Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4191, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799570

ABSTRACT

Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) provide effective protection against diseases spread through airborne infectious droplets and particles. The widespread use of FFRs during the COVID-19 pandemic has not only led to supply shortages, but the disposal of single-use facemasks also threatens the environment with a new kind of plastic pollution. While limited reuse of filtering facepiece respirators has been permitted as a crisis capacity strategy, there are currently no standard test methods available for decontamination before their repeated use. The decontamination of respirators can compromise the structural and functional integrity by reducing the filtration efficiency and breathability. Digital segmentation of X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) scans of the meltblown nonwoven layers of a specific N95 respirator model (Venus-4400) after treatment with one and five cycles of liquid hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet radiation, moist heat, and aqueous soap solution enabled us to perform filtration simulations of decontaminated respirators. The computed filtration efficiencies for 0.3 µm particles agreed well with experimental measurements, and the distribution of particle penetration depths was correlated with the structural changes resulting from decontamination. The combination of X-ray microCT imaging with numerical simulations thus provides a strategy for quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of decontamination treatments for a specific respirator model.


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Masks , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Detergents/chemistry , Equipment Reuse , Filtration , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Masks/virology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ultraviolet Rays , X-Ray Microtomography
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753483

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to evaluate the effects of heat and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on P3 facial respirator microstructure. INTERVENTION: P3 facial filters were exposed to dry heat and UV sterilization procedures. METHODS: P3 facial filter samples underwent a standardized sterilization process based on dry heat and UV irradiation techniques. We analyzed critical parameters of internal microstructure, such as fiber thickness and porosity, before and after sterilization, using 3D data obtained with synchrotron radiation-based X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT). The analyzed filter has two inner layers called the "finer" and "coarser" layers. The "finer" layer consists of a dense fiber network, while the "coarser" layer has a less compact fiber network. RESULTS: Analysis of 3D images showed no statistically significant differences between the P3 filter of the controls and the dry heat/UV sterilized samples. In particular, averages fiber thickness in the finer layer of the control and the 60° dry heated and UV-irradiated sample groups was almost identical. Average fiber thickness for the coarser layer of the control and the 60° dry heated and UV-irradiated sample groups was very similar, measuring 19.33 µm (±0.47), 18.33 µm (±0.47), and 18.66 µm (±0.47), respectively. There was no substantial difference in maximum fiber thickness in the finer layers and coarser layers. For the control group samples, maximum thickness was on average 11.43 µm (±1.24) in the finer layer and 59.33 µm (±6.79) in the coarser layer. Similarly, the 60° dry heated group samples were thickened 12.2 µm (±0.21) in the finer layer and 57.33 µm (±1.24) in the coarser layer, while for the UV-irradiated group, the mean max thickness was 12.23 µm (±0.90) in the finer layer and 58.00 µm (±6.68) in the coarser layer. Theoretical porosity analysis resulted in 74% and 88% for the finer and coarser layers. The finer layers' theoretical porosity tended to decrease in dry heat and UV-irradiated samples compared with the respective control samples. CONCLUSIONS: Dry heat and UV sterilization processes do not substantially alter the morphometry of the P3 filter samples' internal microstructure, as studied with micro-CT. The current study suggests that safe P3 filter facepiece reusability is theoretically feasible and should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Hot Temperature , Pandemics , Sterilization , Ultraviolet Rays , X-Ray Microtomography
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 177-192, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575553

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has impacted the health of humanity after the outbreak in Hubei, China in late December 2019. Ever since, it has taken unprecedented proportions and rapidity causing over a million fatal cases. Recently, a robust Syrian golden hamster model recapitulating COVID-19 was developed in search for effective therapeutics and vaccine candidates. However, overt clinical disease symptoms were largely absent despite high levels of virus replication and associated pathology in the respiratory tract. Therefore, we used micro-computed tomography (µCT) to longitudinally visualize lung pathology and to preclinically assess candidate vaccines. µCT proved to be crucial to quantify and noninvasively monitor disease progression, to evaluate candidate vaccine efficacy, and to improve screening efforts by allowing longitudinal data without harming live animals. Here, we give a comprehensive guide on how to use low-dose high-resolution µCT to follow-up SARS-CoV-2-induced disease and test the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine candidates in hamsters. Our approach can likewise be applied for the preclinical assessment of antiviral and anti-inflammatory drug treatments in vivo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cricetinae , X-Ray Microtomography
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276013

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays a key role in viral infectivity. It is also the major antigen stimulating the host's protective immune response, specifically, the production of neutralizing antibodies. Recently, a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 possessing multiple mutations in the S protein, designated P.1, emerged in Brazil. Here, we characterized a P.1 variant isolated in Japan by using Syrian hamsters, a well-established small animal model for the study of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). In hamsters, the variant showed replicative abilities and pathogenicity similar to those of early and contemporary strains (i.e., SARS-CoV-2 bearing aspartic acid [D] or glycine [G] at position 614 of the S protein). Sera and/or plasma from convalescent patients and BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccinees showed comparable neutralization titers across the P.1 variant, S-614D, and S-614G strains. In contrast, the S-614D and S-614G strains were less well recognized than the P.1 variant by serum from a P.1-infected patient. Prior infection with S-614D or S-614G strains efficiently prevented the replication of the P.1 variant in the lower respiratory tract of hamsters upon reinfection. In addition, passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies to hamsters infected with the P.1 variant or the S-614G strain led to reduced virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. However, the effect was less pronounced against the P.1 variant than the S-614G strain. These findings suggest that the P.1 variant may be somewhat antigenically different from the early and contemporary strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , X-Ray Microtomography
5.
EBioMedicine ; 68: 103403, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Within one year after its emergence, more than 108 million people acquired SARS-CoV-2 and almost 2·4 million succumbed to COVID-19. New SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC) are emerging all over the world, with the threat of being more readily transmitted, being more virulent, or escaping naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immunity. At least three major prototypic VoC have been identified, i.e. the United Kingdom, UK (B.1.1.7), South African (B.1.351) and Brazilian (B.1.1.28.1) variants. These are replacing formerly dominant strains and sparking new COVID-19 epidemics. METHODS: We studied the effect of infection with prototypic VoC from both B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants in female Syrian golden hamsters to assess their relative infectivity and virulence in direct comparison to two basal SARS-CoV-2 strains isolated in early 2020. FINDINGS: A very efficient infection of the lower respiratory tract of hamsters by these VoC is observed. In line with clinical evidence from patients infected with these VoC, no major differences in disease outcome were observed as compared to the original strains as was quantified by (i) histological scoring, (ii) micro-computed tomography, and (iii) analysis of the expression profiles of selected antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. Noteworthy however, in hamsters infected with VoC B.1.1.7, a particularly strong elevation of proinflammatory cytokines was detected. INTERPRETATION: We established relevant preclinical infection models that will be pivotal to assess the efficacy of current and future vaccine(s) (candidates) as well as therapeutics (small molecules and antibodies) against two important SARS-CoV-2 VoC. FUNDING: Stated in the acknowledgment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/genetics , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Mesocricetus , Respiratory System/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory System/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virulence , X-Ray Microtomography
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL