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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 485, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, people in many countries have shown xenophobia toward China, where the pandemic began. Within China, xenophobia has also been observed toward the people of Wuhan, the city where the first cases were identified. The relationship between disease threat and xenophobia is well established, but the reasons for this relationship are unclear. This study investigated the mediation role of perceived protection efficacy and moderation role of support seeking in the relationship between perceived COVID-19 risk and xenophobia within China. METHODS: An online survey was administered to a nationally representative sample (N = 1103; 51.7% women; ages 18 to 88) of Chinese adults during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants completed questionnaires about their perceived COVID-19 risk, perceived protection efficacy in reducing risk, support seeking, and xenophobic attitudes toward people of the Wuhan area. RESULTS: Regression based analyses showed that the perceived COVID-19 risk positively predicted xenophobia. Low perceived protection efficacy partly mediated the relationship between perceived COVID-19 risk and xenophobic attitudes, and this indirect effect was moderated by support seeking. Specifically, the indirect effect was weaker among individuals who sought more social support. CONCLUSIONS: Under disease threat, xenophobia can appear within a country that otherwise seems culturally homogeneous. This study extends the extant research by identifying a possible psychological mechanism by which individuals' perception of disease threat elicits xenophobia, and by addressing the question of why this response is stronger among some people than others. Increasing the public's perceived efficacy in protecting themselves from infection, and encouraging support seeking, could reduce xenophobic attitudes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Phobic Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Xenophobia/psychology , Young Adult
2.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E998-E1004, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asian Canadians and Asian Americans face COVID-19-related discrimination. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of Asian health care workers dealing with discrimination, with a focus on racial micro-agressions, in Canada and the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We adopted a qualitative descriptive approach. We used convenience and snowball sampling strategies to recruit participants. We conducted individual, in-depth semistructured interviews with Asian health care workers in Canada and the US via videoconferencing between May and September 2020. Eligible participants had to self-identify as Asian and be currently employed as a health care worker with at least 1 year of full-time employment. We used an inductive thematic approach to analyze the data. RESULTS: Thirty participants were recruited. Fifteen (50%) were Canadians and 15 (50%) were Americans; there were 18 women (60%), 11 men (37%) and 1 nonbinary person. Most of the participants were aged 25-29 years (n = 16, 53%). More than half were nurses (n = 16, 53%); the other participants were attending physicians (n = 5), physiotherapists (n = 3), resident physicians (n = 2), a midwife, a paramedic, a pharmacist and a physician assistant. Two themes emerged from the data: a surge of racial microaggressions related to COVID-19 and a lack of institutional and public acknowledgement. Participants noted that they have experienced an increase in racial microaggressions during the COVID-19 pandemic. They have also experienced threats of violence and actual violence. The largely silent organizational response to the challenges being faced by people of Asian descent and the use of disparaging terms such as "China virus" in the early stages of the pandemic were a substantial source of frustration. INTERPRETATION: Asian health care workers have experienced challenges in dealing with racial microaggressions related to COVID-19 in the US and Canada. More research should be done on the experiences of Asian Americans and Asian Canadians, both during and after the pandemic, and supportive measures should be put in place to protect Asian health care workers.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Racism/psychology , Adult , Canada , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Workplace Violence/psychology , Xenophobia/psychology
3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249579, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172878

ABSTRACT

Along with the plight of the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 come the xenophobic behaviors and hate crimes against people with Asian descent around the globe. The threat of a public health emergency catalyzed underlying xenophobic sentiments, manifesting them into racial discrimination of various degrees. With most discriminatory acts reported in liberal societies, this article investigates whether an economy more open to trade and migration can be more susceptible to xenophobia. Using our first-hand survey data of 1767 Chinese respondents residing overseas from 65 different countries during February of 2020, we adopt an instrumental variable strategy to identify the causal effect of openness to trade and migration of their residence country on the likelihood of them receiving discriminatory behaviors during the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. Our results show that greater openness to trade increases the likelihood of reported xenophobic behaviors, while openness to migration decreases it. On the other hand, stronger trade or immigration relationships with China are associated with less reported discrimination. And these effects primarily influence discriminatory behavior in interpersonal spaces, rather than through media outlets. Our findings highlight nuances of the effect of trade relations on the culture of a society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Xenophobia/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China , Female , Humans , Male
4.
Int J Psychol ; 56(4): 522-531, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1018033

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, reports of xenophobic and racist incidents directed at Chinese Americans have escalated. The present study adds further understanding to potential psychosocial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic by comparing self-reported questionnaire data from two groups of Chinese students attending a public university in western United States: the group who participated in the study before the outbreak of COVID-19 (Pre-COVID, N = 134), and the group who participated at the beginning (during-COVID, N = 64). The aim of the study was to: (a) compare mean differences in perceived discrimination and anxiety between the two groups, (b) test whether COVID-19 moderated the link between perceived discrimination and anxiety, and (c) examine whether media exposure portraying Chinese individuals negatively mediated relations between COVID-19 and discrimination. Results showed that the During-COVID group reported higher perceived discrimination and anxiety than the Pre-COVID group. The link between perceived discrimination and anxiety was stronger for the During-COVID group. Mediation analyses suggested that negative Chinese media exposure partly accounted for the group difference in perceived discrimination. Results suggest that future studies on the psychosocial implications of the COVID-19 pandemic should consider the role of discrimination in understanding the mental health of Chinese American college students.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Asian Americans/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Xenophobia/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Universities/trends , Xenophobia/trends , Young Adult
5.
Pediatrics ; 146(5)2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has fueled xenophobia against Chinese Americans. We examined the rates of 6 types of COVID-19 racism and racial discrimination experienced by Chinese American parents and youth and the associations with their mental health. METHODS: We recruited a population-based sample of Chinese American families to participate in this self-reported survey study conducted from March 14, 2020, to May 31, 2020. Eligible parent participants identified as ethnically/racially Chinese, lived in the United States, and had a 4- to 18-year-old child; their eligible children were 10 to 18 years old. RESULTS: The sample included 543 Chinese American parents (mean [SD] age, 43.44 [6.47] years; 425 mothers [78.3%]), and their children (N = 230; mean [SD] age, 13.83 [2.53] years; 111 girls [48.3%]). Nearly half of parents and youth reported being directly targeted by COVID-19 racial discrimination online (parents: 172 [31.7%]; youth: 105 [45.7%]) and/or in person (parents: 276 [50.9%]; youth: 115 [50.2%]). A total of 417 (76.8%) parents and 176 (76.5%) youth reported at least 1 incident of COVID-19 vicarious racial discrimination online and/or in person (parents: 481 [88.5%]; youth: 211 [91.9%]). A total of 267 (49.1%) parents and 164 (71.1%) youth perceived health-related Sinophobia in America, and 274 (50.4%) parents and 129 (56.0%) youth perceived media-perpetuated Sinophobia. Higher levels of parent- and youth-perceived racism and racial discrimination were associated with their poorer mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Health care professionals must attend to the racism-related experiences and mental health needs of Chinese Americans parents and their children throughout the COVID-19 pandemic via education and making appropriate mental health referrals.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Racism/psychology , Xenophobia/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Racism/statistics & numerical data , Self Report , Social Perception , United States , Xenophobia/statistics & numerical data
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1932): 20201039, 2020 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-711781

ABSTRACT

The 'social distancing' that occurred in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in humans provides a powerful illustration of the intimate relationship between infectious disease and social behaviour in animals. Indeed, directly transmitted pathogens have long been considered a major cost of group living in humans and other social animals, as well as a driver of the evolution of group size and social behaviour. As the risk and frequency of emerging infectious diseases rise, the ability of social taxa to respond appropriately to changing infectious disease pressures could mean the difference between persistence and extinction. Here, we examine changes in the social behaviour of humans and wildlife in response to infectious diseases and compare these responses to theoretical expectations. We consider constraints on altering social behaviour in the face of emerging diseases, including the lack of behavioural plasticity, environmental limitations and conflicting pressures from the many benefits of group living. We also explore the ways that social animals can minimize the costs of disease-induced changes to sociality and the unique advantages that humans may have in maintaining the benefits of sociality despite social distancing.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Social Behavior , Social Isolation , Animals , Behavior, Animal , Communicable Diseases/psychology , Communicable Diseases/veterinary , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/psychology , Communication , Extinction, Biological , Gorilla gorilla/psychology , Gorilla gorilla/virology , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Marsupialia , Xenophobia/psychology
7.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S25-S27, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-552195

ABSTRACT

This commentary article provides observations on the psychosocial consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among people in China and articulates a population health perspective to understand and address identified issues. We highlight key psychosocial effects of COVID-19, such as anxiety, insomnia, and trauma response, in the context of salient factors that shape Chinese people's psychological experiences, including the availability of Internet and technology, large-scale quarantine, economic impact, and the rise of xenophobia globally. Further, from a population health perspective, we make recommendations in COVID-19-related research and interventions that aim to promote the psychosocial health of Chinese people. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Trauma , Quarantine , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Xenophobia , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Promotion , Humans , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Trauma/etiology , Psychological Trauma/psychology , Psychological Trauma/therapy , Quarantine/economics , Quarantine/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Xenophobia/psychology
8.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(6): 873-876, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-228672

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2 has triggered global panic. We have conducted an anonymous online survey of Asian medical students in Poland to assess whether they experience any form of prejudice related to the ongoing pandemic. As demonstrated, the COVID-19 outbreak had triggered xenophobic reactions toward students of Asian-origin (n=85) before the first SARS-CoV-2 case was confirmed in Poland. Facing prejudice, including discrimination related to COVID-19, may add to feelings of isolation of students of Asian origin who study abroad, and affect career development, especially for students. We recommend that universities should proactively develop policies that support students, faculty, and staff affected by discriminatory behavior both during the current outbreak and in the future. However, preventing such behaviors should also be enforced by national authorities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prejudice/psychology , Students, Medical , Xenophobia/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Fear , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Pandemics , Poland , Prejudice/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Xenophobia/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
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