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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(6): e2315578, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235748

ABSTRACT

Importance: Several recent US Supreme Court rulings have drawn criticism from the medical community, but their health consequences have not been quantitatively evaluated. Objective: To model health outcomes associated with 3 Supreme Court rulings in 2022 that invalidated workplace COVID-19 vaccine or mask-and-test requirements, voided state handgun-carry restrictions, and revoked the constitutional right to abortion. Design, Setting, and Participants: This decision analytical modeling study estimated outcomes associated with 3 Supreme Court rulings in 2022: (1) National Federation of Independent Business v Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which invalidated COVID-19 workplace protections; (2) New York State Rifle and Pistol Association Inc v Bruen, Superintendent of New York State Police (Bruen), which voided state laws restricting handgun carry; and (3) Dobbs v Jackson Women's Health Organization (Dobbs), which revoked the constitutional right to abortion. Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2022, to April 7, 2023. Main Outcomes and Measures: For the OSHA ruling, multiple data sources were used to calculate deaths attributable to COVID-19 among unvaccinated workers from January 4 to May 28, 2022, and the share of these deaths that would have been prevented by the voided protections. To model the Bruen decision, published estimates of the consequences of right-to-carry laws were applied to 2020 firearm-related deaths (and injuries) in 7 affected jurisdictions. For the Dobbs ruling, the model assessed unwanted pregnancy continuations, resulting from the change in distance to the closest abortion facility, and then excess deaths (and peripartum complications) from forcing these unwanted pregnancies to term. Results: The decision model projected that the OSHA decision was associated with 1402 additional COVID-19 deaths (and 22 830 hospitalizations) in early 2022. In addition, the model projected that 152 additional firearm-related deaths (and 377 nonfatal injuries) annually will result from the Bruen decision. Finally, the model projected that 30 440 fewer abortions will occur annually due to current abortion bans stemming from Dobbs, with 76 612 fewer abortions if states at high risk for such bans also were to ban the procedure; these bans will be associated with an estimated 6 to 15 additional pregnancy-related deaths each year, respectively, and hundreds of additional cases of peripartum morbidity. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that outcomes from 3 Supreme Court decisions in 2022 could lead to substantial harms to public health, including nearly 3000 excess deaths (and possibly many more) over a decade.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Supreme Court Decisions , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workplace , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
2.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 54(6): 268-274, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Graduate nurses are known to experience transition shock when they enter the workforce. Graduate nurse programs are designed to alleviate aspects of transition shock. METHOD: Best practice in development and delivery of transition programs is currently limited in the literature, and there are few examples focusing on curriculum design that can be adapted by health services to develop and support new nurses. RESULTS: An inquiry-based learning approach was used as the underlying andragogy to frame a contemporary transition curriculum to support graduate nurses. CONCLUSION: Inquiry-based learning can be used to support graduate nurses to improve critical thinking, confidence, and job satisfaction during the most challenging years of their professional lives. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2023;54(6):268-274.].


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Nurses , Humans , Workforce , Workplace
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9365, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244887

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant changes in work and lifestyle, impacting occupational mental health. This study examines the time and individual heterogeneity in the pandemic's effects on occupational mental health using panel data from job stress checks spanning 2018 to 2021. On average, there was an initial alleviation of high-stress risk in 2020, followed by a deterioration in 2021. Based on the job demand-resource theory, we identify the group of employees most affected by the pandemic. The findings highlight that employees in unfavorable workplace conditions are more likely to experience substantial adverse impacts. Adequate workplace support, including factors like interpersonal relationships, managerial support, job meaning, control, and work-life balance, is crucial for mitigating high-stress risk. Additionally, during the early phase of the pandemic, engaged employees experienced a slight decline in occupational mental health, while those lacking job resources at their worksite faced higher levels of occupational stress in the subsequent year. These findings offer practical suggestions for person-centered coping strategies to mitigate the pandemic's adverse impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Workplace/psychology , Mental Health
6.
Int J Med Educ ; 14: 65-74, 2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242024

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To identify the main enablers and challenges for workplace learning during postgraduate medical education among residents and their supervisors involved in training hospital specialists across different medical specialties and clinical teaching departments. Methods: A qualitative explorative study using semi-structured focus group interviews was employed. A purposeful sampling method was utilized to invite participants who were involved in postgraduate medical education for hospital specialist medicine at two universities. Hospital physicians in training, also called residents (n=876) and supervisors (n=66), were invited by email to participate. Three focus groups were organized: two with residents and one with supervisors. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic rules prohibiting real group meetings, these focus groups were online and asynchronous. The data was analyzed following an inductive thematic analysis. Results: The following overarching themes were identified: 1) the dual learning path, which balances working in the hospital and formal courses, 2) feedback, where quality, quantity, and frequency are discussed, and 3) learning support, including residents' self-directed learning, supervisors' guidance, and ePortfolio support. Conclusions: Different enablers and challenges for postgraduate medical education were identified. These results can guide all stakeholders involved with workplace learning to develop a better understanding of how workplace learning can be optimized to improve the postgraduate medical education experience. Future studies could focus on confirming the results of this study in a broader, perhaps international setting and exploring strategies for aligning residencies to improve quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical , Internship and Residency , Humans , Pandemics , Learning , Workplace
7.
J Laryngol Otol ; 137(6): 691-696, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: UK head and neck cancer incidence and prevalence in working-age people are increasing. Work is important for individuals and society. Head and neck cancer survivors return to work less than other cancer survivors. Treatment affects physical and psychological functioning long-term. Evidence is limited, with no UK qualitative studies. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted, underpinned by a critical realism approach, involving semi-structured interviews with working head and neck cancer survivors. Interviews were conducted using the Microsoft Teams communication platform and interpreted using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Thirteen head and neck cancer survivors participated. Three themes were drawn from the data: changed meaning of work and identity, return-to-work experiences, and the impact of healthcare professionals on returning to work. Physical, speech and psychosocial changes affected workplace interactions, including stigmatising responses by work colleagues. CONCLUSION: Participants were challenged by returning to work. Work interactions and context influenced return-to-work success. Head and neck cancer survivors want return-to-work conversations within healthcare consultations, but perceived these as absent.


Subject(s)
Cancer Survivors , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Survivors/psychology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Return to Work/psychology , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Workplace
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239638

ABSTRACT

AIMS: In this study, we aimed to identify the relationship between nursing practice environments (NPEs) and safety perceptions with patient safety culture (PSC) during COVID-19. DESIGN: We conducted a quantitative, non-experimental, correlational, and cross-sectional study. We interviewed 211 nurses from Peru using two scales: PES-NWI and HSOPSC. We used the Shapiro-Wilk test and Spearman's coefficient and estimated two regression models. RESULTS: NPE was reported as favorable by 45.5% of the participants, and PSC was reported as neutral by 61.1%. Safety perception, the workplace, and NPE predict PSC. All NPE factors were correlated with PSC. However, safety perception, support of nurses subscale, the nurse manager's ability, and leadership were predictors of PSC. CONCLUSION: To promote a safe work culture, health institutions should foster leadership that prioritizes safety, strengthens managers' abilities, encourages interprofessional collaboration, and considers nurses' feedback for constant improvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurse Administrators , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Organizational Culture , COVID-19/epidemiology , Safety Management , Workplace , Perception , Surveys and Questionnaires , Job Satisfaction
10.
J Opioid Manag ; 18(4): 335-359, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241238

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Opioids and the Workplace Prevention and Response (OWPR) Train-the-Trainer (TTT) and Leadership programs were piloted to improve trainees' abilities to conduct opioid awareness training and to introduce policies and programs in their workplaces. METHODS: The TTT (N = 54) and Leadership (N = 19) pilot trainees were administered voluntary pre- and post-training surveys and observed for discussion on knowledge and confidence regarding teaching and on workplace policies and workplace injury prevention related to opioids. RESULTS: Percentage agreement with correct responses for all TTT and 10 out of 14 (71.4 percent) Leadership knowledge and confidence questions increased significantly from pre- to post-test. CONCLUSION: We found some evidence that the OWPR TTT and Leadership training programs and materials were effective in improving trainee's abilities to conduct opioid awareness training and to introduce policies and programs to address opioids and the workplace.


Subject(s)
Leadership , Workplace , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Work ; 75(1): 41-58, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacts an individual's workforce involvement post-injury. Support services and workplace accommodations that can help with work re-integration post-TBI may differ based on a person's sex and gender. The added impact of COVID-19 remains under-explored. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the support services and workplace accommodation needs and the impact of COVID-19 on work and mental health for persons with TBI, considering sex and gender. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was distributed. Descriptive and regression analyses were applied to uncover sex and gender differences, along with content analysis for open-ended responses. RESULTS: Thirty-two persons with TBI (62% women, 38% men) participated. Physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and counselling services were indicated as the most needed services by women and men. Modified hours/days and modified/different duties were the most needed workplace accommodations. Mental challenges impacting well-being was a highlighted concern for both men and women. Women scored poorer on the daily activity domain of the Quality of Life after Brain Injury - Overall Scale (p = 0.02). Assistance with daily activities was highlighted by women for a successful transition to work, including housekeeping and caregiving. Men were more likely than women to experience change in employment status because of COVID-19 (p = 0.02). Further, a higher percentage of men expressed concern about the inability to pay for living accommodations, losing their job, and not having future job prospects. CONCLUSION: Findings reveal important differences between men and women when transitioning to work post-TBI and emphasize the need for sex and gender considerations.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Workplace , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(30): 74838-74852, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327378

ABSTRACT

Workplace violence (WPV) is a prevalent phenomenon, especially in the healthcare setting. WPV against healthcare workers (HCWs) has increased during the COVID-19 epidemic. This meta-analysis determined the prevalence and risk factors of WPV. A database search was conducted across six databases in May 2022, which was updated in October 2022. WPV prevalence among HCWs was the main outcome. Data were stratified by WPV/HCW type, pandemic period (early, mid, late), and medical specialty. WPV risk factors were the secondary outcome. All analyses were conducted through STATA. Newcastle Ottawa Scale evaluated the quality. Sensitivity analysis identified effect estimate changes. A total of 38 studies (63,672 HCWs) were analyzed. The prevalence of WPV of any kind (43%), physical (9%), verbal (48%), and emotional (26%) was high. From mid-pandemic to late-pandemic, WPV (40-47%), physical violence (12-23%), and verbal violence (45-58%) increased. Nurses had more than double the rate of physical violence (13% vs. 5%) than physicians, while WPV and verbal violence were equal. Gender, profession, and COVID-19 timing did not affect WPV, physical, or verbal violence risk. COVID-19 HCWs were more likely to be physically assaulted (logOR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.10: 0.97). Most healthcare employees suffer verbal violence, followed by emotional, bullying, sexual harassment, and physical assault. Pandemic-related workplace violence increased. Nurses were twice as violent as doctors. COVID-19 healthcare employees had a higher risk of physical and workplace violence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Workplace Violence , Humans , Workplace Violence/psychology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Prevalence , Workplace
13.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1169604, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325964

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of the pilot study conducted by the authors was to assess occupational risk in selected areas of psychosocial risk factors among health professions in a pilot study. Medical staff working in the healthcare sector experience stress, job burnout and bullying on a daily basis. Monitoring occupational risks in the above areas provides an opportunity to take appropriate preventive measures. Methods: The prospective online survey included 143 health care workers from various professional groups. Eighteen participants did not complete the survey, and the results of 125 participants were eventually included in the analysis. The study used health and safety questionnaires in the healthcare sector, which are not widely used as screening tools in Poland. Results: The following statistical methods were performed in the study: the Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn's test. In addition, multivariate analysis was performed. The results obtained in the study indicate that the questionnaires used in the study can be widely used by employers or occupational medicine as screening tools. Conclusions: Our findings show that level of education attainment in healthcare is correlated with higher chance of experiencing stress and burnout. Among the surveyed professions, nurses reported a higher amount of stress and burnout. Paramedics reported the highest chance of being bullied at work. This can be explained by their nature of work which requires directly interacting with patients and their families. In addition, it should be noted that the tools used can be successfully applied in workplaces as elements of workplace ergonomics assessment in the context of cognitive ergonomics.


Subject(s)
Bullying , Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , Pilot Projects , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Workplace , Ergonomics , Medical Staff
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 288, 2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early- and mid-career academics in medicine, dentistry and health sciences are integral to research, education and advancement of clinical professions, yet experience significant illbeing, high attrition and limited advancement opportunities. OBJECTIVES: Identify and synthesise published research investigating challenges and opportunities related to diversity and inclusion, as experienced by early and mid-career academics employed in medicine, dentistry and health sciences disciplines. DESIGN: Rapid review. DATA SOURCES: OVID Medline, Embase, APA PsycInfo, CINAHL and Scopus. METHODS: We systematically searched for peer reviewed published articles within the last five years, investigating challenges and opportunities related to diversity and inclusion, as experienced by early and mid-career academics employed in medicine, dentistry and health sciences. We screened and appraised articles, then extracted and synthesised data. RESULTS: Database searches identified 1162 articles, 11 met inclusion criteria. Studies varied in quality, primarily reporting concepts encompassed by professional identity. There were limited findings relating to social identity, with sexual orientation and disability being a particularly notable absence, and few findings relating to inclusion. Job insecurity, limited opportunities for advancement or professional development, and a sense of being undervalued in the workplace were evident for these academics. CONCLUSIONS: Our review identified overlap between academic models of wellbeing and key opportunities to foster inclusion. Challenges to professional identity such as job insecurity can contribute to development of illbeing. Future interventions to improve wellbeing in academia for early- and mid-career academics in these fields should consider addressing their social and professional identity, and foster their inclusion within the academic community. REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework ( https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/SA4HX ).


Subject(s)
Cultural Diversity , Workplace , Humans , Female , Male , Forecasting , Dentistry
15.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604769, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322459

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate burnout among Bangladeshi nurses and the factors that influence it, particularly the association of workplace bullying (WPB) and workplace violence (WPV) with burnout. Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from 1,264 Bangladeshi nurses. Mixed-effects Poisson regression models were fitted to find the adjusted association between WPB, WPV, and burnout. Results: Burnout was found to be prevalent in 54.19% of 1,264 nurses. 61.79% of nurses reported that they had been bullied, and 16.3% of nurses reported experience of "intermediate and high" levels of workplace violence in the previous year. Nurses who were exposed to "high risk bullying" (RR = 2.29, CI: 1.53-3.41) and "targeted bullying" (RR = 4.86, CI: 3.32-7.11) had a higher risk of burnout than those who were not. Similarly, WPV exposed groups at "intermediate and high" levels had a higher risk of burnout (RR = 3.65, CI: 2.40-5.56) than WPV non-exposed groups. Conclusion: Nurses' burnout could be decreased if issues like violence and bullying were addressed in the workplace. Hospital administrators, policymakers, and the government must all promote and implement an acceptable working environment.


Subject(s)
Bullying , Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Nurses , Occupational Stress , Workplace Violence , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Workplace , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Trials ; 22(1): 907, 2021 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) including upper crossed syndrome (UCS) are considered as the leading cause of work-related issues worldwide among office workers. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effect of workplace-based versus online-supervised home-based corrective exercises among office workers with UCS. METHODS AND DESIGN: To this end, 45 subjects within the age range of 30-45 years are randomly assigned to three groups in the present parallel-group, randomized control trial using a pretest-posttest design. These groups include the subjects who receive online-supervised exercise and workplace exercise containing three sessions of intervention for 8 weeks and the control group receives no intervention while performing routine activities. The primary outcome variables are neck-shoulder pain (NSP) and consequent sick leave due to NSP, followed by alignment, workability, and the surface electromyography of upper, middle, and lower trapezius (UT, MT, and LT), sternocleidomastoid (SCM), and serratus anterior (SA) as the secondary variables. DISCUSSION: The present study seeks to assess the effect of workplace versus online-supervised corrective exercise interventions among 45 office workers suffering from UCS. It is expected to improve and reduce the related symptoms including postural malalignment and imbalance muscles after 8 weeks of corrective exercises. If effective, the findings may lead to adherence and work performance among the office workers, and individuals subjected to UCS can use the benefits of an online-supervised intervention. In addition, the findings may be useful in different workplaces as the evidence for employers to benefit from the reduction in the related costs and side effects of work-related neck/shoulder disorders including work disability, productivity loss, time expense, social insurance, work absenteeism, and treatment costs. Finally, clinicians and corrective exercise therapists can consider it as a clinical based-evidence intervention for their further actions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT20200729048249N1. Registered on 5 October 2020 ( https://en.irct.ir/user/trial/49992/view ).


Subject(s)
Musculoskeletal Pain , Workplace , Adult , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Iran , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
17.
J Emerg Nurs ; 49(3): 345-351, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Workplace violence is not a unique problem to organizations. Evidence-based toolkits and strategies are available to help provide a guiding framework for the reduction of workplace violence events. As times and stressors (both personal and environmental) change, hospitals must keep constant attention on how to address and implement initiatives to keep staff safe. This manuscript addresses steps taken at 1 hospital to meet this challenge. PROCESS: Although a workplace violence committee had been in place for some time, it was identified that not all of the key players were included. Membership was evaluated, and executive-level support was provided. A review of literature was conducted and identified top priorities upon which to focus efforts. Subcommittees were formed to be responsible for these categories of work and to report back to the committee. EVALUATION: Data points and a dashboard were created to monitor trends and effectiveness, especially regarding combating the culture of underreporting. Processes and resources were formalized and made easily accessible to staff. Case studies and direct feedback from staff have been impactful and helped identify additional barriers. Evaluation will continue to occur using process-improvement methodology along with technological assistance. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace violence is not part of the job. Ongoing work is needed to continue to move the needle and make hospitals a safer place to work. Engagement from all levels of the organization is necessary to have a successful program.


Subject(s)
Nursing Staff, Hospital , Workplace Violence , Humans , Workplace Violence/prevention & control , Hospitals , Workplace
18.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285601, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313969

ABSTRACT

During pandemics like COVID-19, both the quality and quantity of services offered by businesses and organizations have been severely impacted. They often have applied a hybrid home office setup to overcome this problem, although in some situations, working from home lowers employee productivity. So, increasing the rate of presence in the office is frequently desired from the manager's standpoint. On the other hand, as the virus spreads through interpersonal contact, the risk of infection increases when workplace occupancy rises. Motivated by this trade-off, in this paper, we model this problem as a bi-objective optimization problem and propose a practical approach to find the trade-off solutions. We present a new probabilistic framework to compute the expected number of infected employees for a setting of the influential parameters, such as the incidence level in the neighborhood of the company, transmission rate of the virus, number of employees, rate of vaccination, testing frequency, and rate of contacts among the employees. The results show a wide range of trade-offs between the expected number of infections and productivity, for example, from 1 to 6 weekly infections in 100 employees and a productivity level of 65% to 85%. This depends on the configuration of influential parameters and the occupancy level. We implement the model and the algorithm and perform several experiments with different settings of the parameters. Moreover, we developed an online application based on the result in this paper which can be used as a recommender for the optimal rate of occupancy in companies/workplaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Workplace , Models, Statistical
19.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0284805, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320422

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to use mathematical models of SARS-COV-2 to assess the potential efficacy of non-pharmaceutical interventions on transmission in the parcel delivery and logistics sector. METHODS: We devloped a network-based model of workplace contacts based on data and consultations from companies in the parcel delivery and logistics sectors. We used these in stochastic simulations of disease transmission to predict the probability of workplace outbreaks in this settings. Individuals in the model have different viral load trajectories based on SARS-CoV-2 in-host dynamics, which couple to their infectiousness and test positive probability over time, in order to determine the impact of testing and isolation measures. RESULTS: The baseline model (without any interventions) showed different workplace infection rates for staff in different job roles. Based on our assumptions of contact patterns in the parcel delivery work setting we found that when a delivery driver was the index case, on average they infect only 0.14 other employees, while for warehouse and office workers this went up to 0.65 and 2.24 respectively. In the LIDD setting this was predicted to be 1.40, 0.98, and 1.34 respectively. Nonetheless, the vast majority of simulations resulted in 0 secondary cases among customers (even without contact-free delivery). Our results showed that a combination of social distancing, office staff working from home, and fixed driver pairings (all interventions carried out by the companies we consulted) reduce the risk of workplace outbreaks by 3-4 times. CONCLUSION: This work suggests that, without interventions, significant transmission could have occured in these workplaces, but that these posed minimal risk to customers. We found that identifying and isolating regular close-contacts of infectious individuals (i.e. house-share, carpools, or delivery pairs) is an efficient measure for stopping workplace outbreaks. Regular testing can make these isolation measures even more effective but also increases the number of staff isolating at one time. It is therefore more efficient to use these isolation measures in addition to social distancing and contact reduction interventions, rather than instead of, as these reduce both transmission and the number of people needing to isolate at one time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Models, Theoretical , Workplace
20.
Occup Environ Med ; 80(7): 377-383, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319935

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether crowded workplaces, sharing surfaces and exposure to infections were factors associated with a positive test for influenza virus. METHODS: We studied 11 300 cases with a positive test for influenza A and 3671 cases of influenza B from Swedish registry of communicable diseases. Six controls for each case were selected from the population registry, with each control being assigned the index date of their corresponding case. We linked job histories to job-exposure matrices (JEMs), to assess different transmission dimensions of influenza and risks for different occupations compared with occupations that the JEM classifies as low exposed. We used adjusted conditional logistic analyses to estimate the ORs for influenza with 95% CI. RESULTS: The highest odds were for influenza were: regular contact with infected patients (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.54 to 1.73); never maintained social distance (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.59); frequently sharing materials/surfaces with the general public (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.48); close physical proximity (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.45 to 1.62) and high exposure to diseases or infections (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.64). There were small differences between influenza A and influenza B. The five occupations with the highest odds as compared with low exposed occupations were: primary care physicians, protective service workers, elementary workers, medical and laboratory technicians, and taxi drivers. CONCLUSIONS: Contact with infected patients, low social distance and sharing surfaces are dimensions that increase risk for influenza A and B. Further safety measures are needed to diminish viral transmission in these contexts.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Occupational Exposure , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupations , Workplace
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