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1.
Nurs Adm Q ; 47(3): E27-E33, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233592

ABSTRACT

The postpandemic atmosphere has created a perfect storm that has necessitated a renewed prioritization to bolster support for the role of the clinical nurse manager. Role transition, competencies, mentorship, and ongoing development for the clinical nurse manager have been solidly supported in nursing leadership literature for decades. Preparing competent, ready-to-respond, people-oriented, transformational nurse leaders for these positions is essential to survival of our health care workforce. This article includes a summative review of comprehensive published findings related to nurse manager competency, development, and support. Findings have been correlated with one health system's postpandemic internal surveys, focus groups, reaction panels, and gap analysis to validate historic recommendations and prepare for program development. The purpose of this project was to endorse manager support and development recommendations and implement an evidence-based program to better prepare clinical nurse managers in today's health care leadership reality.


Subject(s)
Nurse Administrators , Humans , Leadership , Delivery of Health Care , Program Development , Workforce
2.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e407, 2023 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232144

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the role of public health emergency operations centers in recent public health emergencies and to identify the barriers and enablers influencing the effective use of a public health emergency operations center (PHEOC) in public health emergency management. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in 5 databases and selected grey literature websites. RESULTS: Forty-two articles, consisting of 28 peer-reviewed studies and 14 grey literature sources matched the inclusion criteria. Results suggest that PHEOCs are used to prepare and respond to a range of public health emergencies, including coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Factors found to influence the use of a PHEOC include the adoption of an incident management system, internal and external communications, data management, workforce capacity, and physical infrastructure. CONCLUSIONS: PHEOCs play an important role in public health emergency management. This review identified several barriers and enablers to using a PHEOC in public health emergency management. Future research should focus on addressing the barriers to using a PHEOC and looking at ways to evaluate the impact of using a PHEOC on public health emergency outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Emergencies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health Administration/methods , Workforce
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239631

ABSTRACT

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) clinicians provide patient care within a high-stakes, unpredictable, and complex work environment in which conflict is inevitable. Our objective was to explore the extent to which added stressors of the pandemic exacerbated EMS workplace conflict. We administered our survey to a sample of U.S. nationally certified EMS clinicians during the COVID-19 pandemic in April 2022. Out of 1881 respondents, 46% (n = 857) experienced conflict and 79% (n = 674) provided free-text descriptions of their experience. The responses were analyzed for themes using qualitative content analysis, and they were then sorted into codes using word unit sets. Code counts, frequencies, and rankings were tabulated, enabling quantitative comparisons of the codes. Of the fifteen codes to emerge, stress (a precursor of burnout) and burnout-related fatigue were the key factors contributing to EMS workplace conflict. We mapped our codes to a conceptual model guided by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) report on using a systems approach to address clinician burnout and professional well-being to explore implications for addressing conflict within that framework. Factors attributed to conflict mapped to all levels of the NASEM model, lending empirical legitimacy to a broad systems approach to fostering worker well-being. Our findings lead us to propose that active surveillance (enhanced management information and feedback systems) of frontline clinicians' experiences during public health emergencies could increase the effectiveness of regulations and policies across the healthcare system. Ideally, the contributions of the occupational health discipline would become a mainstay of a sustained response to promote ongoing worker well-being. The maintenance of a robust EMS workforce, and by extension the health professionals in its operational sphere, is unquestionably essential to our preparedness for the likelihood that pandemic threats may become more commonplace.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workforce
4.
Public Health Rep ; 138(1_suppl): 42S-47S, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238520

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed an unprecedented burden on patients, health care providers, and communities and has been particularly challenging for medically underserved populations impacted by the social determinants of health, as well as people with co-occurring mental health and substance use risks. This case study examines outcomes and lessons learned from a multisite low-threshold medication-assisted treatment (MAT) program at a federally qualified health center in partnership with a large suburban public university in New York to integrate and train Health Resources & Services Administration Behavioral Health Workforce Education and Training-funded graduate student trainees in social work and nursing in screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment and patient care coordination, including social determinants of health and medical and behavioral comorbidities. The MAT program for the treatment of opioid use disorder has a low threshold for entry that is accessible and affordable, reduces barriers to care, and uses a harm reduction approach. Outcome data showed an average 70% retention rate in the MAT program and reductions in substance use. And, while more than 73% of patients reported being somewhat or definitely impacted by the pandemic, most patients endorsed the effectiveness of telemedicine and telebehavioral health, such that 86% indicated the pandemic did not affect the quality of their health care. The main implementation lessons learned were the importance of increasing the capacity of primary care and health care centers to deliver integrated care, using cross-disciplinary practicum experiences to enhance trainee competencies, and addressing the social determinants of health among populations with social vulnerabilities and chronic medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , New York , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workforce , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology
6.
Nurs Adm Q ; 47(3): 257-268, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236284

ABSTRACT

A structured transition to practice (TTP) program is beneficial to the professional success and retention of new graduate nurses (NGNs). The COVID-19 pandemic impacted clinical preparation and the TTP experience of NGNs. Data from the Versant National Database between 2018 and 2021 were analyzed to determine the current state of NGN well-being and clinical development. Key findings from the analysis indicate that NGNs that are a part of a comprehensive TTP program remain highly committed to their organization, have increased satisfaction working with their colleagues, and indicate low intent to leave their position. However, there are opportunities to address individual rewards and recognition, clinical assignments, morale, feelings of belongingness, and well-being. These findings further support the importance of a nurse residency program as part of an overall workforce strategy and that individual, programmatic, and practice environment outcomes must be longitudinally measured and analyzed to be able to make necessary evidence-based changes to meet the future needs of NGNs and the profession.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Graduate , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workforce
7.
Public Health Rep ; 138(1_suppl): 48S-55S, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235754

ABSTRACT

Public health emergencies impact the well-being of people and communities. Long-term emotional distress is a pervasive and serious consequence of high levels of crisis exposure and low levels of access to mental health care. At highest risk for mental health trauma are historically medically underserved and socially marginalized populations and frontline health care workers (HCWs). Current public health emergency response efforts provide insufficient mental health services for these groups. The ongoing mental health crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic has implications for the resource-strained health care workforce. Public health has an important role in delivering psychosocial care and physical support in tandem with communities. Assessment of US and international public health strategies deployed during past public health emergencies can guide development of population-specific mental health care. The objectives of this topical review were (1) to examine scholarly and other literature on the mental health needs of HCWs and selected US and international policies to address them during the first 2 years of the pandemic and (2) to propose strategies for future responses. We reviewed 316 publications in 10 topic areas. Two-hundred fifty publications were excluded, leaving 66 for this topical review. Findings from our review indicate a need for flexible, tailored mental health outreach for HCWs after disasters. US and global research emphasizes the dearth of institutional mental health support for HCWs and of mental health providers who specialize in helping the health care workforce. Future public health disaster responses must address the mental health needs of HCWs to prevent lasting trauma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Humans , Health Workforce , Pandemics , Mental Health , Emergencies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workforce
8.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 54(6): 268-274, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Graduate nurses are known to experience transition shock when they enter the workforce. Graduate nurse programs are designed to alleviate aspects of transition shock. METHOD: Best practice in development and delivery of transition programs is currently limited in the literature, and there are few examples focusing on curriculum design that can be adapted by health services to develop and support new nurses. RESULTS: An inquiry-based learning approach was used as the underlying andragogy to frame a contemporary transition curriculum to support graduate nurses. CONCLUSION: Inquiry-based learning can be used to support graduate nurses to improve critical thinking, confidence, and job satisfaction during the most challenging years of their professional lives. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2023;54(6):268-274.].


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Nurses , Humans , Workforce , Workplace
9.
Public Health Rep ; 138(1_suppl): 78S-89S, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245421

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In times of heightened population health needs, the health workforce must respond quickly and efficiently, especially at the state level. We examined state governors' executive orders related to 2 key health workforce flexibility issues, scope of practice (SOP) and licensing, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an in-depth document review of state governors' executive orders introduced in 2020 in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We conducted a thematic content analysis of the executive order language using an inductive process and then categorized executive orders by profession (advanced practice registered nurses, physician assistants, and pharmacists) and degree of flexibility granted; for licensing, we indicated yes or no for easing or waiving cross-state regulatory barriers. RESULTS: We identified executive orders in 36 states containing explicit directives addressing SOP or out-of-state licensing, with those in 20 states easing regulatory barriers pertaining to both workforce issues. Seventeen states issued executive orders expanding SOP for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants, most commonly by completely waiving physician practice agreements, while those in 9 states expanded pharmacist SOP. Executive orders in 31 states and the District of Columbia eased or waived out-of-state licensing regulatory barriers, usually for all health care professionals. CONCLUSION: Governor directives issued through executive orders played an important role in expanding health workforce flexibility in the first year of the pandemic, especially in states with restrictive practice regulations prior to COVID-19. Future research should examine what effects these temporary flexibilities may have had on patient and practice outcomes or on permanent efforts to relax practice restrictions for health care professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Workforce , Pandemics , Workforce , District of Columbia
10.
Nurs Adm Q ; 47(3): E21-E26, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244555

ABSTRACT

The nursing profession is at a paradigm shifting moment. The cracks in the profession and the health system were exacerbated by the global pandemic of COVID-19 and chronic workforce issues. Nursing must explicitly acknowledge the broken systems and work specifically to address them. Through innovation leadership, health care leaders can identify the issues and create novel solutions to lead nursing into our desired future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Leadership , Workforce
11.
Nurs Adm Q ; 47(3): 249-256, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243938

ABSTRACT

Health care has forever changed in early 2021. Three years after the beginning of the COVID-19 world pandemic, we must seriously look at the role of the nurses and the model we deploy to ensure our health system's viability. In this article, the authors offer insights into the journey of deconstructing the nurses' role and planning for a Co-Caring Model where virtual and bedside nurses practice and unlicensed assisting personnel work as a team to care for those in need of health care. We also provide a list of actions for nurse leaders to consider. Finally, we aim to spark an international conversation on how we can bring back the joy of practice to ensure we create the best possible places to give and get care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nurse's Role , Communication , Workforce , Problem Solving
12.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1155980, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234940

ABSTRACT

The need to improve career development and training for residential aged care workers in Australia to achieve required essential competencies, including infection prevention and control competencies, has been repeatedly highlighted. In Australia long-term care settings for older adults are known as residential aged care facilities (RACFs). The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to light the lack of preparedness of the aged care sector to respond to emergencies, and the urgent need to improve the infection prevention and control training in residential aged care facilities. The government in the Australian State of Victoria allocated funds to support older Australians in RACFs, including funds toward infection prevention and control training of RACF staff. The School of Nursing and Midwifery at Monash University addressed some of these challenges in delivering an education program on effective infection prevention and control practices to the RACF workforce in Victoria, Australia. This was the largest state-funded program delivered to RACF workers to date in the State of Victoria. The aim of this paper is to provide a community case study, where we share our experience of program planning and implementation during early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic and lessons learned.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Victoria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Infection Control , Workforce
13.
Intellect Dev Disabil ; 61(3): 197-210, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241284

ABSTRACT

Direct support professionals (DSPs) and frontline supervisors (FLSs) have critical roles in home and community-based services for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Low wages and high levels of responsibility created a long-term crisis in recruitment and retention and are exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. A national sample of DSPs and FLSs were compared on demographics and work-related circumstances using data from the third Direct Support Workforce COVID-19 Survey. Significant differences were found in demographics, hours worked, wages, wage augmentations, and quality of work-life. Policy recommendations to address the worsening workforce crisis are provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Health Personnel , Developmental Disabilities , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Workforce
15.
Nurs Outlook ; 71(1): 101897, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328089

ABSTRACT

For a number of decades, nurses have raised concerns about nursing-related issues in nursing homes (NH) such as inadequate registered nurse (RN) staffing, insufficient RN and advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) gerontological expertise, and lack of RN leadership competencies. The NASEM Committee on the Quality of Care in Nursing Homes illuminated the long-standing issues and concerns affecting the quality of care in nursing homes and proposed seven goals and associated recommendations intended to achieve the Committee's vision: Nursing home residents receive care in a safe environment that honors their values and preferences, addresses goals of care, promotes equity, and assesses the benefits and risks of care and treatments. This paper outlines concrete and specific actions nurses and nursing organizations can take to ensure the recommendations are implemented.


Subject(s)
Geriatrics , Nurses , Humans , Nursing Homes , Workforce , Quality of Health Care
16.
Am J Public Health ; 113(6): 689-699, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324048

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To compare rural versus urban local public health workforce competencies and training needs, COVID-19 impact, and turnover risk. Methods. Using the 2021 Public Health Workforce Interest and Needs Survey, we examined the association between local public health agency rural versus urban location in the United States (n = 29 751) and individual local public health staff reports of skill proficiencies, training needs, turnover risk, experiences of bullying due to work as a public health professional, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms attributable to COVID-19. Results. Rural staff had higher odds than urban staff of reporting proficiencies in community engagement, cross-sectoral partnerships, and systems and strategic thinking as well as training needs in data-based decision-making and in diversity, equity, and inclusion. Rural staff were also more likely than urban staff to report leaving because of stress, experiences of bullying, and avoiding situations that made them think about COVID-19. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that rural staff have unique competencies and training needs but also experience significant stress. Public Health Implications. Our findings provide the opportunity to accurately target rural workforce development trainings and illustrate the need to address reported stress and experiences of bullying. (Am J Public Health. 2023;113(6):689-699. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2023.307273).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Public Health/education , Health Workforce , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workforce , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(5): 1365-1376, 2023 May.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321689

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged managers and exposed weaknesses in health systems. In Brazil, the pandemic emerged amid difficulties to work in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) and in health surveillance (HS). The purpose of this article is to analyze the effects of COVID-19 on the organization, working conditions, management, and performance of HS, according to the perception of capital city managers from three regions of Brazil. This is an exploratory, descriptive research with qualitative analysis. The Iramuteq software was used in the treatment of the textual corpus and analysis of descending hierarchical classification, which generated four classes: characteristics of HS work during the pandemic (39.9%), HS organization and working conditions during the pandemic (12.3%), effects of the pandemic on work (34.4%), and the class of the health protection of workers and the population (13.4%). HS implemented remote work, expanded work shifts, and diversified its actions. However, it faced difficulties with personnel, infrastructure, and insufficient training. The present study also pointed out the potential for joint actions concerning HS.


A pandemia de COVID-19 desafiou gestores e explicitou fragilidades dos sistemas de saúde. No Brasil, a pandemia surgiu em meio a dificuldades para o trabalho no SUS e na vigilância sanitária (VISA). O objetivo deste artigo é analisar os efeitos da COVID-19 sobre a organização, as condições de trabalho, a gestão e a atuação de VISA, conforme a percepção de gestores de capitais de três regiões do Brasil. É uma pesquisa exploratória, descritiva, com análise qualitativa. Utilizou-se o software Iramuteq no tratamento do corpus textual e a análise de classificação hierárquica descendente gerou quatro classes: características do trabalho de VISA na pandemia (39,9%), organização e condições de trabalho de VISA na pandemia (12,3%), efeitos da pandemia sobre o trabalho (34,4%) e proteção da saúde de trabalhadores e da população (13,4%). A VISA implantou trabalho remoto, ampliou turnos de trabalho e diversificou suas ações. Entretanto, enfrentou dificuldades de pessoal, infraestrutura e capacitação insuficiente. O estudo apontou as potencialidades das ações conjuntas para a VISA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Government Programs , Workforce , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Personnel
18.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 69: 103627, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321388
19.
J Healthc Manag ; 68(3): 174-186, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318244

ABSTRACT

GOAL: The purpose of this study was to examine nurse staffing while describing the relationships that exist in staffing and quality associated with nursing care during the COVID-19 pandemic, a significantly challenging time for nurse staffing. We examined the relationship between permanent registered nurse (RN) and travel RN staffing during the pandemic and the nursing-sensitive outcomes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), falls, and hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) and length of stay and compared the cost of CAUTIs, CLABSIs, falls, and HAPIs in fiscal years 2021 and 2022. METHODS: We used a descriptive, observational design to retrospectively examine permanent nurse staffing volume and CAUTI, CLABSI, HAPI, and fall counts from October 1, 2019, to February 28, 2022, and travel nurse volume for the most current 12 months, April 1, 2021, to March 31, 2022. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and statistical process control analyses were completed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pearson correlation showed a statistically significant, moderately strong negative correlation (r = -0.568, p = .001) between the active registered nurse full-time equivalents (RN FTEs) and average length of stay (ALOS), and a moderately strong positive correlation (r = 0.688, p = .013) between the travel RN FTEs and ALOS. Pearson correlations were not statistically significant, with low to moderate negative correlations for CAUTIs (r = -0.052, p = .786), CLABSIs (r = -0.207, p = .273), and falls (r = -0.056, p = .769). Pearson correlation for active RN and HAPI showed a moderately strong, statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.499, p = .003). We observed common cause variation in CAUTIs and CLABSIs, with HAPIs and falls showing special cause variation via statistical process control. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Despite the challenges associated with the lack of available nurse staffing accompanied by increasing responsibilities including unlicensed tasks, positive clinical outcomes can be maintained by staff adherence to evidence-based quality improvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Workforce
20.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(Suppl 1): S54-S63, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Public health workforce recruitment and retention continue to challenge public health agencies. This study aims to describe the trends in intention to leave and retire and analyze factors associated with intentions to leave and intentions to stay. DESIGN: Using national-level data from the 2017 and 2021 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Surveys, bivariate analyses of intent to leave were conducted using a Rao-Scott adjusted chi-square and multivariate analysis using logistic regression models. RESULTS: In 2021, 20% of employees planned to retire and 30% were considering leaving. In contrast, 23% of employees planned to retire and 28% considered leaving in 2017. The factors associated with intentions to leave included job dissatisfaction, with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 3.8 (95% CI, 3.52-4.22) for individuals who were very dissatisfied or dissatisfied. Odds of intending to leave were significantly high for employees with pay dissatisfaction (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.59-2.11), those younger than 36 years (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.44-1.73) or 65+ years of age (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI, 2.36-3.33), those with a graduate degree (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26), those hired for COVID-19 response (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.49-2.03), and for the BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, and people of color) (vs White) staff (AOR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15). The leading reasons for employees' intention to stay included benefits such as retirement, job stability, flexibility (eg, flex hours/telework), and satisfaction with one's supervisor. CONCLUSIONS: Given the cost of employee recruitment, training, and retention of competent employees, government public health agencies need to address factors such as job satisfaction, job skill development, and other predictors of employee retention and turnover. IMPLICATIONS: Public health agencies may consider activities for improving retention by prioritizing improvements in the work environment, job and pay satisfaction, and understanding the needs of subgroups of employees such as those in younger and older age groups, those with cultural differences, and those with skills that are highly sought-after by other industries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Personnel Turnover , Job Satisfaction , Workforce
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