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1.
Mol Biol Cell ; 33(3): vo1, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709244

ABSTRACT

Despite substantial investment and effort by federal agencies and institutions to improve the diversity of the professoriate, progress is excruciatingly slow. One program that aims to enhance faculty diversity is the Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Award (IRACDA) funded by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical Sciences. IRACDA supports the training of a diverse cohort of postdoctoral scholars who will seek academic research and teaching careers. The San Diego IRACDA program has trained 109 postdoctoral scholars since its inception in 2003; 59% are women and 63% are underrepresented (UR) Black/African-American, Latinx/Mexican-American, and Indigenous scientists. Sixty-four percent obtained tenure-track faculty positions, including a substantial 32% at research-intensive institutions. However, the COVID-19 pandemic crisis threatens to upend IRACDA efforts to improve faculty diversity, and academia is at risk of losing a generation of diverse, talented scholars. Here, a group of San Diego IRACDA postdoctoral scholars reflects on these issues and discusses recommendations to enhance the retention of UR scientists to avoid a "lost generation" of promising UR faculty scholars.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cultural Diversity , Education, Graduate , Faculty, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Fellowships and Scholarships/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities/statistics & numerical data , California , Education, Graduate/economics , Faculty, Medical/economics , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , National Institute of General Medical Sciences (U.S.) , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Research Personnel/economics , Research Personnel/education , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , United States , Universities/economics , Women/education
4.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 22: e61049, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1518833

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo analisar o tempo de permanência hospitalar e status das primeiras internações por COVID-19 em mulheres no início da pandemia. Métodos estudo ecológico com dados das internações por COVID-19 em mulheres. Os dados foram estratificados por estados, regiões, idade, tempo de permanência hospitalar, diagnóstico principal e secundários (comorbidades) e desfecho da internação. Utilizaram-se os testes de Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney e qui-quadrado para a análise. Resultados a região Sudeste teve o maior número de internações (0,6%). Do total de internações, 14,6% necessitaram de unidade intensiva. O tempo de permanência hospitalar em mulheres acima de 50 anos foi significativo para o Brasil (p<0,001). Houve associação entre tempo de permanência hospitalar e níveis 2 e 3 de comorbidade. Óbitos em mulheres com mais de 50 anos foi significativo no Brasil, Nordeste e Sudeste (p<0,001). Conclusão mulheres com mais de 50 anos e com comorbidades estão associadas ao maior tempo de internação hospitalar e óbitos.


ABSTRACT Objective to analyze the length of hospital stay and outcomes of the first hospitalizations due to COVID-19 of women at the beginning of the pandemic. Methods ecological study with data on COVID-19 hospitalizations of women. Data classification was done by states, regions, age, length of hospital stay, main and secondary diagnosis (underlying diseases), and outcome. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and chi-square tests were used for the analysis. Results the Southeast region had the highest number of hospitalizations (0.6%). Of the total number of hospitalizations, 14.6% required an intensive care unit. The length of hospital stay of women over 50 years was significant for Brazil (p<0.001). There was an association between length of hospital stay and levels 2 and 3 of comorbidity. Deaths in women over 50 years old were significant in Brazil, Northeast, and Southeast (p<0.001). Conclusion women over 50 years old with comorbidities are associated with longer hospital stays and deaths.


Subject(s)
Women , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay
5.
Elife ; 92020 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497818

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures and distancing requirements that have disrupted both work and family life for many. Concerns exist that these disruptions caused by the pandemic may not have influenced men and women researchers equally. Many medical journals have published papers on the pandemic, which were generated by researchers facing the challenges of these disruptions. Here we report the results of an analysis that compared the gender distribution of authors on 1893 medical papers related to the pandemic with that on papers published in the same journals in 2019, for papers with first authors and last authors from the United States. Using mixed-effects regression models, we estimated that the proportion of COVID-19 papers with a woman first author was 19% lower than that for papers published in the same journals in 2019, while our comparisons for last authors and overall proportion of women authors per paper were inconclusive. A closer examination suggested that women's representation as first authors of COVID-19 research was particularly low for papers published in March and April 2020. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the research productivity of women, especially early-career women, has been affected more than the research productivity of men.


Subject(s)
Authorship , Bibliometrics , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Women , COVID-19 , Efficiency , Female , Humans , Medicine , Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Physicians, Women/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Social Isolation , United States
8.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 731-735, 2021 Jun.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335583

ABSTRACT

The social well-being and health of citizens of all countries has been greatly tested during the pandemic of COVID-19. The situation has exacerbated many social problems. Older women found themselves in a particularly difficult situation, who experienced increased psychological burden, deteriorating health conditions, and social isolation. Even the family had not always proved to be a way of improving the status of women. All this has led to the need to examine the real problems, the objective and subjective factors affecting women's social well-being and the ways in which older women are better off.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status , Mental Health , Women , Aged , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Social Isolation
10.
Health Care Women Int ; 41(11-12): 1363-1369, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263587

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has a severe and immediate impact on unemployment and reduced household income, resulting in global food insecurity. Women play a major role as household food providers who manage food insecurity in Thai community. In this qualitative study researchers aimed to understand how communities engage in management of food insecurity resulting from COVID-19. Participants included 12 female food providers who were community volunteers, four community leaders, and four health providers. Focus group interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed using content analysis. We explain community engagement to manage food insecurity through strategies including connecting through empathy, community empowerment, and engaging for sustainability. We present findings to illustrate how women's groups may work through a public-private partnership to achieve sustainable food security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Social Planning , Female , Humans , Income , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand , Women
12.
Indian J Med Ethics ; V(4): 1-14, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239247

ABSTRACT

The spread of Covid-19 and the lockdown have brought in acute deprivation for rural, marginalised communities with loss of wages, returnee migrants and additional state-imposed barriers to accessing facilities and public provisions. Patriarchal norms amplified in such a crisis along with gender-blind state welfare policies have rendered women in these communities "invisible". This has impacted their access to healthcare, nutrition and social security, and significantly increased their unpaid work burden. Several manifestations of violence, and mental stress have surfaced, diminishing their bare minimum agency and rights and impacting their overall health and wellbeing. This article looks at these gendered implications in the context of rural, tribal and high migrant areas of South Rajasthan. We have adopted an intersectional approach to highlight how intersections of several structures across multiple sites of power: the public, the private space of the home and the woman's intimate space, have reduced them to ultra-vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Rural Population , Social Marginalization , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Women , Female , Humans , India/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
New Solut ; 31(2): 113-124, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221723

ABSTRACT

Women make up the large majority of workers in global supply chains, especially factories in the apparel supply chain. These workers face significant inequalities in wages, workplace hazards, and a special burden of gender-based violence and harassment. These "normal" conditions have been compounded by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has exacerbated long-standing structural inequities. Decades of well-financed "corporate social responsibility" programs have failed because they do not address the underlying causes of illegal and abusive working conditions. New initiatives in the past half-decade offer promise in putting the needs and rights of workers front and center. Occupational health and safety professionals can assist in the global effort to improve working and social conditions, and respect for the rights and dignity of women workers, through advocacy and action on the job, in their professional associations, and in society at large.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clothing , Manufacturing Industry/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Women , Workplace , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Harassment/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Women's Rights/statistics & numerical data , Women's Rights/trends
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(Suppl 2)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203974

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Experiences of care and satisfaction are intrinsically linked, as user's experiences of care may directly impact satisfaction, or indirectly impact user's expectations and values. Both experiences of care and satisfaction are important to measure so that quality can be monitored and improved. Globally, women experience mistreatment during childbirth at facilities; however, there is limited evidence exploring the mistreatment and women's satisfaction with care during childbirth. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey within the WHO study 'How women are treated during facility-based childbirth' exploring the mistreatment of women during childbirth in Ghana, Guinea, Myanmar and Nigeria. Women's experiences of mistreatment and satisfaction with care during childbirth was explored. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was conducted to evaluate the association between mistreatment, women's overall satisfaction with the care they received, and whether they would recommend the facility to others. RESULTS: 2672 women were included in this analysis. Despite over one-third of women reporting experience of mistreatment (35.4%), overall satisfaction for services received and recommendation of the facility to others was high, 88.4% and 90%, respectively. Women who reported experiences of mistreatment were more likely to report lower satisfaction with care: women were more likely to be satisfied if they did not experience verbal abuse (adjusted OR (AOR) 4.52, 95% CI 3.50 to 5.85), or had short waiting times (AOR 5.12, 95% CI 3.94 to 6.65). Women who did not experience any physical or verbal abuse or discrimination were more likely to recommend the facility to others (AOR 3.89, 95% CI 2.98 to 5.06). CONCLUSION: Measuring both women's experiences and their satisfaction with care are critical to assess quality and provide actionable evidence for quality improvement. These measures can enable health systems to identify and respond to root causes contributing to measures of satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parturition/psychology , Personal Satisfaction , Women/psychology , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Betacoronavirus , Child , Community-Based Participatory Research , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery, Obstetric , Female , Ghana , Guinea , Humans , Male , Maternal Health , Myanmar , Nigeria , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 153(3): 462-468, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and paraclinical features and outcomes of pregnant and nonpregnant women with COVID-19. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective cohort study of pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age hospitalized between March and October 2020 in Tehran, Iran. Medical records were reviewed and women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR were included. Extracted data were compared and logistic regression performed. RESULTS: A total of 110 pregnant and 234 nonpregnant COVID-19-positive women were included. Frequency of severe disease was higher in nonpregnant women than pregnant women (29% vs 11.8%; P < 0.001). Symptoms including cough, dyspnea, chill, fatigue, and headache were more frequent in nonpregnant women (P < 0.05). Pregnant women had higher oxygen saturation levels and lower lymphocyte count (P = 0.001). Six (5.5%) pregnant and 12 (5.1%) nonpregnant women died (P = 0.80). No significant differences between the groups were found for ICU admission and end organ failure. Significantly more nonpregnant women had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, 9.4% vs 0%; P = 0.001). Univariate regression indicated association between hypertension and death; oxygen saturation and ARDS; and body mass index and ICU admission. No association was found between pregnancy and death, ICU admission, or ARDS. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women with COVID-19 are not at higher risk of adverse outcomes compared with nonpregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Hospitalization , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Women , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
16.
Transl Behav Med ; 11(3): 785-792, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153242

ABSTRACT

Widespread uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine is critical to halt the pandemic. At present, little is known about factors that will affect vaccine uptake, especially among diverse racial/ethnic communities that have experienced the highest burden of COVID. We administered an online survey to a Qualtrics respondent panel of women ages 27-45 years (N = 396) to assess vaccine intentions and attitudes, and trusted vaccine information sources. 56.8% intended to be vaccinated and 25.5% were unsure. In bivariate analyses, a greater percentage of non-Latina White (NLW) and Chinese women reported that they would be vaccinated, compared with Latina and non-Latina Black (NLB) women (p < 0.001). Those who were uninsured, unemployed and those with lower incomes were less likely to say that they would be vaccinated. In analyses stratified by race/ethnicity, NLB women remained significantly less likely to report that they would be vaccinated compared with NLW women (adjusted odds ratio: 0.47; 95% confidence interval: 0.23, 0.94), controlling for age, marital status, income, education, employment, and insurance status. When analyses were additionally controlled for beliefs in vaccine safety and efficacy, racial/ethnic differences were no longer significant (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.31, 1.34). Given that NLB women were less likely to report the intention to be vaccinated, targeted efforts will be needed to promote vaccine uptake. It will be critical to emphasize that the vaccine is safe and effective; this message may be best delivered by trusted community members.


Subject(s)
African Americans/ethnology , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Mass Vaccination/ethnology , /ethnology , Adult , Female , Humans , Intention , Middle Aged , United States/ethnology , Women
17.
Trends Genet ; 37(6): 491-493, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144951

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has deepened gender and racial diversity problems in academia. Mentorship shows women and other under-represented groups where the ladders to success are, and helps them avoid the chutes, a revised leaky pipeline metaphor. Here, we identify tangible strategies that will improve gender equity, including increasing active mentorship by male academics.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Women , Academies and Institutes/trends , COVID-19 , Employment , Female , Humans , Male , Mentors , Universities
18.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 1007-1010, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the gender distribution of clinical trial leadership in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical trials. METHODS: We searched https://clinicaltrials.gov/ and retrieved all clinical trials on COVID-19 from 1 January 2020 to 26 June 2020. As a comparator group, we have chosen two fields that are not related to emerging infections and infectious diseases: and considered not directly affected by the pandemic: breast cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and included studies within the aforementioned study period as well as those registered in the preceding year (pre-study period: 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019). Gender of the investigator was predicted using the genderize.io application programming interface. The repository of the data sets used to collect and analyse the data are available at https://osf.io/k2r57/. RESULTS: Only 27.8% (430/1548) of principal investigators among COVID-19-related studies were women, which is significantly different compared with 54.9% (156/284) and 42.1% (56/133) for breast cancer (p < 0.005) and T2DM (p < 0.005) trials over the same period, respectively. During the pre-study period, the proportion of principal investigators who were predicted to be women were 49.7% (245/493) and 44.4% (148/333) for breast cancer and T2DM trials, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant when compared with results from the study period (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that less than one-third of COVID-19-related clinical trials are led by women, half the proportion observed in non-COVID-19 trials over the same period, which remained similar to the pre-study period. These gender disparities during the pandemic may not only indicate a lack of female leadership in international clinical trials and involvement in new projects but also reveal imbalances in women's access to research activities and funding during health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leadership , Women , Breast Neoplasms , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Female , Humans , Male , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Sex Ratio , Sexism
20.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 27: e27007, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1112925

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo buscou analisar os modos como as atletas da seleção brasileira de futebol narram suas sessões de treinamento no Instagram em meio ao período de distanciamento social imposto pela Covid-19. As fotografias, os vídeos e textos exibidos nos perfis de 18 atletas foram capturados nos meses de março a julho de 2020. Com base nas postagens do Instagram, verificamos que essa produção de narrativas de si ocorre a partir da agência de inúmeros elementos que se associam e passam a compor os cenários dos treinamentos. Além disso, a análise mostrou que é por meio da inventividade e da circulação de saberes que as atletas protagonizam e viabilizam, mesmo que de forma remota, os treinamentos essenciais à função de jogadoras profissionais.


El presente estudio buscó analizar cómo las atletas de la selección brasileña de fútbol narran sus sesiones de entrenamiento en el Instagram en el período de distancia social impuesto por la Covid-19. Las fotos, los videos y los textos exhibidos en los perfiles de 18 atletas fueron capturados en los meses de marzo a julio de 2020. Con base en las publicaciones del Instagram, constatamos que esa producción de narrativas de sí mismas ocurre a partir de la agencia de numerosos elementos que se asocian y pasan a componer los escenarios de los entrenamientos. Además, el análisis ha mostrado que es a través de la inventiva y de la circulación de saberes que las atletas protagonizan y viabilizan, aunque sea de manera remota, los entrenamientos esenciales a su rol de jugadoras profesionales.


This study aimed to analyze the ways athletes from Brazilian Women's National Football Team narrate their training sessions on Instagram during the period of social distancing imposed by COVID-19. Photographs, videos, and texts posted in profiles of 18 athletes were captured from March to July 2020. Based on Instagram posts, we verified that this production of self-narratives is based on the agency of numerous elements that associate and become part of the training scenarios. In addition, the analysis showed that it is through inventiveness and the circulation of knowledge that athletes lead and enable, even if remotely, the training essential to the role of professional players.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Soccer , Women , Athletes , Pandemics , Social Networking , Sports , Coronavirus Infections , Social Media
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