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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 794-808, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2205383

ABSTRACT

O câncer do colo do útero é considerado um dos cânceres mais comuns entre mulheres, representando um grande problema de saúde global, sendo a quarta causa mais frequente de morte por câncer na população feminina. Mediante a um estudo quantitativo e retrospectivo de dados pré- analíticos e analíticos das requisições do exame citopatológico do colo do útero, objetivou-se avaliar os resultados de exames citopatológicos de mulheres usuárias do SUS de um município do oeste do Paraná, realizados no período antes da pandemia COVID-19, de março de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020 e durante a pandemia COVID-19, de março de 2020 a fevereiro de 2021, dos exames citopatológicos alterados. Foram utilizadas as requisições de exames citopatológicos do Programa Nacional de Controle do CCU e o sistema eletrônico SISCAN como ferramentas de busca. Dentre os resultados, totalizaram-se 20.425 amostras processadas no período antes da pandemia, sendo 19.908 consideradas satisfatórias para análise oncótica, onde 1.148 (5,76%) amostras apresentaram alteração citológica. No período da pandemia, totalizaram-se 11.315 amostras processadas, sendo 11.149 amostras satisfatórias para análise oncótica, das quais 721 (6,47%) apresentaram alteração citológica. No período da pandemia, o estudo demostra que metade da população de mulheres usuárias do SUS em um município do oeste do Paraná encontra-se na faixa etária da população-alvo preconizada pelo MS, sendo que a maioria delas realizou seu exame citopatológico por motivo de rastreamento. Contudo, mesmo com a interrupção dos atendimentos eletivos, as mulheres continuaram realizando seus exames citopatológicos, sendo elucidado um discreto aumento de 0,71% das alterações citológicas no período da pandemia, quando comparado ao período anterior, demonstrando o cenário deste programa na pandemia COVID-19.


Cervical cancer is considered one of the most common cancers among women, representing a major global health problem, being the fourth most frequent cause of cancer death in the female population. Through a quantitative and retrospective study of pre-analytical and analytical data of requests for cervical cytopathological examination, the objective was to evaluate the results of cytopathological examinations of women using the SUS in a city in western Paraná, carried out in the period before during the COVID-19 pandemic, from March 2019 to February 2020, and during the COVID-19 pandemic, from March 2020 to February 2021, from the altered cytopathological exams. Requests for cytopathological exams from the National Control Program of the CCU and the SISCAN electronic system were used as search tools. Among the results, a total of 20.425 samples were processed in the period before the pandemic, 19.908 of which were considered satisfactory for oncotic analysis, where 1.148 (5,76%) samples showed cytological alterations. During the pandemic period, a total of 11.315 samples were processed, of which 11.149 were satisfactory for oncotic analysis, of which 721 (6,47%) showed cytological alterations. During the pandemic period, the study shows that half of the population of women using the SUS in a municipality in western Paraná is in the target population age group recommended by the MS, and most of them underwent their cytopathological examination due to tracking. However, even with the interruption of elective care, women continued to perform their cytopathological exams, with a slight increase of 0,71% in cytological changes during the pandemic period, when compared to the previous period, demonstrating the scenario of this program in the COVID-19 pandemic.


El cáncer de cuello uterino se considera uno de los cánceres más comunes entre las mujeres, representando un importante problema de salud mundial, siendo la cuarta causa más frecuente de muerte por cáncer en la población femenina. Mediante el estudio cuantitativo y retrospectivo de los datos preanalíticos y analíticos de los requisitos del examen citopatológico del útero, se evaluaron los resultados de los exámenes citopatológicos de las usuarias del SUS de un municipio del oeste de Paraná, realizados en el período anterior a la pandemia COVID-19, de marzo de 2019 a febrero de 2020, y durante la pandemia COVID-19, de marzo de 2020 a febrero de 2021, de los exámenes citopatológicos alterados. Se utilizaron como herramientas de búsqueda las requisiciones de exámenes citopatológicos del Programa Nacional de Control de UCC y el sistema electrónico SISCAN. Entre los resultados, un total de 20.425 muestras fueron procesadas en el período anterior a la pandemia, de las cuales 19.908 fueron consideradas satisfactorias para el análisis oncológico, donde 1.148 (5,76%) muestras presentaron alteración citológica. En el periodo de la pandemia, se procesaron un total de 11.315 muestras, de las cuales 11.149 fueron satisfactorias para el análisis oncológico, y 721 (6,47%) presentaron alteraciones citológicas. En el período de la pandemia, el estudio demuestra que la mitad de la población de mujeres usuarias del SUS en una ciudad del oeste de Paraná está en la franja de edad de la población objetivo recomendada por el MS, y la mayoría de ellas se sometió a un examen citopatológico con fines de cribado. Sin embargo, aún con la interrupción de la atención electiva, las mujeres continuaron realizando sus exámenes citopatológicos, siendo dilucidado un leve aumento de 0,71% de alteraciones citológicas en el período pandémico, cuando comparado con el período anterior, demostrando el escenario de este programa en la pandemia COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Women , World Health Organization/organization & administration , Unified Health System , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/complications , Causality , Retrospective Studies
3.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 57, 2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's (WHO) 25X25 goal aims for a 25% relative reduction in premature death due to four non-communicable diseases (NCD4)-cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes-by 2025 compared to 2010. This study aimed to quantify the premature mortality in the Australian population due to NCD4, quantify the variation in mortality rates by age and sex, predict the premature mortality due to NCD4 in 2025 and evaluate the progress towards the WHO 25X25 goal. METHODS: A population-based study using cause-specific mortality data of all deaths which occurred in Australia from 2010 to 2016 and registered up to 2017, for adults aged 30-69 years, was conducted. Age-specific and age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) and probability of death for NCD4 were calculated for each year. ASMRs in 2016 were calculated for men and women. Deaths and the probability of death in 2025 were predicted using Poisson regression based on data from 2006 to 2016. To assess the progress against the WHO 25X25 goal, the relative reduction in the probability of death from NCD4 conditions in 2025 compared to 2010 was calculated. RESULTS: ASMRs for NCD4 decreased from 2010 to 2016, except for diabetes which increased on average by 2.5% per year. Across sociodemographic factors, ASMRs were highest in males and increased with age. The projected probability of premature death in 2025 was 7.36%, equivalent to a relative reduction of 25.16% compared to 2010 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Premature mortality due to cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and diabetes declined in Australia from 2010 to 2016. This trend is consistent across age groups and by sex, and higher mortality rates were observed in males and at older ages. Nationally, if the current trends continue, we estimate that Australia will achieve a 25.16% relative reduction in premature deaths due to NCD4 in 2025 compared to 2010, signifying substantial progress towards the WHO 25X25 goal. Concerted efforts will need to continue to meet the 25X25 goal, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Female , Goals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Mortality, Premature , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
5.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(11): 654, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162835
6.
Lancet ; 399(10339): 1941-1953, 2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Solidarity trial among COVID-19 inpatients has previously reported interim mortality analyses for four repurposed antiviral drugs. Lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, and interferon (IFN)-ß1a were discontinued for futility but randomisation to remdesivir continued. Here, we report the final results of Solidarity and meta-analyses of mortality in all relevant trials to date. METHODS: Solidarity enrolled consenting adults (aged ≥18 years) recently hospitalised with, in the view of their doctor, definite COVID-19 and no contraindication to any of the study drugs, regardless of any other patient characteristics. Participants were randomly allocated, in equal proportions between the locally available options, to receive whichever of the four study drugs (lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine, IFN-ß1a, or remdesivir) were locally available at that time or no study drug (controls). All patients also received the local standard of care. No placebos were given. The protocol-specified primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality, subdivided by disease severity. Secondary endpoints were progression to ventilation if not already ventilated, and time-to-discharge from hospital. Final log-rank and Kaplan-Meier analyses are presented for remdesivir, and are appended for all four study drugs. Meta-analyses give weighted averages of the mortality findings in this and all other randomised trials of these drugs among hospital inpatients. Solidarity is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN83971151, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04315948. FINDINGS: Between March 22, 2020, and Jan 29, 2021, 14 304 potentially eligible patients were recruited from 454 hospitals in 35 countries in all six WHO regions. After the exclusion of 83 (0·6%) patients with a refuted COVID-19 diagnosis or encrypted consent not entered into the database, Solidarity enrolled 14 221 patients, including 8275 randomly allocated (1:1) either to remdesivir (ten daily infusions, unless discharged earlier) or to its control (allocated no study drug although remdesivir was locally available). Compliance was high in both groups. Overall, 602 (14·5%) of 4146 patients assigned to remdesivir died versus 643 (15·6%) of 4129 assigned to control (mortality rate ratio [RR] 0·91 [95% CI 0·82-1·02], p=0·12). Of those already ventilated, 151 (42·1%) of 359 assigned to remdesivir died versus 134 (38·6%) of 347 assigned to control (RR 1·13 [0·89-1·42], p=0·32). Of those not ventilated but on oxygen, 14·6% assigned to remdesivir died versus 16·3% assigned to control (RR 0·87 [0·76-0·99], p=0·03). Of 1730 not on oxygen initially, 2·9% assigned to remdesivir died versus 3·8% assigned to control (RR 0·76 [0·46-1·28], p=0·30). Combining all those not ventilated initially, 11·9% assigned to remdesivir died versus 13·5% assigned to control (RR 0·86 [0·76-0·98], p=0·02) and 14·1% versus 15·7% progressed to ventilation (RR 0·88 [0·77-1·00], p=0·04). The non-prespecified composite outcome of death or progression to ventilation occurred in 19·6% assigned to remdesivir versus 22·5% assigned to control (RR 0·84 [0·75-0·93], p=0·001). Allocation to daily remdesivir infusions (vs open-label control) delayed discharge by about 1 day during the 10-day treatment period. A meta-analysis of mortality in all randomised trials of remdesivir versus no remdesivir yielded similar findings. INTERPRETATION: Remdesivir has no significant effect on patients with COVID-19 who are already being ventilated. Among other hospitalised patients, it has a small effect against death or progression to ventilation (or both). FUNDING: WHO.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154973

ABSTRACT

In a world with an increasingly aging population, design researchers and practitioners can play an essential role in shaping better future societies, by designing environments, tools, and services that positively influence older adults' everyday experiences. The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a framework called Healthy Ageing, which can be adopted as the basis for designing for an aging society. There are, however, many challenges in achieving this goal. This article addresses one of these challenges identified by WHO, which is overcoming ageism as a form of discrimination based on age. In contrast with most other types of discrimination, ageism is not always easy to detect and overcome because of its generally implicit nature. This paper investigates adopting storytelling as a method for detecting implicit ageism and proposes a co-design process that utilizes this method to better address older adults' needs and requirements. The use of this method is discussed through two example case studies aimed at improving the design of assistive services and technologies for aging people. The findings from these case studies indicate that the proposed method can help co-design teams better identify possible implicit ageist biases and, by doing so, try to overcome them in the design process.


Subject(s)
Ageism , Healthy Aging , Aged , Aging , Forecasting , Humans , World Health Organization
9.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(7): 488, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150876
10.
Lancet ; 399(10343): 2253, 2022 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150854
12.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05043, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144961

ABSTRACT

Background: Lockdowns have been fundamental to decreasing disease transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic even after vaccines were available. We aimed to evaluate and compare changes in air quality during the first year of the pandemic in different cities around the world, investigate how these changes correlate with changes in mobility, and analyse how lockdowns affected air pollutants' annual means. Methods: We compared the concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 in 42 cities around the world in the first months of the pandemic in 2020 to data from 2016-2019 and correlated them with changes in mobility using Human Development Indexes (HDIs). Cities with the highest decreases in air pollutants during this period were evaluated for the whole year 2020. We calculated the annual means for these cities and compared them to the new World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines. A Student's t-test (95% confidence interval) was used to evaluate significant changes. Results: Highest decreases in NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 were between -50 and -70%. Cities evaluated for the whole year 2020 generally showed a recovery in air pollution levels after the initial months of the pandemic, except for London. These changes positively correlated with year-long mobility indexes for NO2 and PM2.5 for some cities. The highest reductions in air pollutants' annual means were from -20 to -35%. In general, decreases were higher for NO2, compared to PM2.5 and PM10. All analysed cities showed annual means incompliant with the new WHO Air Quality Guidelines for NO2 of 10 µg/m3, with values 1.7 and 4.3 times higher. For PM2.5, all cities showed values 1.3 to 7.6 times higher than the WHO Guidelines of 5 µg/m3, except for New Delhi, with a value 18 times higher. For PM10, only New York complied with the new guidelines of 15 µg/m3 and all the other cities were 1.1 to 4.2 times higher, except for New Delhi, which was 11 times higher. Conclusions: These data show that even during a pandemic that highly affected mobility and economic activities and decreased air pollution around the world, complying with the new WHO Guidelines will demand a global strategical effort in the way we generate energy, move in and around the cities, and manufacture products.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Environmental Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Air Pollutants/analysis , World Health Organization , Particulate Matter/analysis
13.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 127, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is universally recognized as a cornerstone measure for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Although the WHO "My five Moments for hand hygiene" poster has been used for more than a decade to delineate hand hygiene indications and promote action, adherence levels among healthcare workers are still notoriously low and disquieting. To compensate for the lack of effective hand hygiene communication, we aimed to evaluate emojis as possible surrogates for the non-verbal aspects of hand hygiene behaviour. METHODS: Following a thorough review of the Unicode version 12.0, the most applicable emojis to the terms used in the WHO 5 Moments poster were extracted. We developed a self-administered questionnaire to assess the view of infection prevention and control (IPC) practitioners regarding the use of emojis to show the WHO 5 Moments. Completed questionnaires were collected and analysed to determine the suitability of the existing emojis to illustrate a unified emoji poster. Data were analysed using R (version 3.6.3). RESULTS: A total of 95 IPC practitioners completed the questionnaire from May to October 2019 from different countries. Of these, 69 (74%) were female, and the mean age of the participants was 44.6 ± 10.87 years. We found appropriate emojis for six of the words used in the poster, including for touching (72%), for patient (63%), for clean (53%), for procedure (56%), for body fluid (58%), and for exposure risk (71%). The existing emojis proposed for the words "hygiene", "aseptic", and "surrounding" seemed to be less satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the existing emojis may not be able to substitute the words used in the WHO 5 Moments poster. Emojis might be helpful to address hand hygiene indications in healthcare that may eventually play a role in promoting this measure. However, emojis should be further studied to choose the most appropriate ones and avoid ambiguity and misinterpretation. More emojis to convey health related messages are needed. We recommend further research in this area to evaluate the effect of using emojis in healthcare-related behaviours.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Hand Hygiene/methods , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Delivery of Health Care , World Health Organization
14.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(Suppl 3): 167, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139306

ABSTRACT

In January 2020, SARS-CoV-2 virus was identified as a cause of an outbreak in China. The disease quickly spread worldwide, and the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the pandemic in March 2020.From the first notifications of spread of the disease, the WHO's Emergency Programme implemented a global COVID-19 surveillance system in coordination with all WHO regional offices. The system aimed to monitor the spread of the epidemic over countries and across population groups, severity of the disease and risk factors, and the impact of control measures. COVID-19 surveillance data reported to WHO is a combination of case-based data and weekly aggregated data, focusing on a minimum global dataset for cases and deaths including disaggregation by age, sex, occupation as a Health Care Worker, as well as number of cases tested, and number of cases newly admitted for hospitalization. These disaggregations aim to monitor inequities in COVID-19 distribution and risk factors among population groups.SARS-CoV-2 epidemic waves continue to sweep the world; as of March 2022, over 445 million cases and 6 million deaths have been reported worldwide. Of these, over 327 million cases (74%) have been reported in the WHO surveillance database, of which 255 million cases (57%) are disaggregated by age and sex. A public dashboard has been made available to visualize trends, age distributions, sex ratios, along with testing and hospitalization rates. It includes a feature to download the underlying dataset.This paper will describe the data flows, database, and frontend public dashboard, as well as the challenges experienced in data acquisition, curation and compilation and the lessons learnt in overcoming these. Two years after the pandemic was declared, COVID-19 continues to spread and is still considered a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). While WHO regional and country offices have demonstrated tremendous adaptability and commitment to process COVID-19 surveillance data, lessons learnt from this major event will serve to enhance capacity and preparedness at every level, as well as institutional empowerment that may lead to greater sharing of public health evidence during a PHEIC, with a focus on equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization , Databases, Factual , Pandemics
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40311-40321, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115900

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) recognized a novel coronavirus as the causative agent of a new form of pneumonia. It was subsequently named COVID-19 and reported as the source of a respiratory disease occurrence starting in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. It has been affirmed a public health emergency of international significance by the World Health Organization. It is regarded as a subset of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS); COVID-19 is triggered by a betacoronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, which affects the lower respiratory tract and occurs in humans as pneumonia. A variety of drugs, such as remdesivir and favipiravir, are currently undergoing clinical trials to evaluate for the management of COVID-19. The effect of the pandemic as well as the epidemic that follows through the life cycles of various recycled plastic is evaluated, particularly those required for personal safety and health care. In response to the growth in COVID-19 cases worldwide, the energy and environmental impacts of these lifecycle management have risen rapidly. However, significant hazardous waste management concerns arise due to the need to assure the elimination of residual pathogens in household and medical wastes. This review article summarizes the preventive and environmental management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Conservation of Natural Resources , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
17.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(3): 204-216, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is used to treat respiratory failure in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PURPOSE: To review multiple streams of evidence regarding the benefits and harms of ventilation techniques for coronavirus infections, including that causing COVID-19. DATA SOURCES: 21 standard, World Health Organization-specific and COVID-19-specific databases, without language restrictions, until 1 May 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Studies of any design and language comparing different oxygenation approaches in patients with coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), or with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Animal, mechanistic, laboratory, and preclinical evidence was gathered regarding aerosol dispersion of coronavirus. Studies evaluating risk for virus transmission to health care workers from aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Independent and duplicate screening, data abstraction, and risk-of-bias assessment (GRADE for certainty of evidence and AMSTAR 2 for included systematic reviews). DATA SYNTHESIS: 123 studies were eligible (45 on COVID-19, 70 on SARS, 8 on MERS), but only 5 studies (1 on COVID-19, 3 on SARS, 1 on MERS) adjusted for important confounders. A study in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 reported slightly higher mortality with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) than with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), but 2 opposing studies, 1 in patients with MERS and 1 in patients with SARS, suggest a reduction in mortality with NIV (very-low-certainty evidence). Two studies in patients with SARS report a reduction in mortality with NIV compared with no mechanical ventilation (low-certainty evidence). Two systematic reviews suggest a large reduction in mortality with NIV compared with conventional oxygen therapy. Other included studies suggest increased odds of transmission from AGPs. LIMITATION: Direct studies in COVID-19 are limited and poorly reported. CONCLUSION: Indirect and low-certainty evidence suggests that use of NIV, similar to IMV, probably reduces mortality but may increase the risk for transmission of COVID-19 to health care workers. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: World Health Organization. (PROSPERO: CRD42020178187).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Aerosols , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Systematic Reviews as Topic , World Health Organization
19.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 683, 2022 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117931

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a new dataset of infectious disease outbreaks collected from the Disease Outbreak News and the Coronavirus Dashboard produced by the World Health Organization. The dataset contains information on 70 infectious diseases and 2227 public health events that occurred over the period from January 1996 to March 2022 in 233 countries and territories around the world. We illustrate the potential use of this dataset to the research community by analysing the spatial distribution of disease outbreaks. We find evidence of spatial clusters of high incidences ("hot spots") in Africa, America, and Asia. This spatial analysis enables policymakers to identify the regions with the greatest likelihood of suffering from disease outbreaks and, taking into account their degree of preparedness and vulnerability, to develop policies that may help contain the spreading of future outbreaks. Further applications could focus on combining our data with other information sources to study, for instance, the link between environmental, globalization, and/or socioeconomic factors with disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , World Health Organization
20.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(11): e224994, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117841
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