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1.
Anesth Analg ; 134(3): 524-531, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases continue to surge in the United States with the emergence of new variants. Statewide variability and inconsistency in implementing risk mitigation strategies are widespread, particularly in regards to enforcing mask mandates and encouraging the public to become fully vaccinated. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on July 31, 2021, utilizing publicly available data from the Wisconsin Department of Health Services. The authors abstracted data on total COVID-19-related cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in the state of Wisconsin. The primary objective was comparison of total COVID-19-related cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in vaccinated versus unvaccinated people in the state of Wisconsin over a 31-day period (July 2021). Furthermore, we also performed a narrative review of the literature on COVID-19-related outcomes based on mask use and vaccination status. RESULTS: In the state of Wisconsin during July 2021, total COVID-19 cases was 125.4 per 100,000 fully vaccinated people versus 369.2 per 100,000 not fully vaccinated people (odds ratio [OR] = 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.35; P < .001). Total COVID-19 hospitalizations was 4.9 per 100,000 fully vaccinated people versus 18.2 per 100,000 not fully vaccinated people (OR = 0.27, 98% CI, 0.22-0.32; P < .001). Total COVID-19 deaths was 0.1 per 100,000 fully vaccinated people versus 1.1 per 100,000 not fully vaccinated people (OR = 0.09, 95% CI, 0.03-0.29; P < .001). Narrative review of the literature demonstrated high vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 infection prevention (79%-100% among fully vaccinated people), COVID-19-related hospitalization (87%-98% among fully vaccinated people), and COVID-19-related death (96.7%-98% among fully vaccinated people). Studies have also generally reported that mask use was associated with increased effectiveness in preventing COVID-19 infection ≤70%. CONCLUSIONS: Strict adherence to public mask use and fully vaccinated status are associated with improved COVID-19-related outcomes and can mitigate the spread, morbidity, and mortality of COVID-19. Anesthesiologists and intensivists should adhere to evidence-based guidelines in their approach and management of patients to help mitigate spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cost of Illness , Hospitalization/trends , Mandatory Programs/trends , Masks/trends , Vaccination/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mandatory Programs/statistics & numerical data , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Wisconsin/epidemiology
2.
Pediatrics ; 149(3)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Examine age differences in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission risk from primary cases and infection risk among household contacts and symptoms among those with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: People with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Nashville, Tennessee and central and western Wisconsin and their household contacts were followed daily for 14 days to ascertain symptoms and secondary transmission events. Households were enrolled between April 2020 and April 2021. Secondary infection risks (SIR) by age of the primary case and contacts were estimated using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: The 226 primary cases were followed by 198 (49%) secondary SARS-CoV-2 infections among 404 household contacts. Age group-specific SIR among contacts ranged from 36% to 53%, with no differences by age. SIR was lower in primary cases age 12 to 17 years than from primary cases 18 to 49 years (risk ratio [RR] 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.91). SIR was 55% and 45%, respectively, among primary case-contact pairs in the same versus different age group (RR 1.47; 95% CI 0.98-2.22). SIR was highest among primary case-contact pairs age ≥65 years (76%) and 5 to 11 years (69%). Among secondary SARS-CoV-2 infections, 19% were asymptomatic; there was no difference in the frequency of asymptomatic infections by age group. CONCLUSIONS: Both children and adults can transmit and are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. SIR did not vary by age, but further research is needed to understand age-related differences in probability of transmission from primary cases by age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tennessee/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Pediatrics ; 149(12 Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674085

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact of distancing practices on secondary transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the degree of sports-associated secondary transmission across a large diverse cohort of schools during spring 2021. METHODS: Participating districts in North Carolina and Wisconsin and North Carolina charter schools offering in-person instruction between March 15, 2021 and June 25, 2021 reported on distancing policies, community- and school-acquired infections, quarantines, and infections associated with school-sponsored sports. We calculated the ratio of school-acquired to community-acquired infection, secondary attack rates, and the proportion of secondary transmission events associated with sports. To estimate the effect of distancing and bus practices on student secondary transmission, we used a quasi-Poisson regression model with the number of primary student cases as the denominator. RESULTS: During the study period, 1 102 039 students and staff attended in-person instruction in 100 North Carolina school districts, 13 Wisconsin school districts, and 14 North Carolina charter schools. Students and staff had 7865 primary infections, 386 secondary infections, and 48 313 quarantines. For every 20 community-acquired infections, there was 1 within-school transmission event. Secondary transmissions associated with school sports composed 46% of secondary transmission events in middle and high schools. Relaxed distancing practices (<3 ft, 3 ft) and increased children per bus seat were not associated with increased relative risk of secondary transmission. CONCLUSIONS: With universal masking, in-person education was associated with low rates of secondary transmission, even with less stringent distancing and bus practices. Given the rates of sports-associated secondary transmission, additional mitigation may be warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Schools , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , North Carolina/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Sports , Wisconsin/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262164, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607493

ABSTRACT

Given the overwhelming worldwide rate of infection and the disappointing pace of vaccination, addressing reinfection is critical. Understanding reinfection, including longevity after natural infection, will allow us to better know the prospect of herd immunity, which hinges on the assumption that natural infection generates sufficient, protective immunity. The primary objective of this observational cohort study is to establish the incidence of reinfection of COVID-19 among healthcare employees who experienced a prior COVID-19 infection over a 10-month period. Of 2,625 participants who experienced at least one COVID-19 infection during the 10-month study period, 156 (5.94%) experienced reinfection and 540 (20.57%) experienced recurrence after prior infection. Median days were 126.50 (105.50-171.00) to reinfection and 31.50 (10.00-72.00) to recurrence. Incidence rate of COVID-19 reinfection was 0.35 cases per 1,000 person-days, with participants working in COVID-clinical and clinical units experiencing 3.77 and 3.57 times, respectively, greater risk of reinfection relative to those working in non-clinical units. Incidence rate of COVID-19 recurrence was 1.47 cases per 1,000 person-days. This study supports the consensus that COVID-19 reinfection, defined as subsequent infection ≥ 90 days after prior infection, is rare, even among a sample of healthcare workers with frequent exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Personnel , Reinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology
5.
Am J Public Health ; 111(12): 2111-2114, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562083

ABSTRACT

The University of Wisconsin Neighborhood Health Partnerships Program used electronic health record and influenza vaccination data to estimate COVID-19 relative mortality risk and potential barriers to vaccination in Wisconsin ZIP Code Tabulation Areas. Data visualization revealed four groupings to use in planning and prioritizing vaccine outreach and communication based on ZIP Code Tabulation Area characteristics. The program provided data, visualization, and guidance to health systems, health departments, nonprofits, and others to support planning targeted outreach approaches to increase COVID-19 vaccination uptake. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(12):2111-2114. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306524).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust , Wisconsin/epidemiology
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3974-e3976, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559856

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) asymptomatic infections may play a critical role in disease transmission. We aim to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection at 2 hospital systems in 2 counties in Wisconsin. The SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was 1% or lower at both systems despite the higher incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Milwaukee County.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Wisconsin/epidemiology
7.
Pediatrics ; 149(12 Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503670

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact of distancing practices on secondary transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the degree of sports-associated secondary transmission across a large diverse cohort of schools during spring 2021. METHODS: Participating districts in North Carolina and Wisconsin and North Carolina charter schools offering in-person instruction between March 15, 2021 and June 25, 2021 reported on distancing policies, community- and school-acquired infections, quarantines, and infections associated with school-sponsored sports. We calculated the ratio of school-acquired to community-acquired infection, secondary attack rates, and the proportion of secondary transmission events associated with sports. To estimate the effect of distancing and bus practices on student secondary transmission, we used a quasi-Poisson regression model with the number of primary student cases as the denominator. RESULTS: During the study period, 1 102 039 students and staff attended in-person instruction in 100 North Carolina school districts, 13 Wisconsin school districts, and 14 North Carolina charter schools. Students and staff had 7865 primary infections, 386 secondary infections, and 48 313 quarantines. For every 20 community-acquired infections, there was 1 within-school transmission event. Secondary transmissions associated with school sports composed 46% of secondary transmission events in middle and high schools. Relaxed distancing practices (<3 ft, 3 ft) and increased children per bus seat were not associated with increased relative risk of secondary transmission. CONCLUSIONS: With universal masking, in-person education was associated with low rates of secondary transmission, even with less stringent distancing and bus practices. Given the rates of sports-associated secondary transmission, additional mitigation may be warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Schools , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , North Carolina/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Sports , Wisconsin/epidemiology
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2882-2886, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477768

ABSTRACT

We describe characteristics associated with having coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among students residing on a university campus. Of 2,187 students, 528 (24.1%) received a COVID-19 diagnosis during fall semester 2020. Students sharing a bedroom or suite had approximately twice the odds of contracting COVID-19 as those living alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Universities , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Wisconsin/epidemiology
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2776-2785, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444021

ABSTRACT

University settings have demonstrated potential for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreaks; they combine congregate living, substantial social activity, and a young population predisposed to mild illness. Using genomic and epidemiologic data, we describe a COVID-19 outbreak at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. During August-October 2020, a total of 3,485 students, including 856/6,162 students living in dormitories, tested positive. Case counts began rising during move-in week, August 25-31, 2020, then rose rapidly during September 1-11, 2020. The university initiated multiple prevention efforts, including quarantining 2 dormitories; a subsequent decline in cases was observed. Genomic surveillance of cases from Dane County, in which the university is located, did not find evidence of transmission from a large cluster of cases in the 2 quarantined dorms during the outbreak. Coordinated implementation of prevention measures can reduce COVID-19 spread in university settings and may limit spillover to the surrounding community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Universities , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Wisconsin/epidemiology
10.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411082

ABSTRACT

Approximately 67% of U.S. households have pets. Limited data are available on SARS-CoV-2 in pets. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets during a COVID-19 household transmission investigation. Pets from households with ≥1 person with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were eligible for inclusion from April-May 2020. We enrolled 37 dogs and 19 cats from 34 households. All oropharyngeal, nasal, and rectal swabs tested negative by rRT-PCR; one dog's fur swabs (2%) tested positive by rRT-PCR at the first sampling. Among 47 pets with serological results, eight (17%) pets (four dogs, four cats) from 6/30 (20%) households had detectable SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. In households with a seropositive pet, the proportion of people with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 was greater (median 79%; range: 40-100%) compared to households with no seropositive pet (median 37%; range: 13-100%) (p = 0.01). Thirty-three pets with serologic results had frequent daily contact (≥1 h) with the index patient before the person's COVID-19 diagnosis. Of these 33 pets, 14 (42%) had decreased contact with the index patient after diagnosis and none were seropositive; of the 19 (58%) pets with continued contact, four (21%) were seropositive. Seropositive pets likely acquired infection after contact with people with COVID-19. People with COVID-19 should restrict contact with pets and other animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/transmission , Cats , Dogs , Family Characteristics , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pets/history , Phylogeny , Population Surveillance , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Utah/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S54-S57, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387815

ABSTRACT

Repeating the BinaxNOW antigen test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using 2 groups of readers within 30 minutes resulted in high concordance (98.9%) in 2110 encounters. Same-day repeat antigen testing did not significantly improve test sensitivity (77.2% to 81.4%) while specificity remained high (99.6%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Wisconsin/epidemiology
13.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(11): 2233-2239, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373102

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that quality, location, and staffing levels may be associated with COVID-19 incidence in nursing homes. However, it is unknown if these relationships remain constant over time. We describe incidence rates of COVID-19 across Wisconsin nursing homes while examining factors associated with their trajectory during 5 months of the pandemic. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Wisconsin nursing homes. METHODS: Publicly available data from June 1, 2020, to October 31, 2020, were obtained. These included facility size, staffing, 5-star Medicare rating score, and components. Nursing home characteristics were compared using Pearson chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate the effect of rurality on COVID-19. RESULTS: There were a total of 2459 COVID-19 cases across 246 Wisconsin nursing homes. Number of beds (P < .001), average count of residents per day (P < .001), and governmental ownership (P = .014) were associated with a higher number of COVID-19 cases. Temporal analysis showed that the highest incidence rates of COVID-19 were observed in October 2020 (30.33 cases per 10,000 nursing home occupied-bed days, respectively). Urban nursing homes experienced higher incidence rates until September 2020; then incidence rates among rural nursing homes surged. In the first half of the study period, nursing homes with lower-quality scores (1-3 stars) had higher COVID-19 incidence rates. However, since August 2020, incidence was highest among nursing homes with higher-quality scores (4 or 5 stars). Multivariate analysis indicated that over time rural location was associated with increased incidence of COVID-19 (ß = 0.05, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Higher COVID-19 incidence rates were first observed in large, urban nursing homes with low-quality rating. By October 2020, the disease had spread to rural and smaller nursing homes and those with higher-quality ratings, suggesting that community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 may have propelled its spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Humans , Medicare , Nursing Homes , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Wisconsin/epidemiology
14.
Child Abuse Negl ; 118: 105136, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has had a major impact on child abuse and neglect (CAN) in the U.S. leading to a change in the number of reported screened-in CAN investigations, missed prevention cases, and missed CAN cases. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the deficit number of CAN investigations and resultant estimated number of missed prevention and CAN cases due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S. from March 2020 to December 2020. METHODS: Secondary data analyses of administrative child welfare data from January 2013 to December 2020 from New York City, Florida, New Jersey and Wisconsin were conducted. Spline regression modeling controlling for autocorrelation was utilized to explore any significant changes once the pandemic began in March 2020 in the number of screened-in CAN investigations. The seven-year monthly average of screen-in CAN investigations for March through December from 2013 to 2019 was calculated and compared to the numbers of CAN investigations for March 2020 to December 2020. The resultant number of missed prevention cases and CAN cases was estimated for the four jurisdictions and used to approximate the number of missed prevention cases and CAN cases in the U.S., as well as the projected estimation of national lifetime economic costs. RESULTS: Prior to the pandemic, there were insignificant monthly increases of 0.7 CAN investigations in NYC and 6.2 CAN investigations in Florida, a significant monthly increase 4.2 CAN investigations in New Jersey and an insignificant monthly decrease in 0.6 CAN investigations in Wisconsin. Once the pandemic began, there were significant monthly decreases (p < .001) in each of the four jurisdictions, including 1425.6 fewer CAN investigations in NYC, 3548.0 fewer CAN investigations in Florida, 963.0 fewer CAN investigations in New Jersey and 529.1 fewer CAN investigations in Wisconsin. There were an estimated 60,791 fewer CAN investigations in these four jurisdictions from March 2020 to December 2020 of which there were approximately 18,540 missed prevention and CAN cases suggesting up to $4.2 billion in lifetime economic costs. It was estimated that were 623,137 children not investigated for CAN in the U.S. during the same 10-month period. This suggests that there were an estimated 85,993 children were missed for prevention services and about 104,040 children were missed for CAN with a potential lifetime economic impact of up to $48.1 billion in the U.S. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a precipitous drop in CAN investigations where almost 200,000 children are estimated to have been missed for prevention services and CAN in a 10-month period. There are opportunities for the child welfare jurisdictions to work with partner education, public health, social service and other providers to strategically approach this very grave issue in order to mitigate its impact on this very vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse/psychology , Child Abuse/trends , Child Welfare/psychology , Child Welfare/trends , Child , Family/psychology , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Male , New Jersey/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(24)2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246475

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global threat presenting health, economic, and social challenges that continue to escalate. Metapopulation epidemic modeling studies in the susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) style have played important roles in informing public health policy making to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. These models typically rely on a key assumption on the homogeneity of the population. This assumption certainly cannot be expected to hold true in real situations; various geographic, socioeconomic, and cultural environments affect the behaviors that drive the spread of COVID-19 in different communities. What's more, variation of intracounty environments creates spatial heterogeneity of transmission in different regions. To address this issue, we develop a human mobility flow-augmented stochastic SEIR-style epidemic modeling framework with the ability to distinguish different regions and their corresponding behaviors. This modeling framework is then combined with data assimilation and machine learning techniques to reconstruct the historical growth trajectories of COVID-19 confirmed cases in two counties in Wisconsin. The associations between the spread of COVID-19 and business foot traffic, race and ethnicity, and age structure are then investigated. The results reveal that, in a college town (Dane County), the most important heterogeneity is age structure, while, in a large city area (Milwaukee County), racial and ethnic heterogeneity becomes more apparent. Scenario studies further indicate a strong response of the spread rate to various reopening policies, which suggests that policy makers may need to take these heterogeneities into account very carefully when designing policies for mitigating the ongoing spread of COVID-19 and reopening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Human Migration , Models, Biological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Wisconsin/epidemiology
16.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(4): 3733-3754, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232610

ABSTRACT

In this study, we design and use a mathematical model to primarily address the question of who are the main drivers of COVID-19 - the symptomatic infectious or the pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic infectious in the state of Wisconsin and the entire United States. To set the stage, we first briefly simulate and illustrate the benefit of lockdown. With these lockdown scenarios, and in general, the more dominant influence of the the pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic infectious over the symptomatic infectious, is shown in various ways. Numerical simulations for the U.S. show that an increase in testing and isolating for the pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic infectious group has up to 4 times more impact than an increase in testing for the symptomatic infectious in terms of cumulative deaths. An increase in testing for the pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic infectious group also has significantly more impact (on the order of twice as much) on reducing the control reproduction number than testing for symptomatic infectious. Lastly, we use our model to simulate an implementation of a natural herd immunity strategy for the entire U.S. and for the state of Wisconsin (once an epicenter for COVID-19). These simulations provide specific examples confirming that such a strategy requires a significant number of deaths before immunity is achieved, and as such, this strategy is certainly questionable in terms of success.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asymptomatic Infections , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Wisconsin/epidemiology
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S54-S57, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205576

ABSTRACT

Repeating the BinaxNOW antigen test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using 2 groups of readers within 30 minutes resulted in high concordance (98.9%) in 2110 encounters. Same-day repeat antigen testing did not significantly improve test sensitivity (77.2% to 81.4%) while specificity remained high (99.6%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Wisconsin/epidemiology
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 478-482, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168277

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can spread rapidly in prisons and can be introduced by staff members and newly transferred incarcerated persons (1,2). On September 28, 2020, the Wisconsin Department of Health Services (DHS) contacted CDC to report a COVID-19 outbreak in a state prison (prison A). During October 6-20, a CDC team investigated the outbreak, which began with 12 cases detected from specimens collected during August 17-24 from incarcerated persons housed within the same unit, 10 of whom were transferred together on August 13 and under quarantine following prison intake procedures (intake quarantine). Potentially exposed persons within the unit began a 14-day group quarantine on August 25. However, quarantine was not restarted after quarantined persons were potentially exposed to incarcerated persons with COVID-19 who were moved to the unit. During the subsequent 8 weeks (August 14-October 22), 869 (79.4%) of 1,095 incarcerated persons and 69 (22.6%) of 305 staff members at prison A received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of specimens from 172 cases among incarcerated persons showed that all clustered in the same lineage; this finding, along with others, demonstrated that facility spread originated with the transferred cohort. To effectively implement a cohorted quarantine, which is a harm reduction strategy for correctional settings with limited space, CDC's interim guidance recommendation is to serial test cohorts, restarting the 14-day quarantine period when a new case is identified (3). Implementing more effective intake quarantine procedures and available mitigation measures, including vaccination, among incarcerated persons is important to controlling transmission in prisons. Understanding and addressing the challenges faced by correctional facilities to implement medical isolation and quarantine can help reduce and prevent outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Prisons , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Wisconsin/epidemiology
19.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 37(7): 871-880, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130763

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With the emergence of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, institutions were tasked with developing individualized pre-procedural testing strategies that allowed for re-initiation of elective procedures within national and state guidelines. This report describes the experience of a single US children's hospital (Children's Wisconsin, CW) in developing a universal pre-procedural COVID-19 testing protocol and reports early outcomes. METHODS: The CW pre-procedural COVID-19 response began with the creation of a multi-disciplinary taskforce that sought to develop a strategy for universal pre-procedural COVID-19 testing which (1) maximized patient safety, (2) prevented in-hospital viral transmission, (3) conserved resources, and (4) allowed for resumption of procedural care within institutional capacity. RESULTS: Of 11,209 general anesthetics performed at CW from March 16, 2020 to October 31, 2020, 11,150 patients (99.5%) underwent pre-procedural COVID-19 testing. Overall, 1.4% of pre-procedural patients tested positive for COVID-19. By June 2020, CW was operating at near-normal procedural volume and there were no documented cases of in-hospital viral transmission. Only 0.5% of procedures were performed under augmented COVID-19 precautions (negative pressure environment and highest-level personal protective equipment). CONCLUSION: CW successfully developed a multi-disciplinary pre-procedural COVID-19 testing protocol that enabled resumption of near-normal procedural volume within three months while limiting in-hospital viral transmission and resource use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Healthcare/organization & administration , Wisconsin/epidemiology
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(4): 114-117, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112896

ABSTRACT

During September 3-November 16, 2020, daily confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reported to the Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) increased at a rate of 24% per week, from a 7-day average of 674 (August 28-September 3) to 6,426 (November 10-16) (1). The growth rate during this interval was the highest to date in Wisconsin and among the highest in the United States during that time (1). To characterize potential sources of this increase, the investigation examined reported outbreaks in Wisconsin that occurred during March 4-November 16, 2020, with respect to their setting and number of associated COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Public Health Surveillance , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Laboratories , Long-Term Care , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Wisconsin/epidemiology
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