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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 785946, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674333

ABSTRACT

Although cellular and molecular mediators of the immune system have the potential to be prognostic indicators of disease outcomes, temporal interference between diseases might affect the immune mediators, and make them difficult to predict disease complications. Today one of the most important challenges is predicting the prognosis of COVID-19 in the context of other inflammatory diseases such as traumatic injuries. Many diseases with inflammatory properties are usually polyphasic and the kinetics of inflammatory mediators in various inflammatory diseases might be different. To find the most appropriate evaluation time of immune mediators to accurately predict COVID-19 prognosis in the trauma environment, researchers must investigate and compare cellular and molecular alterations based on their kinetics after the start of COVID-19 symptoms and traumatic injuries. The current review aimed to investigate the similarities and differences of common inflammatory mediators (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, ferritin, and serum amyloid A), cytokine/chemokine levels (IFNs, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-4), and immune cell subtypes (neutrophil, monocyte, Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg and CTL) based on the kinetics between patients with COVID-19 and trauma. The mediators may help us to accurately predict the severity of COVID-19 complications and follow up subsequent clinical interventions. These findings could potentially help in a better understanding of COVID-19 and trauma pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Prognosis , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Wounds and Injuries/immunology
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(2): e28567, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625627

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Gyeonggi-do (Gyeonggi province) has the second highest number of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases in the Republic of Korea after Seoul, with approximately 25% of the COVID-19 patients as of January 2021. Our center is a level I trauma center located in south Gyeonggi-do, and we aimed to evaluate whether the characteristics of trauma patients changed after the COVID-19 pandemic.We retrospectively reviewed the trauma patients registered with the Korea Trauma Database of the Center from February 2019 to January 2021. The patients were dichotomized into pre-coronavirus disease (pre-COVID) and coronavirus disease (COVID) groups, and their trauma volumes, injury characteristics, intentionality, and outcomes were compared.A total of 2628 and 2636 patients were included in the pre-COVID and COVID groups, respectively. During the COVID-19 period, motorcycle accidents, bicycle accidents, and penetrating injury cases increased, and pedestrian traffic accidents, slips, and injury by machines decreased. The average daily number of patients in the COVID group was lower in March (5.6 ±â€Š2.6/day vs 7.2 ±â€Š2.4/day, P = .014) and higher in September (9.9 ±â€Š3.2/day vs 7.7 ±â€Š2.0/day, P = .003) compared to the pre-COVID group. The COVID group also had a higher ratio of direct admissions (67.5% vs 57.2%, P < .001), proportion of suicidal patients (4.1% vs 2.7%, P = .005), and injury severity scores (14 [9-22] vs 12 [4-22], P < .001) than the pre-COVID group. The overall mortality (4.7% vs 4.9%, P = .670) and intensive care unit length of stay (2 [0-3] days vs 2 [0-4] days, P = .153) was not different between the 2 groups.Although the total number of patients did not change, the COVID-19 pandemic affected the number of monthly admissions and the injury mechanisms changed. More severely injured patients were admitted directly to the trauma center.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
3.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 39, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: The COVID-19 pandemic drastically strained the health systems worldwide, obligating the reassessment of how healthcare is delivered. In Lombardia, Italy, a Regional Emergency Committee (REC) was established and the regional health system reorganized, with only three hospitals designated as hubs for trauma care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this reorganization of regional care, comparing the distribution of patients before and during the COVID-19 outbreak and to describe changes in the epidemiology of severe trauma among the two periods. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted using retrospectively collected data from the Regional Trauma Registry of Lombardia (LTR). We compared the data of trauma patients admitted to three hub hospitals before the COVID-19 outbreak (September 1 to November 19, 2019) with those recorded during the pandemic (February 21 to May 10, 2020) in the same hospitals. Demographic data, level of pre-hospital care (Advanced Life Support-ALS, Basic Life Support-BLS), type of transportation, mechanism of injury (MOI), abbreviated injury score (AIS, 1998 version), injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS), and ICU admission and survival outcome of all the patients admitted to the three trauma centers designed as hubs, were reviewed. Screening for COVID-19 was performed with nasopharyngeal swabs, chest ultrasound, and/or computed tomography. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, trauma patients admitted to the hubs increased (46.4% vs 28.3%, p < 0.001) with an increase in pre-hospital time (71.8 vs 61.3 min, p < 0.01), while observed in hospital mortality was unaffected. TRISS, ISS, AIS, and ICU admission were similar in both periods. During the COVID-19 outbreak, we observed substantial changes in MOI of severe trauma patients admitted to three hubs, with increases of unintentional (31.9% vs 18.5%, p < 0.05) and intentional falls (8.4% vs 1.2%, p < 0.05), whereas the pandemic restrictions reduced road- related injuries (35.6% vs 60%, p < 0.05). Deaths on scene were significantly increased (17.7% vs 6.8%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak affected the epidemiology of severe trauma patients. An increase in trauma patient admissions to a few designated facilities with high level of care obtained satisfactory results, while COVID-19 patients overwhelmed resources of most other hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Registries , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
4.
J Orthop Trauma ; 34(10): e377-e381, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospitals worldwide have postponed all nonessential surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic, but non-COVID-19 patients are still in urgent need of care. Uncertainty about a patient's COVID-19 status risks infecting health care workers and non-COVID-19 inpatients. We evaluated the use of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) screening for COVID-19 on admission for all patients with fractures. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients older than 18 years admitted with low-energy fractures who were tested by RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 at any time during hospitalization. Two periods based on the applied testing protocol were defined. During the first period, patients were only tested because of epidemiological criteria or clinical suspicion based on fever, respiratory symptoms, or radiological findings. In the second period, all patients admitted for fracture treatment were screened by RT-qPCR. RESULTS: We identified 15 patients in the first period and 42 in the second. In total, 9 (15.8%) patients without clinical or radiological findings tested positive at any moment. Five (33.3%) patients tested positive postoperatively in the first period and 3 (7.1%) in the second period (P = 0.02). For clinically unsuspected patients, postoperative positive detection went from 3 of 15 (20%) during the first period to 2 of 42 (4.8%) in the second (P = 0.11). Clinical symptoms demonstrated high specificity (92.1%) but poor sensitivity (52.6%) for infection detection. CONCLUSIONS: Symptom-based screening for COVID-19 has shown to be specific but not sensitive. Negative clinical symptoms do not rule out infection. Protocols and separated areas are necessary to treat infected patients. RT-qPCR testing on admission helps minimize the risk of nosocomial and occupational infection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Triage/methods , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology
5.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(3): 665-675, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195138

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In Dec 2019, COVID-19 was first recognized and led to a worldwide pandemic. The German government implemented a shutdown in Mar 2020, affecting outpatient and hospital care. The aim of the present article was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 shutdown on patient volumes and surgical procedures of a Level I trauma center in Germany. METHODS: All emergency patients were recorded retrospectively during the shutdown and compared to a calendar-matched control period (CTRL). Total emergency patient contacts including trauma mechanisms, injury patterns and operation numbers were recorded including absolute numbers, incidence proportions and risk ratios. RESULTS: During the shutdown period, we observed a decrease of emergency patient cases (417) compared to CTRL (575), a decrease of elective cases (42 vs. 13) and of the total number of operations (397 vs. 325). Incidence proportions of emergency operations increased from 8.2 to 12.2% (shutdown) and elective surgical cases decreased (11.1 vs. 4.3%). As we observed a decrease for most trauma mechanisms and injury patterns, we found an increasing incidence proportion for severe open fractures. Household-related injuries were reported with an increasing incidence proportion from 26.8 to 47.5% (shutdown). We found an increasing tendency of trauma and injuries related to psychological disorders. CONCLUSION: This analysis shows a decrease of total patient numbers in an emergency department of a Level I trauma center and a decrease of the total number of operations during the shutdown period. Concurrently, we observed an increase of severe open fractures and emergency operations. Furthermore, trauma mechanism changed with less traffic, work and sports-related accidents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infection Control/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Organizational Innovation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Centers/organization & administration , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Severity Indices , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/surgery
6.
J Surg Res ; 264: 469-473, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Stop the Bleed (STB) campaign was developed in part to educate the lay public about hemorrhage control techniques aimed at reducing preventable trauma deaths. Studies have shown this training increases bystanders' confidence and willingness to provide aid. One high-risk group might be better solicited to take the course: individuals who have been a victim of previous trauma, as high rates of recidivism after trauma are well-established. Given this group's risk for recurrent injury, we evaluated their attitudes toward STB concepts. METHODS: We surveyed trauma patients admitted to 3 urban trauma centers in Baltimore from January 8, 2020 to March 14, 2020. The survey was terminated prematurely due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Trauma patients hospitalized on any inpatient unit were invited to complete the survey via an electronic tablet. The survey asked about demographics, prior exposure to life-threatening hemorrhage and first aid training, and willingness to help a person with major bleeding. The Johns Hopkins IRB approved waiver of consent for this study. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients completed the survey. The majority of respondents had been hospitalized before (92.9%) and had witnessed severe bleeding (60.7%). The majority had never taken a first aid course (60.7%) nor heard of STB (83.9%). Most respondents would be willing to help someone with severe bleeding form a car crash (98.2%) or gunshot wound (94.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients admitted for trauma had not heard about Stop the Bleed, but stated willingness to respond to someone injured with major bleeding. Focusing STB education on individuals at high-risk for trauma recidivism may be particularly effective in spreading the message and skills of STB.


Subject(s)
First Aid/methods , Health Education/methods , Hemorrhage/therapy , Hemostatic Techniques , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Accidents, Traffic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Baltimore , Cohort Studies , Female , Firearms , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Young Adult
8.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(3): 167-172, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154068

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We describe a new service model, the Orthopaedic Assessment Unit (OAU), designed to provide care for trauma patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients without COVID-19 symptoms and isolated musculoskeletal injuries were redirected to the OAU. METHODS: We prospectively reviewed patients throughput during the peak of the global pandemic (7 May 2020 to 7 June 2020) and compared with our historic service provision (7 May 2019 to 7 June 2019). The Mann-Whitney and Fisher Exact tests were used to test the statistical significance of data. RESULTS: A total of 1,147 patients were seen, with peak attendances between 11am and 2pm; 96% of all referrals were seen within 4h. The majority of patients were seen by orthopaedic registrars (52%) and nurse practitioners (44%). The majority of patients suffered from sprains and strains (39%), followed by fractures (22%) and wounds (20%); 73% of patients were discharged on the same day, 15% given follow up, 8% underwent surgery and 3% were admitted but did not undergo surgery. Our volume of trauma admissions and theatre cases decreased by 22% and 17%, respectively (p=0.058; 0.139). There was a significant reduction of virtual fracture clinic referrals after reconfiguration of services (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Rapid implementation of a specialist OAU during a pandemic can provide early definitive trauma care while exceeding national waiting time standards. The fall in trauma attendances was lower than anticipated. The retention of orthopaedic staff in the department to staff the unit and maintain a high standard of care is imperative.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Fractures, Bone/therapy , Orthopedics/organization & administration , Sprains and Strains/therapy , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Environment Design , Female , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nurse Practitioners , Orthopedic Procedures , Orthopedic Surgeons , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , Sprains and Strains/diagnosis , Sprains and Strains/epidemiology , Trauma Centers , Triage , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
10.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(6): 737-743, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028860

ABSTRACT

Amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been an alarming rise in domestic violence worldwide. Factors believed to be fueling this escalation in domestic violence include increasing social confinement at home during lockdowns and mounting stress levels from unemployment that have resulted from the economic uncertainties of these times. This contribution explores some of the challenges faced by physicians in clinically assessing victims of domestic violence during the COVID-19 era. One such challenge is the increased reliance on telemedicine during the pandemic, a medium of communication that offers a narrower clinical view of patients than is what is usually provided by an in-person examination. In this contribution, we offer suggestions on how best to screen for domestic violence, whether through telemedicine or during an in-person encounter. The history and physical findings that suggest domestic violence are reviewed along with recommendations on how to make the clinical examination more sensitive and compassionate to the needs of the victims. One of the authors of this contribution (L.C.H.) is herself a survivor of domestic violence and has courageously shared, in these pages, details of her harrowing near murder by an abusing husband. From this case history, it is hoped that readers will gain wider insights into what domestic violence means from the perspective of a victim and how we can better help save victims from this widespread and devastating social problem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatology , Physician's Role , Spouse Abuse/prevention & control , Survivors/psychology , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouse Abuse/legislation & jurisprudence , Spouse Abuse/psychology , Telemedicine , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis
11.
Am Surg ; 87(5): 686-689, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 28 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported to date, resulting in over 900 000 deaths. With an increase in awareness regarding the virus, the behavior of general population has changed dramatically. As activities such as driving and hospital presentation patterns have changed, our study aimed to assess the differences in trauma case variables before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Trauma data for the period of March 1st-June 15th were compared for the years 2015-2019 (pre-COVID) and 2020 (COVID). The data were analyzed across the following categories: injury severity score, injury mechanism, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) vs. other blunt injuries, alcohol involvement, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: The median injury severity score pre-COVID and during COVID was 9, representing no change. There was no difference in overall distribution of mechanism of injury; however, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of MVCs pre-COVID (36.39%) vs. COVID (29.6%, P < .05). Alcohol was significantly more likely to be involved in trauma during COVID-19 (P < .05). The mean hospital stay increased from 3.87-5.4 days during COVID-19 (P < .05). DISCUSSION: We saw similar results to prior studies in terms of there being no change in trauma severity. Our observation that motor vehicle collisions have decreased is consistent with current data showing decreased use of motor vehicles during the pandemic. We also observed an increase in alcohol-related cases which are consistent with the reported changes in alcohol consumption since the pandemic began.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trauma Centers/trends , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
12.
Injury ; 51(12): 2834-2839, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899014

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: By May 2020, Peru was the country with the third most COVID-19 cases in the Americas. The current study's overall aim was to examine the impact of the current COVID-19 outbreak on the number of non-COVID-related patient presentations to a major national emergency traumatology/orthopedics referral center in Latin America. METHODS: An observational study was performed at one of Peru's main tertiary trauma referral centers, during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Numbers of non-follow-up patients presenting to the traumatology/ orthopedics service were counted and compared between January through April 2019 and January through April 2020; and between the month immediately prior to the Peruvian government's implementation of national lock-down measures (Feb 16-Mar 15; Period 1) and the month immediately following (Mar 16-Apr 15; Period 2). The number of surgery service hospitalizations also was compared pre- versus post lockdown initiation (Period 1 vs. 2), as were patient characteristics and outcomes, like age, sex, discharge disposition, mortality, indications for hospital admission, and COVID-19 status. RESULT: Comparing 2019 and 2020, no appreciable differences were detected in the number of patients seen in either January or February. However, relative to March and April 2019, the numbers of patients seen in March and April 2020 (the two months after the first Peruvian case of COVID-19 was detected) were reduced by 55.8 and 88.6%, respectively. Comparing the months immediately pre and post lockdown, the number of service patients declined by 79.9% in April, while the number of hospitalizations declined by 30.9%. The number of admissions for various surgical indications either remained stable or declined in parallel with the overall decline in admissions for all indications except for osteoporotic hip fractures and diabetic foot ulcers (both of which increased proportional to the overall number of admissions) and for hand and foot fractures, both of which decreased. CONCLUSION: At our hospital, not all indications for traumatology/orthopedics service utilization declined despite the national government's directive to reduce non-COVID-related consultations and admissions. Some disorders presented with even greater frequency, which must be considered when developing contingencies for the reallocation of healthcare resources during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Peru/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
13.
Injury ; 51(12): 2827-2833, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796067

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The severe disruptions caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus have necessitated a redistribution of resources to meet hospitals' current service needs during this pandemic. The aim is to share our experiences and outcomes during the first month of the Covid-19 pandemic, based on the strategies recommended and strategies we have implemented. METHODS: Our experience comes from our work at a referral hospital within the Spanish National Health System. Changes to clinical practice have largely been guided by the current evidence and four main principles: (1) patient and health-care worker protection, (2) uninterrupted necessary care, (3) conservation of health-care resources, (4) uninterrupted formation for residents. Based on these principles, changes in the service organization, elective clinical visits, emergency visits, surgical procedures, and inpatient and outpatient care were made. RESULTS: Using the guidance of experts, we were able to help the hospital address the demands of the Covid-19 outbreak. We reduced to a third of our orthopaedics and trauma hospital beds, provided coverage for general emergency services, and five ICUs, all continuing to provide care for our patients, in the form of 102 trauma surgeries, 6413 phone interviews and 520 emergency clinic visits. Also in the third week, we were able to restart morning meetings via telematics, and teaching sessions for our residents. On the other hand, eight of the healthcare personnel on our service (10.8%) became infected with Covid-19. CONCLUSIONS: As priorities and resources increasingly shift towards the COVID-19 pandemic, it is possible to maintain the high standard and quality of care necessary for trauma and orthopaedics patients while the pandemic persists. We must be prepared to organize our healthcare workers in such a way that the needs of both inpatients and outpatients are met. It is still possible to operate on those patients who need it. Unfortunately, some healthcare workers will become infected. It is essential that we protect those most susceptible to severer consequences of Covid-19. Also crucial are optimized protective measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Hospitals, University/organization & administration , Trauma Centers/organization & administration , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration , Resource Allocation/organization & administration , Spain/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis
14.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(2): 266-275, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During a pandemic, it is paramount to understand volume changes in Level I trauma so that with appropriate planning and reallocation of resources, these facilities can maintain and even improve life-saving capabilities. Evaluating nonaccidental and accidental trauma can highlight potential areas of improvement in societal behavior and hospital preparedness. These critical questions were proposed to better understand how healthcare leaders might adjust surgeon and team coverage of trauma services as well as prepare from a system standpoint what resources will be needed during a pandemic or similar crisis to maintain services. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How did the total observed number of trauma activations, defined as patients who meet mechanism of injury requirements which trigger the notification and aggregation of the trauma team upon entering the emergency department, change during a pandemic and stay-at-home order? (2) How did the proportion of major mechanisms of traumatic injury change during this time period? (3) How did the proportion and absolute numbers of accidental versus nonaccidental traumatic injury in children and adults change during this time period? METHODS: This was a retrospective study of trauma activations at a Level I trauma center in New Orleans, LA, USA, using trauma registry data of all patients presenting to the trauma center from 2017 to 2020. The number of trauma activations during a government mandated coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) stay-at-home order (from March 20, 2020 to May 14, 2020) was compared with the expected number of activations for the same time period from 2017 to 2019, called "predicted period". The expected number (predicted period) was assumed based on the linear trend of trauma activations seen in the prior 3 years (2017 to 2019) for the same date range (March 20, 2020 to May 14, 2020). To define the total number of traumatic injuries, account for proportion changes, and evaluate fluctuation in accidental verses nonaccidental trauma, variables including type of traumatic injury (blunt, penetrating, and thermal), and mechanism of injury (gunshot wound, fall, knife wound, motor vehicle collision, assault, burns) were collected for each patient. RESULTS: There were fewer total trauma activations during the stay-at-home period than during the predicted period (372 versus 532 [95% CI 77 to 122]; p = 0.016). The proportion of penetrating trauma among total activations was greater during the stay-at-home period than during the predicted period (35% [129 of 372] versus 26% [141 of 532]; p = 0.01), while the proportion of blunt trauma was lower during the stay-at-home period than during the predicted period (63 % [236 of 372] versus 71% [376 of 532]; p = 0.02). The proportion of gunshot wounds in relation to total activations was greater during the stay-at-home period than expected (26% [97 of 372] versus 18% [96 of 532]; p = 0.004). There were fewer motor vehicle collisions in relation to total activations during the stay-at-home period than expected (42% [156 of 372] versus 49% [263 of 532]; p = 0.03). Among total trauma activations, the stay-at-home period had a lower proportion of accidental injuries than the predicted period (55% [203 of 372] versus 61% [326 of 532]; p = 0.05), and there was a greater proportion of nonaccidental injuries than the predicted period (37% [137 of 372] versus 27% [143 of 532]; p < 0.001). In adults, the stay-at-home period had a greater proportion of nonaccidental injuries than the predicted period (38% [123 of 328] versus 26% [123 of 466]; p < 0.001). There was no difference between the stay-at-home period and predicted period in nonaccidental and accidental injuries among children. CONCLUSION: Data from the trauma registry at our region's only Level I trauma center indicate that a stay-at-home order during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a 70% reduction in the number of traumatic injuries, and the types of injuries shifted from more accidental blunt trauma to more nonaccidental penetrating trauma. Non-accidental trauma, including gunshot wounds, increased during this period, which suggest community awareness, crisis de-escalation strategies, and programs need to be created to address violence in the community. Understanding these changes allows for adjustments in staffing schedules. Surgeons and trauma teams could allow for longer shifts between changeover, decreasing viral exposure because the volume of work would be lower. Understanding the shift in injury could also lead to a change in specialists covering call. With the often limited availability of orthopaedic trauma-trained surgeons who can perform life-saving pelvis and acetabular surgery, this data may be used to mitigate exposure of these surgeons during pandemic situations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Infection Control/trends , Needs Assessment/trends , Trauma Centers/trends , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New Orleans/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Young Adult
15.
Surgeon ; 19(3): e59-e66, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752829

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the emergence of the 2019 novel coronavirus and its resulting pandemic status in March 2020 all routine elective orthopaedic surgery was cancelled in our institution. The developing picture in Italy, of acute hospitals becoming overwhelmed with treating patients suffering with severe and life-threatening symptoms from the disease, prompted the orthopaedic surgeons to formulate a plan to transfer trauma patients requiring surgery to the elective hospital to unburden the acute hospital system. METHODS: Under the threat of this pandemic; protocols and algorithms were established for referral, acceptance and care of trauma patients from acute hospitals in the region. Each day, as new guidance on COVID-19 emerged, our process and algorithms were adjusted to reflect pertinent change. RESULTS: The screening of all patients referred, worked well in keeping our hospital "COVID-free" with respect to patients undergoing operations. An upward trend in cases referred reflected the decreased capacity in the acute hospitals due to rising cases of COVID-19 within the hospital network. During the first 7 weeks of the pandemic 308 operations were performed, (31.1% upper limb, 33.4% lower limb, 4.1% spine, 14.1% urgent elective, 17.4% plastic surgery cases). Regular review and audit of the activity in the hospital as well as communication with the referring teams enabled appropriate planning to accommodate the increase in case-mix as the need arose. DISCUSSION: This paper details the steps that were taken in planning for such a change in management specific to the orthopaedic surgery setting and the lessons learnt during this process. The success of the development of this pathway was facilitated by clear communication channels, flexibility to adapt to changing process and feedback from all stakeholders. The implementation of this pathway allowed the unburdening of acute hospitals dealing with the pandemic that was steadily reducing access to operating theatres and anaesthetic resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Change Management , Orthopedic Procedures , Referral and Consultation/organization & administration , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Algorithms , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Ireland , Patient Transfer , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology
16.
J Pediatr ; 226: 274-277.e1, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741374

ABSTRACT

We conducted a descriptive time-series study of pediatric emergency healthcare use during the onset of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic after a state-wide stay-at-home order. Our study demonstrated decreased volume, increased acuity, and generally consistent chief complaints compared with the prior 3 years (2017 through 2019). Ingestions became a significantly more common chief complaint in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Hospitals, Pediatric/trends , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, Urban/trends , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Protective Factors , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers/trends , Trauma Severity Indices , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Young Adult
18.
Surgeon ; 19(2): e49-e52, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current pandemic has impacted heavily on health systems, making unprecedented demands on resources, and forcing reconfiguration of services. Trauma and orthopaedic units have cancelled elective surgery, moved to virtual based clinics and have been forced to reconsider the provision of trauma. Our national elective orthopaedic centre has been re-designated as a trauma centre to allow tertiary centres re-direct triaged trauma. Many governments, as part of their COVID-19 management, have significantly restricted activity of the general population. We proposed that trauma patterns would change alongside these changes and maintaining existing standards of treatment would require dedicated planning and structures. METHODS: Referrals over a six-week period (March 15th to April 30th) were retrospectively reviewed. Data was collected directly from our referral database and a database populated. Analysis was performed to assess trauma volume, aetiology, and changes in trends. RESULTS: There were one hundred and fifty-nine referrals from three individual hospitals within the timeframe. Mean age of patient's referred was 55 (range17-92). Males accounted for 45% of cases. F&A injuries were the most common (32%), followed by H&W (28%), UL (17%), H&F (16%) and K&T (7%). In comparison to the corresponding time-period in 2019, trauma theatre activity reduced by almost one half (45.3%) CONCLUSION: The majority of trauma referred to our Dublin based centre during COVID-19 related population restrictions appears to be home based and trauma volumes have decreased. Significant reductions are apparent in work and sport related injuries suggestive of compliance with COVID-19 activity guidelines. Maintaining existing standards of treatment requires dedicated planning.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Home/trends , COVID-19 , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers/trends , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Young Adult
19.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(4): 821-828, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-632467
20.
Ann Plast Surg ; 85(2S Suppl 2): S161-S165, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-537113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 crisis has brought many unique challenges to the health care system. Across the United States, social distancing measures have been put in place, including stay-at-home (SAH) orders, to combat the spread of this infection. This has impacted the type and volume of traumatic injuries sustained during this time. Meanwhile, steps have been taken in our health care system to assure that adequate resources are available to maintain a high standard of patient care while recognizing the importance of protecting health care providers. Using comparative data, we aim to describe the trends in traumatic injuries managed by our plastic surgery service and detail the changes in consultation policies made to minimize provider exposure. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all plastic surgery emergencies at our institution during the 3 weeks preceding the issuance of SAH orders in Chicago and the 3 weeks after. The electronic medical record was queried for patient age, type and mechanism of injury, location where injury was sustained, presence of domestic violence, length of inpatient hospital stays, and treatment rendered. The two 3-week periods were then comparatively analyzed to determine differences and trends in these variables and treatment rendered. The 2 periods were then comparatively analyzed to determine differences and trends in these variables. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in trauma consults since the issuance of SAH (88 pre-SAH vs 62 post-SAH) with a marked decrease in trauma-related hand injuries. There was an increase in the percentage of assault-related injuries including those associated with domestic violence, whereas there was an overall decrease in motor vehicle collisions. There was no notable change in the location where injuries were sustained. Significantly fewer patients were seen by house staff in the emergency room, whereas those requiring surgical intervention were able to receive care without delay. CONCLUSIONS: Stay-at-home orders in Chicago have impacted traumatic injury patterns seen by the Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at a level I Trauma Center. Safe and timely care can continue to be provided with thorough communication, vigilance, and guidance from our colleagues.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/trends , Trauma Centers/trends , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Chicago/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Protocols , Emergencies , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgery Department, Hospital , United States , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Young Adult
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