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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143002

ABSTRACT

This Special Issue of the IJERPH examines various psychosocial factors that influence the health of workers in contemporary workplaces [...].


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Workplace , Humans , Workplace/psychology
2.
Work ; 73(3): 809-818, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is important to determine nurses' levels of knowledge, health-protective practices for work and social life, and mental health states at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic to combat the pandemic and minimize further problems. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationships between knowledge levels, health-protective practices, and anxiety among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out with the online participation of 605 nurses in Turkey. The researchers prepared a questionnaire form to evaluate the participants' knowledge of COVID-19 and their awareness and health-protective behaviours in work and social life. The mental health statuses of the participants were assessed with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) questionnaire. RESULTS: Most of the participants (87.8%) had high levels of knowledge of COVID-19, while 28.8% had severe levels of anxiety disorder. The use of alcohol-based hand disinfectants (88.2%) and the use of N95 or N99 masks (88.5%) were the least frequently practiced protective behaviours at work, while in social life, a healthy and balanced diet (61.6%), social distancing (72.8%), and paying attention to one's sleep pattern (77.3%) were the least frequently practiced protective behaviours. Older age (41-50 years), higher education (master's degree) and having a work experience of 10 years or more were determined to increase the knowledge levels of the participants about COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Anxiety levels were higher in those with a history of mental illness (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Determining the knowledge levels, health-protective practices, and anxiety levels of nurses who are struggling in the frontlines in the field of health during the pandemic period can make a great contribution to the management of different current epidemics and pandemics and future ones by showing the areas in which nurses need to be empowered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Workplace/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology
3.
Curationis ; 45(1): e1-e8, 2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  It is critical for intensive care unit (ICU) nurses to develop resilient coping strategies to cope with workplace adversities. The coping strategies will mitigate the development of maladaptive psychological disorders prone to working in a stressful environment. OBJECTIVES:  The aim of this study is to analyse previous literature conducted on strategies that enhance resilience in ICU nurses to cope with workplace adversities beyond the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study was conducted by examining all available global literature in the context of the aim of the study. METHOD:  An integrative literature review was chosen for the study. Purposive sampling method was used to select the relevant databases to answer the review question, namely Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, Medline and Nursing/Academic Edition. The search terms used were 'strategies', 'resilience', 'intensive care unit nurses', 'coping', 'workplace adversities', 'beyond COVID-19' and post 'COVID-19'. RESULTS:  Three themes emerged from the study, namely promoting personal attributes, effective relational support and active psychological support. CONCLUSION:  Enhancing resilience among ICU nurses requires both intentional individualised care from the ICU nurses and a systematic approach by nursing management that will meet the psychological needs of ICU nurses when working in a stressful ICU environment.Contribution: The findings of the review have highlighted specific strategies of improving resilience in ICU nurses, which can ultimately create a safe working environment in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Humans , Workplace/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Intensive Care Units
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, workers employed in vaccination points around the world have been subjected to very high workloads to counter the progress of the COVID-19 epidemic. This workload has a negative effect on their well-being. Environmental psychology studies have shown how the physical characteristics of the workplace environment can influence employees' well-being. Furthermore, studies in the psychology of art show how art can improve the health of individuals. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to test a moderated mediation model to verify how appreciation of workplace aesthetics can impact the level of exhaustion of staff working in a vaccination center, the mediating role of positive and negative affects, and the moderating role of interest in art. METHODS: Data were collected from a sample of 274 workers (physicians, nurses, reception, and administrative staff) working in the same vaccination center in Italy. Participants answered a self-report questionnaire during a rest break. We used a cross-sectional design. RESULTS: The results show that appreciation of workplace aesthetics impacts employees' level of exhaustion. This relationship is mediated by positive and negative affects, and interest in art moderates the relationship between positive affects and exhaustion. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the central role of workplace aesthetics in influencing healthcare workers' well-being, and how interest in art can reduce exhaustion levels. Practical implications of the results are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Workplace , Humans , Workplace/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination , Esthetics
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e059860, 2022 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk factors for workplace bullying and mental health outcomes among workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A nationwide online survey was conducted from August to September 2020 in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: 16 384 workers (men: n=9565; women: n=6789). MAIN OUTCOME VARIABLES: Workplace bullying was measured by one item from the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire; severe psychological distress according to the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (≥13) and suicidal ideation by one item. Prevalence ratios were calculated by modified Poisson regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders such as gender, age, occupational characteristics and a prior history of depression. RESULTS: Overall, 15% of workers experienced workplace bullying, 9% had severe psychological distress and 12% had suicidal ideation during the second and third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. The results of this study showed men, executives, managers and permanent employees had a higher risk of bullying than women or part-time workers. Increased physical and psychological demands were common risk factors for bullying, severe psychological distress and suicidal ideation. Starting to work from home was a significant predictor for adverse mental health outcomes but a preventive factor against workplace bullying. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed different high-risk groups for bullying or mental health during the pandemic. Any intervention to decrease workplace bullying or mental health problems should focus not only on previously reported vulnerable workers but also workers who have experienced a change in work style or job demands.


Subject(s)
Bullying , COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Psychological Distress , Male , Female , Humans , Suicidal Ideation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Workplace/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090194

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses were exposed to many stressors, which may have been associated with some mental health problems. However, most of the studies carried out on nurses' quality of life and workplace wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic took a pathogenic approach. Given that current scientific knowledge in this field presented too many gaps to properly inform preventive and therapeutic action, the aim of this study was to explore whether protective factors (resilience, perceived social support, and professional identification) and stressors (perceived stress and psychosocial risks in the workplace) influenced the quality of life and workplace wellbeing perceived by Portuguese nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data for this cross-sectional study was collected through online self-administered questionnaires. Linear regression models were used to analyze the relationships between variables. Results showed that perceived stress, resilience and job satisfaction were associated with quality of life and workplace wellbeing among Portuguese nurses. The study's findings could serve to inform health policy and should draw the attention of nursing managers to the needs and difficulties reported by nurses, to the importance of providing them with emotional support, and to the relevance of promoting a good work environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workplace/psychology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Protective Factors , Portugal/epidemiology , Job Satisfaction , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090151

ABSTRACT

Psychosocial job stressors increase the risk of mental health problems for the workers in health and social services (HSS). Although previous studies suggest that the accumulation of two or more stressors is detrimental to mental health, few studies have examined the synergistic interaction of accumulating job stressors. We examined survey responses from 9855 Finnish HSS workers in a cross-sectional study design from 2021. We conducted an interaction analysis of high job demands, low rewards and low workplace social capital on psychological distress, focusing on the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Additionally, we analysed the interaction of job demands, low rewards and COVID-19 burden (extra workload and emotional load). Our analysis showed that the total RERI for the job stressors on psychological distress was considerable (6.27, 95% CI 3.14, 9.39). The total excess risk was caused by two-way interactions, especially between high demands and low rewards and by the three-way interaction of all stressors. The total RERI for job demands, low reward and COVID-19 burden (3.93, 95% CI 1.15, 6.72), however, was caused entirely by two-way interaction between high demands and low rewards. Mental health interventions tackling high demands, low rewards and low social capital are jointly needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Pandemics , Workplace/psychology , Workload/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Job Satisfaction
8.
J Occup Health ; 64(1): e12356, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084961

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This prospective study aimed to examine the association of psychosocial working conditions with adverse reactions after receiving COVID-19 vaccination in a sample of employees in Japan. METHODS: The data were retrieved from an online panel of full-time employees (E-COCO-J). The analysis included participants who were employed and were not vaccinated at baseline (June 2021) but received vaccination at a 4-month follow-up (October 2021). An 11-item scale measured the adverse reactions. Four types of psychosocial working conditions (i.e., job demands, job control, and supervisor and coworker support) were measured using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the psychosocial working conditions and adverse reactions of COVID-19 vaccines, adjusting for socioeconomic variables, chronic disease, the number of vaccination, type of vaccine, anxiety for adverse reactions, fear and worry about COVID-19, and psychological distress at baseline. RESULTS: Overall, 747 employees were included in the analysis. The average number of adverse reactions was 3.8 (standard deviation = 2.2): Arm pain (81.1%), fatigues (64.1%), muscle pains (63.3%), and fever (37.5°C+) (53.5%) were reported more frequently. Coworker support score was significantly and negatively associated with the numbers of adverse reactions (standardized ß = -0.100, P = .023). Women, young age, second-time vaccination, Moderna, and high psychological distress were significantly associated with adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Employees with low coworker support may be more likely to have adverse reactions after vaccinations. The findings of this study could support that increasing workplace support may reduce adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Workplace , Female , Humans , Workplace/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Japan/epidemiology , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082108

ABSTRACT

Healthcare sector organizations have long been facing the issue of productivity loss due to presenteeism which is affected by psychosocial safety climate (PSC) and work intensification. Presenteeism has visibly increased among nurses during COVID-19 pandemic period. Grounded in COR theory and sensemaking theory, the current study aimed to examine the role PSC plays as driver or moderator to reduce presenteeism by lessening work intensification over time and the impact of work intensification over time on presenteeism during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adopting a time-lagged research design, this study gathered data from randomly selected registered nurses, practicing in Québec, Canada in two phases, i.e., 800 at Time 1 and 344 at Time 2 through email surveys. The study results showed that (1) PSC reduces presenteeism over time by reducing work intensification at time 1; (2) PSC moderates the relationship between work intensification at time 1 and work intensification at time 2; and (3) PSC as moderator also lessens the detrimental effect of work intensification at time 2 on presenteeism at time 2. Presenteeism among nurses affects their health and psychological well-being. We find that PSC is likely an effective organizational tool particularly in crises situations, by providing an organizational mechanism to assist nurses cope (through a resource caravan, management support) with managing intensified work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Presenteeism , Humans , Organizational Culture , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace/psychology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065944

ABSTRACT

Chronic stress has been associated with a range of health disparities, but examination of occupational stress, especially in the wake of COVID-19, has been minimal for many careers. A novel methodology involving work stress diaries and collection of salivary cortisol was employed to determine correlations between occupations, occupational stressors, and how well these are related to the physiological response to stress exposure, the release of cortisol. While cortisol levels tended to follow typical circadian rhythm based on sampling times, cortisol levels also followed the subjective stress levels listed in the work stress diaries following linear regression analysis using the pooled study population data (p = 0.042). When comparing the stressors between the studied careers, participants who worked in the healthcare industry accounted for one-third of the total participants, but reported nearly half (42%) of the more severe occupational stressors listed in the diaries. Finally, the most commonly listed emotional reactions to exposures listed included feelings of stress, frustration, anger, anxiety, or overwhelm. As the workplace progresses from the pandemic, the opportunity to reduce occupational stress exposures in the workplace is at hand. Companies that work towards minimizing the stress faced by their workforce would have a healthier and more relaxed workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Circadian Rhythm , Humans , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/psychology , Saliva/chemistry , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Workplace/psychology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055251

ABSTRACT

The role of organizational resilience is important in an era of the new normal after COVID-19. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of organizational resilience and psychological resilience on perceived well-being and employee resilience in the workplace from the internal stakeholder perspective. A new research framework has been proposed. Cross-sectional research design was employed to collect responses from 115 employees from various organizations. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Organizational resilience is associated with perceived well-being and employee resilience. Psychological resilience is associated with perceived well-being and employee resilience. Employee resilience and perceived well-being are associated with work engagement. Complex mediation models are proposed. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Organizational Culture , Workplace/psychology
12.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(5): e273-e278, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051648

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This article explores the workplace stresses faced by home working (HW) employees in the COVID-19 outbreak; what strategies human resource manager (HRM) may deal with the present circumstances. DESIGN/ METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: We refer to the views and perceptions of HRM and review the current state of stress faced by home-based workers and their responses through the lens of HRM. FINDINGS: (1) The types as eustress, acute stress, and chronic stress and the stressors as work, family, and psychological were analyzed. (2) HW brought more adverse effects caused by work-related stress than benefits. (3) HRM can provide stress mitigation from job support, work-family balance, and psychological relief. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: By focusing on those employees who are most vulnerable to pandemic fatigue and work-related stress, HRM can build better organizations for all employees. HRM practices may consider measures related to job itself, family, or psychology to reduce the stress of HW under the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Teleworking , Workplace/psychology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043721

ABSTRACT

Evidence about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of Palestinian healthcare professionals is lacking and has been disregarded during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to describe Palestinian healthcare workers (HCWs) emotions and factors causing stress, and factors used to reduce the stress experienced at the workplace and to examine the relationships between HCWs level of stress and their coping strategies and motivational factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. A self-reported online survey was completed by 506 doctors and nurses working in healthcare facilities that provide COVID-19 care. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate regression models were developed to adjust for the association between HCWs coping and motivation factors with HCWs' perceived stressors. The findings showed that 24.1% of the participants had a high-stress level, and 25.7% had a low level of stress. The participant's main coping strategy was avoidance and the key emotional factor was the ethical and professional obligation to continue working. Additionally, a major cause of their stress was their personal safety and having the COVID-19 infection. Findings showed a positive association between stress and the younger age of participants, with physicians being less stressed than nurses. In addition, receiving no training on the treatment of COVID-19 was strongly associated with stress levels. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between stress scoring and coping strategies scoring but not with motivation score. In conclusion, this study shows that Palestinian healthcare workers experienced emotional turmoil during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results indicate the necessity of providing supervision, psychological counseling and intervention to professional healthcare workers who work directly with COVID-19 patients in health settings during the current pandemic or in the event of future outbreaks. Policymakers and managers must also conduct training and provide interventions on how to cope with stress in pandemics, in order to assist HCWs in developing their adaptive coping strategies and increase their motivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Arabs , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Workplace/psychology
14.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 69(5): 4-6, 2022 Oct.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040337

ABSTRACT

Patient safety is a primary concern in the medical and healthcare industry. The safety climate (or culture) of a hospital is determined by the overall perception of its safety policies and the safety-related behaviors of medical staff that affect the quality of care provided by the organization and risk of occupational injury. The perceptions of nurses related to the hospital safety climate relate positively to their behavior in the workplace. An organization's safety culture determines the risk of patient care. Patankar and Sabin (2010) identified safety values, safety leadership, safety climate, and safety performance as important factors affecting the development and improvement of an organization's safety climate. Several papers in the literature have examined the characteristics (Lin et al., 2017), influencing factors (Wagner et al., 2020), outcomes (Arzahan et al., 2022), and improvement strategies (Lee et al., 2019) related to hospital safety climates. The occupational safety of medical staff and their compliance with safety regulations relate closely to patient safety and care outcomes (Hessels & Larson, 2016). The most frequently used outcome indicators of hospital safety culture are mortality rate, length of stay, infection rates, and patient satisfaction. However, unsafe medical environments and work stress may hinder the compliance of medical staff with safety behaviors and affect the value they place on these behaviors. Furthermore, perceiving a working environment as "unsafe" induces physical and mental health problems and dissatisfaction, leading to work stress and causing occupational injuries, physical and mental health issues, increased turnover, and decreased work satisfaction (Arzahan et al., 2022; Kalteh et al., 2021). The working environment of nurses is highly complex and uncertain, and considered to be one of the most hazardous occupational settings. However, guaranteeing a safe and friendly working environment is the responsibility of every organization and also a basic employee right. The International Council of Nurses (International Council of Nurses, 2017) advocates that every nurse has the right to work in a healthy and safe environment that minimizes the risks of injury and illness. Therefore, patient health outcomes should not be the only focus when discussing hospital safety culture, and more attention should be paid to promoting a safe working environment for medical staff as well. In their study conducted in Taiwan, Lin et al. (2022) proposed that the safety climate of hospitals covers six dimensions. Three of these, including "experience of clinical jobs hindering the use of personal protective equipment," "perception of comfort using personal protective equipment," and "easy usage of personal protective equipment", have not been addressed in studies conducted elsewhere. These three dimensions, which all relate directly to work environment safety, earned relatively low mean scores from the nurses surveyed, with "comfort in using personal protective equipment" earning the lowest mean score of all. Although the safety of working environments in medical organizations includes many dimensions (International Council of Nurses, 2017), including biological (infection risk), chemical (chemotherapy drugs), ergonomic (improper design, lifting), physical (radiation, needle stick injuries), and psychological (workload, workplace violence), the accumulated evidence provides insights that administrators may use to further improve hospital safety environments. Lin et al. (2022)'s investigation of nursing management practices related to hazardous antineoplastic drugs found the availability of adequate and appropriate personal protective equipment to be essential to promoting a safe working environment. During the current coronavirus disease pandemic, the three Taiwan-specific dimensions related to personal protective equipment have great value in helping nurse administrators foster and assess the safety climate in their hospitals. In addition to showing that nurses use personal protective equipment for self-protection and the protection of clients, these dimensions also provide to nurse administrators specific directions for creating a safe working environment by providing to nurses adequate, comfortable, and easy-to-use personal protection equipment.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Patient Safety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Safety Management , Workplace/psychology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032962

ABSTRACT

The management paradigm of SMEs is changing due to the recent Fourth Industrial Revolution and the changing COVID-19 environment. To respond to these changes, companies are focusing on protean career attitude (PCA) and psychological well-being (PWB) of employees to improve corporate performance. Under these circumstances, this study investigated the structural relationship of the dual mediation effects of career commitment and career satisfaction in the relationship between PCA and PWB. To this end, this study targeted 307 employees of Korean small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and the results are as follows. First, PCA was found to have a positive effect on career satisfaction and PCA was found to have a positive effect on career commitment. Second, PCA was found to have a significant effect on PWB. Third, career satisfaction, a parameter of this study, was found to have a positive impact on career commitment; in the relationship between PCA and PWB, the dual mediation effects of career satisfaction and career commitment were found to be significant. Finally, this study provided discussions and theoretical and practical implications based on those results, as well as directions for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Workplace , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Personal Satisfaction , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace/psychology
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032940

ABSTRACT

Our study aims to present the perception and experiences of employees at a large multinational telecommunications company in Hungary working in home offices, as well as their health behavior and the workplace health promotion during the SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 outbreak. The sample consisted of the full sample of highly skilled employees at a large telecommunication multinational company (N = 46). Throughout the analysis, tests for homogeneity of variance were followed by a MANOVA test to compare the groups' means by gender, age, and job classification. The results clearly show that in the short term, workers' mental health did not deteriorate, they do not argue or fight more with their partners and are no more depressed or irritable than before. Workers are less likely to think of ways to be more effective at work than in a home office. Similarly, they do not think that employers have more expectations than before the pandemic. Our research shows the assumption about home workers being less efficient or less diligent in their daily work to be false. A supportive and flexible employer approach to health-conscious employees will be an essential aspect in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telecommunications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace/psychology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010029

ABSTRACT

Safety training (ST) is the primary means of avoiding unsafe behaviors, but it has not achieved the expected impact on improving workplace safety because of the high psychological stress it brings to workers. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) further threatens workers' psychological conditions, thereby diminishing the effectiveness of ST. However, the existing literature has mainly laid emphasis on the bright side of ST and neglected examining its impact on safety behavior (SB) from detrimental psychological factors. Drawing from the conservation of resources theory, a novel two-staged model was established to understand how these psychological factors mediate and moderate the association between ST and SB. We incorporated resource consumption (e.g., role overload (RO) and COVID-19-related task setbacks) and resource generation (e.g., psychological resilience) into the model to consider both detrimental and protective psychological factors against ST. We then implemented a time-separated, three-wave data collection on a sample of frontline workers to validate this hypothetical model. Consistent with our hypothesis, RO played a significant mediating role between ST and SB, that is, ST leads to RO, and in turn, holds up SB. Surprisingly, contrary to our hypothesis, COVID-19-related task setbacks weakened the negative and indirect impact of ST on SB via RO. This is one of the first empirical studies to highlight how detrimental psychological factors caused by ST constrict or amplify SB. In practice, the efficacy of ST can be enhanced by cultivating psychological resilience and clarifying employees' job responsibilities to reduce the ambiguity of roles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Workplace/psychology
19.
Worldviews Evid Based Nurs ; 19(5): 352-358, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: American healthcare workers face unprecedented stress and trauma in the workplace during COVID-19, putting nurses at increased risk for poor mental health. Examining trends of mental health from before and during COVID-19 can illuminate the toll of the pandemic on nurses well-being. METHODS: Nurses enrolled in Healthy Nurse, Healthy Nation receive a prompt to take an annual survey (n = 24,289). Mental health was assessed by active diagnoses of anxiety and depressive disorder, and feeling sad, down or depressed for two or more weeks in the past year. Logistic regression models were used to calculate predictive probabilities of health outcomes in year 4 (May 1, 2020 - April 30, 2021) compared to years 1-3 (each from May 1 to April 30), controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and nurse type. Models were also stratified by work setting and nurse type. RESULTS: In year 4, nurses had a 19.8% probability of anxiety disorder, significantly higher than year 3 (16.3%, p < .001), year 2 (13.7%, p < .001), and year 1 (14.0%, p < .001). Similarly, nurses had a 16.7% probability of depression disorder in year 4, significantly higher than year 2 (12.9%, p < .001) and year 1 (13.9%, p < .01). Year 4 nurses had a 34.4% probability of feeling sad, down or depressed for two weeks, significantly higher than previous years (year 1 = 26.8%, year 2 = 25.9%, year 3 = 29.7%, p < .001). Trends in probabilities of mental health indicators were similar among each nurse type and work setting. Nurses in medical/surgical work settings and those with licensed practical nurse and licensed vocational nurse titles consistently had the highest probability of poor mental health. LINKING ACTION TO EVIDENCE: In 2020-2021, nurses faced challenges unlike any experienced in previous years. Unsurprisingly, nurses reported increased instances of poor mental health indicators. Positive disruptive strategies are needed to systemically change organizational culture and policy to prioritize and support nurses' well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Organizational Culture , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace/psychology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979212

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Nursing and care home staff experienced high death rates of older residents and increased occupational and psychosocial pressures during the COVID-19 pandemic. The literature has previously found this group to be at risk of developing mental health conditions, moral injury (MI), and moral distress (MD). The latter two terms refer to the perceived ethical wrongdoing which contravenes an individual's moral beliefs and elicits adverse emotional responses. (2) Method: A systematic review was conducted to explore the prevalence, predictors, and psychological experience of MI and MD in the aforementioned population during the COVID-19 pandemic. The databases CINAHL, APA PsychINFO, APA PsychArticles, Web of Science, Medline, and Scopus were systematically searched for original research studies of all designs, published in English, with no geographical restrictions, and dating from when COVID-19 was declared a public health emergency on the 30 January 2020 to the 3 January 2022. Out of 531 studies screened for eligibility, 8 studies were selected for review. A thematic analysis was undertaken to examine the major underpinning themes. (3) Results: MI, MD, and related constructs (notably secondary traumatic stress) were evidenced to be present in staff, although most studies did not explore the prevalence or predictors. The elicited major themes were resource deficits, role challenges, communication and leadership, and emotional and psychosocial consequences. (4) Conclusions: Our findings suggest that moral injury and moral distress were likely to be present prior to COVID-19 but have been exacerbated by the pandemic. Whilst studies were generally of high quality, the dearth of quantitative studies assessing prevalence and predictors suggests a research need, enabling the exploration of causal relationships between variables. However, the implied presence of MI and MD warrants intervention developments and workplace support for nursing and care home staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Morals , Pandemics , Prevalence , Workplace/psychology
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