Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 29
Filter
1.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 2048294, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741723

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes a blend of three techniques to select COVID-19 testing centers. The objective of the paper is to identify a suitable location to establish new COVID-19 testing centers. Establishment of the testing center in the needy locations will be beneficial to both public and government officials. Selection of the wrong location may lead to lose both health and wealth. In this paper, location selection is modelled as a decision-making problem. The paper uses fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique to generate the criteria weights, monkey search algorithm to optimize the weights, and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method to rank the different locations. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed technique, a state named Tamil Nadu, located in India, is taken for a case study. The proposed structured algorithmic steps were applied for the input data obtained from the government of India website, and the results were analyzed and validated using the government of India website. The ranks assigned by the proposed technique to different locations are in aligning with the number of patients and death rate.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Decision Making, Organizational , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Computational Biology , Fuzzy Logic , Humans , India/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data , Organization and Administration/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace/organization & administration , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
2.
PLoS Biol ; 20(2): e3001531, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686076

ABSTRACT

Identifying the potential for SARS-CoV-2 reinfection is crucial for understanding possible long-term epidemic dynamics. We analysed longitudinal PCR and serological testing data from a prospective cohort of 4,411 United States employees in 4 states between April 2020 and February 2021. We conducted a multivariable logistic regression investigating the association between baseline serological status and subsequent PCR test result in order to calculate an odds ratio for reinfection. We estimated an odds ratio for reinfection ranging from 0.14 (95% CI: 0.019 to 0.63) to 0.28 (95% CI: 0.05 to 1.1), implying that the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at baseline is associated with around 72% to 86% reduced odds of a subsequent PCR positive test based on our point estimates. This suggests that primary infection with SARS-CoV-2 provides protection against reinfection in the majority of individuals, at least over a 6-month time period. We also highlight 2 major sources of bias and uncertainty to be considered when estimating the relative risk of reinfection, confounders and the choice of baseline time point, and show how to account for both in reinfection analysis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Reinfection/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , Reinfection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
Am J Nurs ; 121(8): 24-34, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Poor well-being among health care workers, often observed as professional burnout, is a well-documented phenomenon. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has further stressed the health care workforce, but its specific effects on this workforce remain unknown. This study examined well-being and resilience among health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study used a cross-sectional survey design. Data collection took place through anonymous surveys of nurses (LPNs and RNs), advanced practice providers (NPs, physician assistants, and certified nurse midwives), certified registered nurse anesthetists, respiratory therapists, health care technicians, and therapy service professionals (physical, occupational, and speech therapists). Of the 6,120 health care workers recruited to participate in the study, data from 2,459 participants were analyzed using logistic regression and linear regression. RESULTS: The study found that several factors significantly increased the likelihood of at-risk well-being. These included having a lower level of resilience, using support resources, feeling the organization lacked understanding of the emotional support needs of health care workers during the pandemic, believing the workload had increased, believing there was insufficient personal protective equipment, believing there was inadequate staffing to safely care for patients, and having a lower degree of psychological safety. After controlling for health care workers' role and employment location, several factors were found to be significantly associated with higher levels of resilience. These included having positive perceptions about the organization's understanding of the emotional support needs of health care workers during the pandemic, believing sufficient educational resources were available regarding the care of COVID-19 patients, having positive perceptions of leadership support from direct managers, having positive perceptions of the redeployment policy, and having a higher degree of psychological safety. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified several work environment factors that have significantly affected health care workers' well-being and resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. This knowledge has practical relevance for health care leaders who aim to better understand and address the well-being and resilience of the health care workforce during this pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Status , Resilience, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workload/psychology , Workload/standards , Workload/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/psychology , Workplace/standards , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
4.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 94, 2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries have used contact tracing apps, including Japan's voluntary-use contact-confirming application (COCOA). The current study aimed to identify industry and workplace characteristics associated with the downloading of this COVID-19 contact tracing app. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of full-time workers used an online survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of industry and workplace characteristics with contact tracing app use. RESULTS: Of the 27,036 participants, 25.1% had downloaded the COCOA. Workers in the public service (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.45) and information technology (aOR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.20-1.58) industries were more likely to use the app than were those in the manufacturing industry. In contrast, app usage was less common among workers in the retail and wholesale (aOR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99) and food/beverage (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94) industries, but further adjustment for company size attenuated these associations. Workers at larger companies were more likely to use the app. Compared with permanent employees, the odds of using the app were higher for managers and civil servants but lower for those who were self-employed. CONCLUSIONS: Downloading of COCOA among Japanese workers was insufficient; thus, the mitigating effect of COCOA on the COVID-19 pandemic is considered to be limited. One possible reason for the under-implementation of the contact tracing app in the retail and wholesale and food/beverage industries is small company size, as suggested by the fully adjusted model results. An awareness campaign should be conducted to promote the widespread use of the contact tracing app in these industries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Industry/classification , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2124116, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409781

ABSTRACT

Importance: Essential workers in agriculture and food production have been severely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To identify risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among farmworkers in California. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study invited farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley (Monterey County) receiving transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection at federally qualified community clinics and community sites to participate. Individuals were eligible if they were not pregnant, were 18 years or older, had conducted farmwork since the pandemic started, and were proficient in English or Spanish. Survey data were collected and SARS-CoV-2 tests were conducted among participants from July 16 to November 30, 2020. Exposures: Sociodemographic, household, community, and workplace characteristics. Main Outcomes and Measures: TMA- and immunoglobulin G (IgG)-positive SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: A total of 1107 farmworkers (581 [52.5%] women; mean [SD] age, 39.7 [12.6] years) were included in these analyses. Most participants were born in Mexico (922 [83.3%]), were married or living with a partner (697 [63.0%]), and worked in the fields (825 [74.5%]). Overall, 118 of 911 (13.0%) had a positive result on their TMA test for SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas 201 of 1058 (19.0%) had antibody evidence of infection. In multivariable analyses accounting for recruitment venue and enrollment period, the incidence of TMA-positive SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher among those with lower than primary school-level education (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.32; 95% CI, 0.99-1.76; non-statistically significant finding), who spoke an Indigenous language at home (aRR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.97-1.73; non-statistically significant finding), who worked in the fields (aRR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.03-2.50), and who were exposed to a known or suspected COVID-19 case at home (aRR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.06-4.32) or in the workplace (aRR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.18-2.14). Positive results on IgG tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection were more common among those who lived in crowded housing (aRR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.98-1.53; non-statistically significant finding), with children aged 5 years or younger (aRR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.11-1.76), with unrelated roommates (aRR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19-1.64), and with an individual with known or suspected COVID-19 (aRR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.13-2.24). The risk of IgG positivity was also higher among those with body mass index of 30 or greater (aRR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.01-2.70) or diabetes (aRR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.98-1.75; non-statistically significant finding). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of farmworkers in California, both residential and workplace exposures were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Urgent distribution of COVID-19 vaccines and intervention on modifiable risk factors are warranted given this population's increased risk of infection and the essential nature of their work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Workplace/standards , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
6.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12273, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406069

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how many workplace COVID-19 preventive measures were maintained during repeated outbreaks. The aim of this study was to investigate a longitudinal change of implementation of workplace preventive measures responding to COVID-19 in Japan. METHODS: An online longitudinal study was conducted using a cohort of full-time employees in Japan, starting in March 2020 (T1), with follow-up surveys in May (T2), August (T3), and November (T4) 2020. A repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to compare the difference among the four surveys in the mean number of 23 predetermined items of the measures implemented. RESULTS: The final sample comprised 800 employees. The mean number of the implemented measures increased from T1 to T2, but did not change from T2 to T3, then decreased from T3 to T4. The number of workplace preventive measures significantly increased from T1 to T2 for 21 items (P < .001), and significantly decreased from T3 to T4 for 14 items (P < .001 to P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: While the preventive measures responding to COVID-19 in the workplace were well-implemented during the earlier phase of the outbreak, they seem to have been relaxed after a huge outbreak (T3 to T4: August to November 2020). Workplaces should be encouraged to continue the preventive measures over repeated outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Health Plan Implementation/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Japan , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/virology , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
9.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 75(1): 3-13, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335555

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, first recognized in China in 2019, within a few months caused a global pandemic of a disease called COVID-19. The high incidence and mortality of COVID-19 was the reason for the beginning of intensive work on the development of an effective vaccine. In Poland, mass vaccinations against this disease began at the end of December 2020. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the presented study was to determine the effectiveness of stimulating the production of specific antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 by the Pfizer vaccine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The presence of IgA and IgG antibodies to the spike (S protein) of SARSCoV-2 was tested by the ELISA/Euroimmun in serum samples obtained from 140 the employees of NIPH-NIH (137 were vaccinated). In addition, the presence of IgG antibodies to S protein, nucleoprotein, and mixture of both in selected serum samples was tested by the newly developed in NIPH-NIH in-house ELISA assay. RESULTS: IgA and IgG antibodies to the S protein of the SARS-CoV-2 were detected by ELISA/Euroimmun, respectively in 136 and in all 137 vaccinated persons. There were no statistically significant differences in the level of antibodies depending on the sex and age of the vaccinated persons. Slightly higher levels of antibodies have been demonstrated in vaccinated subjects with documented preexisting SARS-CoV-2 immunity compared to subjects without COVID-19 history. The presence of IgA and IgG antibodies was found in respectively, 18 (45.0%) and all 40 (100.0%) tested vaccinated persons by the in-house ELISA with mixture antigen. The study showed that ELISA assay with N protein as an antigen may enable the distinction between antibodies acquired after infection and after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in the presented study clearly demonstrate the high effectiveness of the Pfizer vaccine in stimulation of the human immune system to produce antibodies specific for the S protein of the SARS-CoV-2. It is necessary to continue testing vaccine antibody levels at various times after vaccination to determine the potential duration of humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(9): 648-653, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291143

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among workers of the three public higher education institutions of Porto, Portugal, up to July 2020. METHODS: A rapid point-of-care test for specific IgM and IgG antibodies of SARS-CoV-2 was offered to all workers (SD Biosensor STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Duo and STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Combo). Testing was performed and a questionnaire was completed by 4592 workers on a voluntary basis from 21 May to 31 July 2020. We computed the apparent IgM, IgG, and combined IgM or IgG prevalence, along with the true prevalence and 95% credible intervals (95% CrI) using Bayesian inference. RESULTS: We found an apparent prevalence of 3.1% for IgM, 1.0% for IgG and 3.9% for either. The estimated true prevalence was 2.0% (95% CrI 0.1% to 4.3%) for IgM, 0.6% (95% CrI 0.0% to 1.3%) for IgG, and 2.5% (95% CrI 0.1% to 5.3%) for IgM or IgG. A SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnosis was reported by 21 (0.5%) workers; and of these, 90.5% had a reactive IgG result. Seroprevalence was higher among those reporting contacts with confirmed cases, having been quarantined, having a previous molecular negative test or having had symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence among workers from the three public higher education institutions of Porto after the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar to national estimates for the same age working population. However, the estimated true seroprevalence was approximately five times higher than the reported SARS-CoV-2 infection based on a molecular test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Portugal/epidemiology , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
J Hosp Med ; 16(5): 282-289, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the seroprevalence and risk for SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers (HCWs) by job function and work location following the pandemic's first wave in New York City (NYC). METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted between May 18 and June 26, 2020, during which HCWs at a large inner-city teaching hospital in NYC received voluntary antibody testing. The main outcome was presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies indicating previous infection. Seroprevalence and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for seropositivity by type and location of work were calculated using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Of 2,749 HCWs tested, 831 tested positive, yielding a crude seroprevalence of 30.2% (95% CI, 29%-32%). Seroprevalence ranged from 11.1% for pharmacy staff to 44.0% for nonclinical HCWs comprised of patient transporters and housekeeping and security staff, with 37.5% for nurses and 20.9% for administrative staff. Compared to administrative staff, aORs (95% CIs) for seropositivity were 2.54 (1.64-3.94) for nurses; 2.51 (1.42-4.43) for nonclinical HCWs; between 1.70 and 1.83 for allied HCWs such as patient care technicians, social workers, registration clerks and therapists; and 0.80 (0.50-1.29) for physicians. Compared to office locations, aORs for the emergency department and inpatient units were 2.27 (1.53-3.37) and 1.48 (1.14-1.92), respectively. CONCLUSION: One-third of hospital-based HCWs were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 by the end of the first wave in NYC. Seroprevalence differed by job function and work location, with the highest estimated risk for nurses and the emergency department, respectively. These findings support current nationwide policy prioritizing HCWs for receipt of newly authorized COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e26293, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviors and physical activity are likely to be affected by the COVID-19 outbreak, and sedentary lifestyles can increase subjective fatigue. The nonpharmaceutical policies imposed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic may also have adverse effects on fatigue. OBJECTIVE: This study has two aims: to examine the changes in sedentary behaviors and physical activity of company workers in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan and to examine relationships between changes in these sedentary behaviors and physical activity and changes in fatigue. METHODS: Data from a nationwide prospective online survey conducted in 2019 and 2020 were used. On February 22, 2019, an email with a link to participate in the study was sent to 45,659 workers, aged 20 to 59 years, who were randomly selected from a database of approximately 1 million individuals. A total of 2466 and 1318 participants, who self-reported their occupation as company workers, answered the baseline and follow-up surveys, respectively. Surveys captured fatigue, workday and daily domain-specific sedentary behaviors and physical activity, and total sedentary behaviors and physical activity. We used multivariable linear regression models to estimate associations of changes in sedentary behaviors and physical activity with changes in fatigue. RESULTS: Increases in public transportation sitting during workdays, other leisure sitting time during workdays, and other leisure sitting time were associated with an increase in the motivation aspect of fatigue (b=0.29, 95% CI 0-0.57, P=.048; b=0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.62, P<.001; and b=0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.45, P=.007, respectively). Increases in work-related sitting time during workdays, total sitting time during workdays, and total work-related sitting time were significantly associated with an increase in the physical activity aspect of fatigue (b=0.06, 95% CI 0-0.12, P=.03; b=0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.09, P=.02; and b=0.07, 95% CI 0-0.14, P=.04, respectively). The motivation and physical activity aspects of fatigue increased by 0.06 for each 1-hour increase in total sitting time between baseline and follow-up (b=0.06, 95% CI 0-0.11, P=.045; and b=0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.10, P=.009, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that sedentary and active behaviors among company workers in Japan were negatively affected during the COVID-19 outbreak. Increases in several domain-specific sedentary behaviors also contributed to unfavorable changes in workers' fatigue. Social distancing and teleworking amid a pandemic may contribute to the sedentary lifestyle of company workers. Public health interventions are needed to mitigate the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic or future pandemics on sedentary and physical activity behaviors and fatigue among company workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise/physiology , Fatigue/psychology , Sedentary Behavior , Adult , Female , Humans , Internet , Japan , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Physical Distancing , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
13.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 45(4): 385-390, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of influenza vaccines administered in non-medical settings in Australia in 2019 and identify factors associated with vaccination site. METHODS: We surveyed 1,444 Australian adults online in October 2019. To identify factors associated with vaccination site, we used Pearson's chi-square test. We used thematic analysis to describe responses to the question, 'Please explain why you chose to get vaccinated there'. RESULTS: Most participants (73%) received the influenza vaccine in a medical setting, while 13% received it at a pharmacy and 14% at their workplace. Being vaccinated in pharmacy was associated with being under 65 years of age (p<0.01), marital status (p=0.01), and not having a high-risk comorbidity (p<0.01). Workplace vaccination was associated with being under 65 (p<0.01), household income (p<0.01), not having a regular general physician/practice (p=0.01), having private insurance (p<0.01), and not having a high-risk comorbidity (p<0.01). There was no association between site of vaccination and first-time vaccination (p=0.71, p=0.22). CONCLUSIONS: Despite new policies allowing pharmacists to administer influenza vaccines, most Australian adults are still vaccinated in medical settings. Pharmacy and workplace vaccination settings were more common among younger adults without high-risk comorbidities. Implications for public health: Workplaces, pharmacies and other non-medical settings may provide an opportunity to increase influenza vaccination among healthy, working-age adults who might otherwise forego annual vaccination. Pharmacies may also provide a convenient location for the rollout of the COVID-19 vaccine, particularly in medically underserved areas.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pharmacies/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
14.
Econ Hum Biol ; 41: 100997, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141727

ABSTRACT

This study examines the effect of Income Support Programs (ISPs) on job search effort, work- place mobility, COVID-19 cases, and mortality growth rates. To identify ISPs' causal effect, I use the variation in their introductions' timing across countries and implement a difference-in-difference and multi-event analysis method. I find that ISPs led to a 4.4-8.29 percentage points reduction in workplace mobility and a 6.6-11.6 percentage points reduction in job search effort levels. They also caused a 21.8-47.7 and 17.1-29.7 percentage points reduction in the COVID-19 case growth rate and COVID-19 mortality growth rates, respectively. Using the event analysis estimates, I simulated the counterfactual job search effort, workplace mobility, and the number of COVID-19 cases and mortality without income support programs. The average global job search effort and workplace mobility without ISPs would have been 11.12 and 9.26 percent higher than the observed mean job search effort and workplace mobility. However, these would have come at the cost of 3.69 million and 166, 690 additional COVID-19 cases and mortality than the cases and deaths registered by May 15th.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Career Mobility , Income/statistics & numerical data , Public Assistance/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200653, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze potential triggers of moral suffering experiences of health professionals, reported in the media, during the COVID-19 pandemic and to propose a theoretical construct of analysis. METHODS: Study with qualitative approach whose data source were 50 reports published online, collected passively and actively, submitted to Content Analysis with the help of ATLAS.ti software. RESULTS: The potential moral problems that trigger moral suffering are related to the threat to moral integrity, infrastructure/logistics and teamwork problems, and emotional aspects, revealing their articulation with damage to the foundations of a healthy work environment, which generated the proposal of a construct. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The articulation between the experiences of moral suffering and the commitment of the fundamentals of a healthy work environment has brought important contributions to the adoption of strategies to protect and stimulate moral deliberation by professionals in favor of practice and society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Morals , Stress, Psychological , Workplace/psychology , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
16.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 110: 110292, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emotional wellbeing of healthcare workers is critical to the quality of patient care, and effective function of health services. The corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic exerted unique physical and emotional demands on healthcare workers, however little is known about the emotional wellbeing of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in resource-restricted settings. This study investigated the prevalence of psychological distress, and sleep problems in healthcare workers in a COVID-19 referral hospital in Nigeria. METHODS: A total of 303 healthcare workers were interviewed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to evaluate psychological distress, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to assess multidimensional aspects of sleep, including quality, latency, duration, habitual efficiency, disturbances, use of sleeping medications and daytime dysfunction. RESULTS: The participants were mostly males, 183(60.4%) and mean age was 38.8(SD = 8.9) years. Most of the participants were married (70.3%), had spent less than 10 years in service (72.9%), and had no medical comorbidity (92.1%). The prevalence of psychological distress was 23.4%, and six in every ten participants reported sleep problems. The largest proportion of participants reported difficulty in sleep latency (81.5%), duration (71.3%), and daytime dysfunction (69.6%), while approximately one third (32%) each reported using sleep medication, and had difficulty with sleep quality. Psychological distress was inter-related with poor sleep problems (p = 0.001; effect size = 0.2). CONCLUSION: The prevalence rates of psychological distress and sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic were several folds the rates previously reported in similar contexts. Preventative psychosocial support services for healthcare workers are indicated. The creation of a culturally-sensitive interdisciplinary blueprint for locally-viable actions model are strongly suggested ahead of future emergency situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Stress/etiology , Psychological Distress , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Workplace/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/psychology , Prevalence , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(7): 250-253, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089244

ABSTRACT

Certain hazard controls, including physical barriers, cloth face masks, and other personal protective equipment (PPE), are recommended to reduce coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) transmission in the workplace (1). Evaluation of occupational hazard control use for COVID-19 prevention can identify inadequately protected workers and opportunities to improve use. CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health used data from the June 2020 SummerStyles survey to characterize required and voluntary use of COVID-19-related occupational hazard controls among U.S. non-health care workers. A survey-weighted regression model was used to estimate the association between employer provision of hazard controls and voluntary use, and stratum-specific adjusted risk differences (aRDs) among workers reporting household incomes <250% and ≥250% of national poverty thresholds were estimated to assess effect modification by income. Approximately one half (45.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.0%-50.3%) of non-health care workers reported use of hazard controls in the workplace, 55.5% (95% CI = 48.8%-62.2%) of whom reported employer requirements to use them. After adjustment for occupational group and proximity to others at work, voluntary use was approximately double, or 22.3 absolute percentage points higher, among workers who were provided hazard controls than among those who were not. This effect was more apparent among lower-income (aRD = 31.0%) than among higher-income workers (aRD = 16.3%). Employers can help protect workers from COVID-19 by requiring and encouraging use of occupational hazard controls and providing hazard controls to employees (1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mandatory Programs/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Voluntary Programs/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Architectural Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
18.
Mo Med ; 118(1): 45-49, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068451

ABSTRACT

Healthcare providers perform lifesaving work in unusually stressful work environments due to the challenges and related risks of battling the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. The potential personal and professional toll is substantial. This article describes how one healthcare facility benefited from existing peer support resources to address workforce well-being, ensuring that resources were available to support workforce resilience throughout the protracted COVID response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/standards , Workplace/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Humans , Male , Mental Health/trends , Missouri/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self-Help Groups/organization & administration , Universities/organization & administration , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 669-672, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048942

ABSTRACT

Despite mitigation efforts, 2 coronavirus disease outbreaks were identified among office workers in Washington, DC. Moderate adherence to workplace mitigation efforts was reported in a serologic survey; activities outside of the workplace were associated with infection. Adherence to safety measures are critical for returning to work during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , District of Columbia/epidemiology , Female , Health Plan Implementation , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
Am J Public Health ; 110(8): 1126-1132, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007088

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To characterize which occupations in the United States could likely work from home during a pandemic such as COVID-19.Methods. I merged 2018 US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) national employment and wage data with measures ranking the importance of computer use at work and the importance of working with or performing for the public from the BLS O*NET survey.Results. Approximately 25% (35.6 million) of US workers are employed in occupations (such as technology, administrative, financial, and engineering) that could be done from home; the remaining 75% work in occupations (including health care, manufacturing, retail, and food services) that are challenging to do from home.Conclusions. Most US workers are employed in occupations that cannot be done at home, putting 108.4 million workers at increased risk for adverse health outcomes related to working during a pandemic. These workers tend to be lower paid. The stress experienced by lower-income groups, coupled with job insecurity, could result in a large burden of mental health disorders in the United States in addition to increased cases of COVID-19 from workplace transmission.


Subject(s)
Occupations/classification , Pandemics , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Computers/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Occupational Stress , Occupations/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , United States
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL