with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 was greater (median 79%; range: 40-100%) compared to households with no seropositive pet (median 37%; range: 13-100%) (p = 0.01). Thirty-three pets with serologic results had frequent daily contact (≥1 h) with the index patient before the person's COVID-19 diagnosis. Of these 33 pets, 14 (42%) had decreased contact with the index patient after diagnosis and none were seropositive; of the 19 (58%) pets with continued contact, four (21%) were seropositive. Seropositive pets likely acquired infection after contact with people with COVID-19. People with COVID-19 should restrict contact with pets and other animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/transmission , Cats , Dogs , Family Characteristics , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pets/history , Phylogeny , Population Surveillance , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Utah/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S54-S57, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387815

ABSTRACT

Repeating the BinaxNOW antigen test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using 2 groups of readers within 30 minutes resulted in high concordance (98.9%) in 2110 encounters. Same-day repeat antigen testing did not significantly improve test sensitivity (77.2% to 81.4%) while specificity remained high (99.6%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Wisconsin/epidemiology
17.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(11): 2233-2239, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373102

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that quality, location, and staffing levels may be associated with COVID-19 incidence in nursing homes. However, it is unknown if these relationships remain constant over time. We describe incidence rates of COVID-19 across Wisconsin nursing homes while examining factors associated with their trajectory during 5 months of the pandemic. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Wisconsin nursing homes. METHODS: Publicly available data from June 1, 2020, to October 31, 2020, were obtained. These included facility size, staffing, 5-star Medicare rating score, and components. Nursing home characteristics were compared using Pearson chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate the effect of rurality on COVID-19. RESULTS: There were a total of 2459 COVID-19 cases across 246 Wisconsin nursing homes. Number of beds (P < .001), average count of residents per day (P < .001), and governmental ownership (P = .014) were associated with a higher number of COVID-19 cases. Temporal analysis showed that the highest incidence rates of COVID-19 were observed in October 2020 (30.33 cases per 10,000 nursing home occupied-bed days, respectively). Urban nursing homes experienced higher incidence rates until September 2020; then incidence rates among rural nursing homes surged. In the first half of the study period, nursing homes with lower-quality scores (1-3 stars) had higher COVID-19 incidence rates. However, since August 2020, incidence was highest among nursing homes with higher-quality scores (4 or 5 stars). Multivariate analysis indicated that over time rural location was associated with increased incidence of COVID-19 (ß = 0.05, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Higher COVID-19 incidence rates were first observed in large, urban nursing homes with low-quality rating. By October 2020, the disease had spread to rural and smaller nursing homes and those with higher-quality ratings, suggesting that community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 may have propelled its spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Humans , Medicare , Nursing Homes , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Wisconsin/epidemiology
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e051118, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288397

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus is a common cancer among sexual minority men, especially HIV-positive sexual minority men; however, there is no evidenced-based national screening protocol for detection of anal precancers. Our objective is to determine compliance with annual anal canal self-sampling or clinician-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective, randomised, two-arm clinical study to evaluate compliance with annual home-based versus clinic-based HPV DNA screening of anal canal exfoliated cells. The setting is primary care community-based clinics. Recruitment is ongoing for 400 HIV-positive and HIV-negative sexual minority men and transgender persons, aged >25 years, English or Spanish speaking, no current use of anticoagulants other than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and no prior diagnosis of anal cancer. Participants are randomised to either receive a swab in the mail for home-based collection of an anal canal specimen at 0 and 12 months (arm 1) or attend a clinic for clinician collection of an anal canal specimen at 0 and 12 months (arm 2). Persons will receive clinic-based Digital Anal Rectal Examinations and high-resolution anoscopy-directed biopsy to assess precancerous lesions, stratified by study arm. Anal exfoliated cells collected in the study are assessed for high-risk HPV persistence and host/viral methylation. The primary analysis will use the intention-to-treat principle to compare the proportion of those who comply with 0-month and 12-month sampling in the home-based and clinic-based arms. The a priori hypothesis is that a majority of persons will comply with annual screening with increased compliance among persons in the home-based arm versus clinic-based arm. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the Medical College of Wisconsin Human Protections Committee. Results will be disseminated to communities where recruitment occurred and through peer-reviewed literature and conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03489707.


Subject(s)
Anus Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anal Canal , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Anus Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Wisconsin
19.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(11): 1427-1428, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283849

ABSTRACT

Beginning a new career as a subject matter expert in Infection Prevention (IP) can be challenging. The scope of the service is broad, and the reference materials can be challenging to navigate. Ascension Wisconsin created a team to produce a tool to assist with the onboarding process. This project encompassed national roadmap literature blended with the healthcare system materials. The result was a compilation of IP resources, best practices, education resources, and internal talent a new IP can benefit from regardless of their experience. This tool was instrumental to the successful onboarding of 4 novice IPs during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Wisconsin
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL