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1.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(11): e976-e982, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096193

ABSTRACT

Firearm-related injury is a leading cause of death disproportionately affecting adolescents and young adults across the world, especially in the Americas. Little progress has been made over the past four decades, as inaction and the adoption of ineffective or unevidenced interventions have become commonplace. The COVID-19 pandemic reconfigured health systems towards prevention and harm reduction, sharpened public attention to the burden of preventable deaths, and inspired a fresh ambition of eliminating avertable deaths. In this Viewpoint, we argue that preventing firearm injury should garner bolder action in post-pandemic public health and we present a case for reducing the global burden of firearm injury supported by evidence and international examples. Crucially, we aim to guide policy making in directions that end the cycle of grief, anger, activism, deflection, and inaction and create more peaceful and fairer societies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Wounds, Gunshot , Adolescent , Young Adult , Humans , United States , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/prevention & control , Public Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control
2.
Prev Med ; 163: 107216, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004626

ABSTRACT

This study sought to characterize frequency and demographic characteristics of firearm injury and penetrating trauma in Maryland over the first year of the pandemic, by comparing these characteristics to those of the three years prior to stay-at-home order issuance. Patients were identified in the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database using ICD-10 codes for firearm injury by all intents and assaults by penetrating trauma. Cases from July 1, 2017 to March 31, 2020 ("pre-stay-at-home") were compared to those from April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021 ("post-stay-at-home") using descriptive statistics. There was no significant change overall in frequency or demographics of firearm injury or penetrating trauma in the year after stay-at-home orders were issued. Youth between ages 15 and 24, overwhelmingly male, comprise a disproportionately high percentage of firearm injuries and assaults, and most penetrating trauma occurs in urban environments where Black non-Hispanic youth and children of low socioeconomic status are at high risk. Our study also found unintentional firearm injury among adults was significantly increased during the pandemic. While increased unintentional firearm injury among adults was the major significant change found in our study, the persistence of firearm injury, particularly in youth, racial and ethnic minority groups, and those in urban environments, should be deeply concerning. Stay-at-home policies did not keep youth safer from firearm injury. With continued high rates of firearm injury and the national debate over how to prevent these incidents, increased education and comprehensive strategies for prevention are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Wounds, Gunshot , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Ethnicity , Humans , Male , Maryland/epidemiology , Minority Groups , Population Surveillance , United States , Violence , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/prevention & control , Young Adult
4.
Inj Prev ; 28(3): 249-255, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861639

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Demolishing abandoned buildings has been found to reduce nearby firearm violence. However, these effects might vary within cities and across time scales. We aimed to identify potential moderators of the effects of demolitions on firearm violence using a novel approach that combined machine learning and aerial imagery. METHODS: Outcomes were annual counts of fatal and non-fatal shootings in Rochester, New York, from 2000 to 2020. Treatment was demolitions conducted from 2009 to 2019. Units of analysis were 152×152 m grid squares. We used a difference-in-differences approach to test effects: (A) the year after each demolition and (B) as demolitions accumulated over time. As moderators, we used a built environment typology generated by extracting information from aerial imagery using convolutional neural networks, a deep learning approach, combined with k-means clustering. We stratified our main models by built environment cluster to test for moderation. RESULTS: One demolition was associated with a 14% shootings reduction (incident rate ratio (IRR)=0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90, p<0.001) the following year. Demolitions were also associated with a long-term, 2% reduction in shootings per year for each cumulative demolition (IRR=0.98, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.00, p=0.02). In the stratified models, densely built areas with higher street connectivity displayed following-year effects, but not long-term effects. Areas with lower density and larger parcels displayed long-term effects but not following-year effects. CONCLUSIONS: The built environment might influence the magnitude and duration of the effects of demolitions on firearm violence. Policymakers may consider complementary programmes to help sustain these effects in high-density areas.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Firearms , Wounds, Gunshot , Cities , Humans , Machine Learning , Violence/prevention & control , Wounds, Gunshot/prevention & control
6.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 34(1): 3-4, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631668

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Firearm injuries are considered among the five leading causes of death for people ages 1-64 years. The issue is of concern for nurse practitioners (NPs) and NP educators as the need for gun violence-related health care increases. This essay focuses on several local and national efforts to address the short- and long-term consequences of gun violence.


Subject(s)
Firearms , Gun Violence , Nurse Practitioners , Wounds, Gunshot , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Gun Violence/prevention & control , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Violence/prevention & control , Wounds, Gunshot/prevention & control , Young Adult
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