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1.
Health Econ ; 31(9): 2050-2071, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905855

ABSTRACT

Governments worldwide have issued massive amounts of debt to inject fiscal stimulus during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper analyzes fiscal responses to an epidemic, in which interactions at work increase the risk of disease and mortality. Fiscal policies, which are designed to borrow against the future and provide transfers to individuals suffering economic hardship, can facilitate consumption smoothing while reduce hours worked and hence mitigate infections. We examine the optimal fiscal policy and characterize the condition under which fiscal policy improves social welfare. We then extend the model analyzing the static and dynamic pecuniary externalities under scale economies-the decrease in labor supply during the epidemic lowers the contemporaneous average wage rate while enhances the post-epidemic workforce health and productivity. We suggest that fiscal policy may not work effectively unless the government coordinates working time, and the optimal size of public debt is affected by production technology and disease severity and transmissibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fiscal Policy , Pandemics/economics , Social Welfare/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Efficiency , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poverty , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Time Factors , Workflow , Workforce/economics , Workload/economics
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929851, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Through January 2021, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) continued to create significant pressure on medical staff who have worked to treat patients with the disease and control its spread. This study aimed to increase understanding of the situation and influencing factors of nurses' work interruption in Wuhan's isolation ward during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS A self-designed general situation questionnaire and work interruption questionnaire were used to survey 160 nurses from Beijing, Chongqing, and Jilin who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan in March 2020. The questionnaire could only be answered once by each nurse via a WeChat account. The submitted answers were verified by 2 researchers. RESULTS The results showed that the rate of interruption of work among nurses in the isolation ward was 25%, and the rate of nurses experiencing a negative experience was 96.9%. The results of univariate analysis showed that the following factors were related to the work interruption of the nurses in the isolation ward (all P<0.05): emergency public incident training; emergency public incident treatment experience; knowledge of COVID-19 pneumonia; hours worked per shift in the quarantine area; and negative physiologic experience. Logistic regression analysis showed that negative experience, hours worked per shift, and emergency public incident training were the independent factors influencing work interruption among nurses in the isolation wards. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of interruption of work among nurses in the isolation ward was 25%. Negative experiences, long working hours per shift, and lack of emergency public incident training made the nurses more prone to work interruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Nurses/economics , Adult , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , China/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nurses/supply & distribution , Nurses/trends , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workload/economics
3.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(11): 1525-1531, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065251

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected radiology practices in many ways. The aim of this survey was to estimate declines in imaging volumes and financial impact across different practice settings during April 2020. METHODS: The survey, comprising 48 questions, was conducted among members of the ACR and the Radiology Business Management Association during May 2020. Survey questions focused on practice demographics, volumes, financials, personnel and staff adjustments, and anticipation of recovery. RESULTS: During April 2020, nearly all radiology practices reported substantial (56.4%-63.7%) declines in imaging volumes, with outpatient imaging volumes most severely affected. Mean gross charges declined by 50.1% to 54.8% and collections declined by 46.4% to 53.9%. Percentage reductions did not correlate with practice size. The majority of respondents believed that volumes would recover but not entirely (62%-88%) and anticipated a short-term recovery, with a surge likely in the short term due to postponement of elective imaging (52%-64%). About 16% of respondents reported that radiologists in their practices tested positive for COVID-19. More than half (52.3%) reported that availability of personal protective equipment had become an issue or was inadequate. A majority (62.3%) reported that their practices had existing remote reading or teleradiology capabilities in place before the pandemic, and 22.3% developed such capabilities in response to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Radiology practices across different settings experienced substantial declines in imaging volumes and collections during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in April 2020. Most are actively engaged in both short- and long-term operational adjustments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Needs and Demand/economics , Pandemics/economics , Radiology/economics , Workload/economics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
4.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(11): 1453-1459, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065250

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The operational and financial impact of the widespread coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) curtailment of imaging services on radiology practices is unknown. We aimed to characterize recent COVID-19-related community practice noninvasive diagnostic imaging professional work declines. METHODS: Using imaging metadata from nine community radiology practices across the United States between January 2019 and May 2020, we mapped work relative value unit (wRVU)-weighted stand-alone noninvasive diagnostic imaging service codes to both modality and body region. Weekly 2020 versus 2019 wRVU changes were analyzed by modality, body region, and site of service. Practice share χ2 testing was performed. RESULTS: Aggregate weekly wRVUs ranged from a high of 120,450 (February 2020) to a low of 55,188 (April 2020). During that -52% wRVU nadir, outpatient declines were greatest (-66%). All practices followed similar aggregate trends in the distribution of wRVUs between each 2020 versus 2019 week (P = .96-.98). As a percentage of total all-practice wRVUs, declines in CT (20,046 of 63,992; 31%) and radiography and fluoroscopy (19,196; 30%) were greatest. By body region, declines in abdomen and pelvis (16,203; 25%) and breast (12,032; 19%) imaging were greatest. Mammography (-17%) and abdominal and pelvic CT (-14%) accounted for the largest shares of total all-practice wRVU reductions. Across modality-region groups, declines were far greatest for mammography (-92%). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial COVID-19-related diagnostic imaging work declines were similar across community practices and disproportionately impacted mammography. Decline patterns could facilitate pandemic second wave planning. Overall implications for practice workflows, practice finances, patient access, and payment policy are manifold.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnostic Imaging/statistics & numerical data , Workload/statistics & numerical data , Diagnostic Imaging/economics , Humans , Pandemics , Relative Value Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Workload/economics
5.
J Vasc Surg ; 73(1): 4-11.e2, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-863655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to understand the effects of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) on vascular surgery practices as related to the Vascular Activity Condition (VASCON) scale. METHODS: All members of the Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Society were surveyed on the effects of COVID-19 in their practices, educational programs, and self-reported grading of their surgical acuity level using the VASCON scale. RESULTS: Total response rate was 28% (206/731). Most respondents (99.5%) reported an effect of COVID-19 on their practice, and most were VASCON3 or lower level. Most reported a decrease in clinic referrals, inpatient/emergency room consults, and case volume (P < .00001). Twelve percent of respondents have been deployed to provide critical care and 11% medical care for COVID-19 patients. More than one-quarter (28%) face decreased compensation or salary. The majority of respondents feel vascular education is affected; however, most feel graduates will finish with the necessary experiences. There were significant differences in answers in lower VASCON levels respondents, with this group demonstrating a statistically significant decreased operative volume, vascular surgery referrals, and increased hospital and procedure limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly all vascular surgeons studied are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic with decreased clinical and operative volume, educational opportunities for trainees, and compensation issues. The VASCON level may be helpful in determining surgical readiness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Practice Management, Medical/trends , Surgeons/trends , Vascular Surgical Procedures/trends , Workload , Appointments and Schedules , Education, Medical, Graduate/trends , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Practice Management, Medical/economics , Referral and Consultation/trends , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/trends , Surgeons/economics , Surgeons/education , Time Factors , Vascular Surgical Procedures/economics , Vascular Surgical Procedures/education , Workload/economics
6.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 70: 306-313, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The situation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Indian subcontinent is worsening. In Bangladesh, rate of new infection has been on the rise despite limited testing facility. Constraint of resources in the health care sector makes the fight against COVID-19 more challenging for a developing country like Bangladesh. Vascular surgeons find themselves in a precarious situation while delivering professional services during this crisis. With the limited number of dedicated vascular surgeons in Bangladesh, it is important to safeguard these professionals without compromising emergency vascular care services in the long term. To this end, we at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases and Hospital, Dhaka, have developed a working guideline for our vascular surgeons to follow during the COVID-19 pandemic. The guideline takes into account high vascular work volume against limited resources in the country. METHODS: A total of 307 emergency vascular patients were dealt with in the first 4 COVID-19 months (March through June 2020) according to the working guideline, and the results were compared with the 4 pre-COVID-19 months. Vascular trauma, dialysis access complications, and chronic limb-threatening ischemia formed the main bulk of the patient population. Vascular health care workers were regularly screened for COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: There was a 38% decrease in the number of patients in the COVID-19 period. Treatment outcome in COVID-19 months were comparable with that in the pre-COVID-19 months except that limb loss in the chronic limb-threatening ischemia patients was higher. COVID-19 infection among the vascular health care professionals was low. CONCLUSIONS: Vascular surgery practice guidelines customized for the high work volume and limited resources of the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases and Hospital, Dhaka were effective in delivering emergency care during COVID-19 pandemic, ensuring safety of the caregivers. Despite the fact that similar guidelines exist in different parts of the world, we believe that the present one is still relevant on the premises of a deepening COVID-19 crisis in a developing country like Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developing Countries , Hospitals, High-Volume/standards , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/standards , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Surgeons/standards , Vascular Surgical Procedures/standards , Workload/standards , Bangladesh , Developing Countries/economics , Health Care Costs/standards , Humans , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/economics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/economics , Surgeons/economics , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Surgical Procedures/economics , Workload/economics
7.
Saudi Med J ; 41(6): 657-660, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595677

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze healthcare workers experiences in dealing with the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: An anonymous open web-based survey study was conducted among healthcare workers from the March 2020 to April 2020. A total of 24 relevant questions were asked based on participants' characteristics, obligations, and preparedness in healthcare workers in the event of COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Approximately 1036 healthcare workers participated in this study with high response rate. Out of all the participants, 70% were women, 52% belonged to the 26-34 year age range, 50% were nurses, 33.7% were clinicians, 74.3% agreed to work overtime, 93.1% understand why they should stay past their shift end, 97.7% thought that preventing illness among healthcare workers and providing safety to family members, nearly 94% thought that personal protective equipment (PPE) for employees will enhance their willingness to report to work. Approximately 89.3% express a desire for incentives and financial support for family members. Conclusion: We recommend that providing PPE, reducing psychological stress, financial support and safety to family members of healthcare workers will increase the willingness to report to work.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Stress/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Family , Female , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Occupational Stress/economics , Occupational Stress/prevention & control , Occupational Stress/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workload/economics
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