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1.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 41(4): 280-286, 2023 Apr 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245733

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the wearing of masks and the knowledge of masks among high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission. Methods: From May 14 to 17, 2022, a convenient sampling method was used to conduct an online survey among 963 workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in Beijing. The behaviors of individual use and wearing masks, the distribution and supervision of the unit, the knowledge of personal mask protection and the subjective feelings of wearing masks were analyzed. The χ(2) test and logistic regression model were used to analyze the influencing factors of the correct selection of masks. Results: The majority of the workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission were male (86.0%, 828/963), age concentration in 18-44 years old (68.2%, 657/963), and the majority of them had college or bachelor degrees (49.4%, 476/963). 79.4%(765/963) of the workers chose the right type of masks, female, 45-59 years old and high school education or above were the risk factors for correct selection of masks (P <0.05). Workers had good behaviors such as wearing/removing masks, but only 10.5% (101/963) could correctly rank the protective effect of different masks. 98.4% (948/963) of the workers believed that their work units had provided masks to their employees, and 99.1% (954/963) and 98.2%(946/963) of them had organized training and supervision on the use of masks, respectively. 47.4%(456/963) of the workers were uncomfortable while wearing masks. Conclusion: The overall selection and use of masks among occupational groups in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in China need to be further standardized. It is necessary to strengthen supervision and inspection on the use of masks among occupational groups, and take improvement measures to improve the comfort of wearing masks.


Subject(s)
Masks , Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , China , Surveys and Questionnaires , Beijing
2.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1117539, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245549

ABSTRACT

Background: Two years after the outbreak of the pandemic, several studies look at the consequences for the well-being and mental health of young people. In particular, creativity and resilience are cited in the scientific literature as resources that promote this well-being in adolescents and young adults. Purpose: This mini-literature review was created with the aim of examining how many articles have explored the relationship between creativity and resilience in adolescents and young adults since the onset of the pandemic. Methods: Particular attention was paid to how many of the articles actually related to the consequences of the pandemic, in which country they were published, their target population, and the models, instruments and variables used to analyze them. Results: Only 4 articles emerged from the screening, of which only one was actually related to pandemic consequences. All articles were published in Asian countries with a target group of university students. Three of the articles used mediation models to examine the relationship between resilience as an independent variable and creativity as a dependent variable. All articles used self-assessment instruments for creativity and resilience, both at the individual and group level. Significance: This mini-review offers us the opportunity to reflect on the lack of studies that have addressed the issue of youth resources in the form of creativity and resilience since the beginning of the pandemic. The results show us a still underdeveloped interest in creativity in the scientific literature, in contrast to what the media reports on the promotion of creativity in daily life.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Pandemics , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Asia
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 684-700, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20240059

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a percepção sobre a massa corporal, comportamentos relacionados à saúde, e a saúde mental de escolares adolescentes durante o período de retorno às atividades escolares presenciais com o período anterior à pandemia de COVID-19. O estudo foi realizado com 425 escolares (16,96±1,39 anos; 60,2% do sexo feminino) selecionados aleatoriamente de escolas das redes pública e privada de Pelotas/RS. Para a coleta dos dados foi utilizado um questionário de autopreenchimento contendo perguntas retrospectivas e atuais sobre as variáveis analisadas. Os resultados indicaram que a percepção sobre a massa corporal, o nível de atividade física, o tempo de sono, e a saúde mental (apenas para as meninas) estão piores (p<0,05) no momento atual quando comparados ao período anterior à pandemia. Por outro lado, hábitos alimentares e tempo de tela recreativo apresentaram melhores resultados (p<0,05) no momento atual do que no período anterior à pandemia. Estes resultados mostram um complexo panorama em relação à saúde de adolescentes no período de retomada das atividades presencias, tornando o retorno às atividades escolares presenciais um desafio para os próprios adolescentes, seus familiares, para professores, e para as escolas.


The aim of this study was to compare the perception of body mass, health- related behaviors and mental health of adolescent schoolchildren during the period of return to face to face school activities with the period before COVID-19 pandemic. The study was carried out with 425 students (16.96±1.39 years; 60.2% female) randomly selected from public and private schools in Pelotas/RS. For data collection, a self-completion questionnaire was used, containing retrospective and current questions about analyzed outcomes. The results indicated that the perception of body mass, level of physical activity, sleep time, and mental health (only for girls) are worse (p<0.05) at present when compared to the period before the pandemic. On the other hand, eating habits and recreational screen time showed better results (p<0.05) at present than in the period before the pandemic. These results show a complex panorama concerning the health of adolescents in the period of resumption of face to face activities, making this return a challenge for the adolescents themselves, their families, teachers and for schools.


El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la percepción de masa corporal, comportamientos relacionados a la salud y salud mental de escolares adolescentes durante el período de retorno a las actividades escolares presenciales con el período anterior a la pandemia de COVID-19. El estudio fue realizado con 425 alumnos (16,96±1,39 años; 60,2% del sexo femenino) seleccionados aleatoriamente de escuelas públicas y privadas de Pelotas/RS. Para la recolección de datos, se utilizó un cuestionario auto-completado, conteniendo preguntas retrospectivas y actuales sobre los resultados analizados. Los resultados indicaron que la percepción de la masa corporal, el nivel de actividad física, el tiempo de sueño y la salud mental (sólo para las niñas) son peores (p<0,05) en la actualidad en comparación con el período anterior a la pandemia. Por otro lado, los hábitos alimentarios y el tiempo de pantalla recreativo mostraron mejores resultados (p<0,05) en la actualidad que en el periodo anterior a la pandemia. Estos resultados muestran un panorama complejo en relación a la salud de los adolescentes en el período de reanudación de las actividades presenciales, haciendo de este retorno un desafío para los propios adolescentes, sus familias, profesores y para las escuelas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Schools , Students , Adolescent Health , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Sleep , Exercise/psychology , Body Mass Index , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adolescent Behavior , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Screen Time , Sleep Duration
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 482-490, abr. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20239353

ABSTRACT

En estudios preliminares objetivamos alta prevalencia de uso de sustancias psicoactivas (SP) entre alumnos de Anatomía, con mayor impacto entre los recursantes o aquellos con actividades laborales. La causa del uso es multifactorial, pero se destacan factores de riesgo y precipitantes como la carga horaria de la currícula, exigencias de estudio, el distrés por el afrontamiento cadavérico negativo, el nuevo contexto educativo y la cantidad de horas de sueño. El objetivo fue comparar la prevalencia de uso de SP entre las cohortes de 2011-2019, con focalización en los factores determinantes conductuales. Estudio observacional, transversal y comparativo mediante encuesta estandarizada y anónima en 945 alumnos (año 2011= 122; año 2013= 158; año 2015=204; año 2017= 228; año 2019= 233). Se aplicaron parámetros estadísticos, se definió la significación como p -0.84; AA: r> -0.71). En el caso de ansiolíticos benzodiacepínicos, se asoció con falta de sueño y distrés por el afrontamiento negativo al estudio con cadáveres. En las cohortes comparadas por el lapso de 9 años hallamos alta prevalencia de uso de sustancias psicoactivas con tendencia al incremento. Las variables actividad laboral y recursante fueron determinantes para el uso de sustancias, y se asociaron cuestiones relativas a la adaptabilidad universitaria y afrontamiento de estudio negativo con el cadáver; todos con incidencia pedagógica en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje.


SUMMARY: In preliminary studies, we observed a high prevalence of the use of psychoactive substances (PS) among Anatomy students, with a greater impact among recurrent students or those with work activities. The cause of use is multifactorial, but risk and precipitating factors stand out, such as the workload of the curriculum, study demands, distress due to negative cadaveric coping, the new educational context and the number of hours of sleep. The objective was to compare the prevalence of SP use between the 2011-2019 cohorts, with a focus on behavioral determinants. Observational, cross-sectional and comparative study using a standardized and anonymous survey in 945 students (year 2011= 122; year 2013= 158; year 2015=204; year 2017= 228; year 2019= 233). Statistical parameters were applied, significance was defined as p -0.84; AA: r> -0.71). In the case of benzodiazepine anxiolytics, it was associated with lack of sleep and distress due to negative coping with the study with cadavers. In the cohorts compared for a period of 9 years, we found a high prevalence of psychoactive substance use with an increasing trend. The variables work activity and recurrence were determinants for the use of substances, and issues related to university adaptability and negative study coping with the corpse were associated; all with pedagogical impact on the teaching and learning process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Anatomy/education , Argentina , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude to Death , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Dissection/education , Dissection/psychology , Psychological Distress
5.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e237471, Jan.-Dec. 2023. ilus
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20234645

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the perception of undergraduate students on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Brazilian dental education. Methods: This crosssectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire hosted in Google Forms platform and publicized on Instagram® and Facebook®. The questionnaire was available between July 8-27, 2020. Absolute and relative frequencies were obtained for variables of interest using Pearson's chi-squared and considering 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence of learning resource variables according to self-reported skin color, educational institution, and Brazilian region were presented using equiplots. Results: A total of 1,050 undergraduate dental students answered the questionnaire. Most students reported being in full-distance learning mode. Among the undergraduate students, 65.4% reported perceiving a very high impact in dental education, and 16.6% of students reported not being able to follow distance learning. In addition, 14% reported not having a personal laptop or desktop to study with, with this condition being more prevalent among non-white than white individuals. Conclusion: We conclude that Brazilian dental students perceived a high impact of COVID-19 on dental education, as well as one-sixth of the students reported not having adequate resources to continue with distance learning. It is important that different policies are developed at the institutional and governmental levels to reduce the impact of the pandemic on dental education


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Dental , Education, Distance , Education, Dental , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(6): 1-13, nov. 3, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20234393

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The consumption of alcoholic beverages reduces the body's ability to deal with dangerous situations and exposes people to trauma. Objective: To determine the association between the consumption of alcoholic beverages and the characteristics of maxillofacial fractures treated at a Cuban university hospital in the context of COVID-19. Material and Methods: An observational, analytical, and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Maxillofacial Surgery unit at the "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" General University Hospital during the year 2020. Prevalence ratios, 95% confidence intervals and p-values were obtained using generalized linear models. Results: In 58.23% of the cases, fractures were related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The fundamental etiology was interpersonal violence (47.75%), regardless of the consumption of alcoholic beverages. There was a prevalence of patients with nasal fractures (n=98; 55.06%), among which, 35.71% had consumed alcoholic beverages at the time of the trauma. Being male (p=0.005), the lack of university studies (p=0.007), the need for surgical treatment (p<0.001), the fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex (p=0.023), and the traumas that occurred during the weekends (p<0.001) or during the month of June (p=0.029) were factors associated with a higher frequency of fractures related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. There was a lower frequency of fractures associated with alcohol consumption during the months of January (p=0.006) and March (p=0.001). Conclusion: Six out of ten cases were under the influence of alcoholic beverages. There was a greater number of young and male patients, mainly due to interpersonal violence.


Introducción: La ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas disminuye la capacidad del organismo para enfrentar situaciones de peligro y lo predispone a sufrir traumatismos diversos. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y las características de las fracturas maxilofaciales atendidas en un hospital universitario cubano en el contexto de la COVID-19. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico y transversal realizado en el servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital General Universitario "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" durante el 2020. Se obtuvieron razones de prevalencia, intervalos de confianza a 95% y valores p mediante modelos lineales generalizados. Resultados: En el 58.23% de los casos las fracturas se relacionaron con la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas. La etiología fundamental fue la violencia interpersonal (47.75%), independientemente del consumo o no de bebidas alcohólicas. Predominaron los pacientes con fracturas nasales (n=98; 55.06%), en los que el 35.71% había consumido bebidas alcohólicas en el momento del trauma. El sexo masculino (p=0.005), la carencia de estudios universitarios (p=0.007), la necesidad de tratamiento quirúrgico (p<0.001), las fracturas del complejo cigomático-maxilar (p=0.023), los traumas sucedidos durante los fines de semanas (p<0.001) o durante el mes de junio (p=0.029) fueron factores asociados a una mayor frecuencia de fracturas relacionadas con el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. Hubo menor frecuencia de fracturas asociadas a este consumo durante los meses de enero (p=0.006) y marzo (p= 0.001). Conclusión: Seis de cada diez casos estuvieron bajo los efectos de la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas. Existió una mayor afectación de pacientes jóvenes, masculinos, a causa principalmente de la violencia interpersonal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Skull Fractures/etiology , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Alcohol Drinking/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Maxillofacial Injuries/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba/epidemiology , Alcoholic Beverages , Alcoholism/complications , Pandemics
7.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 25(7): 283-300, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239370

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To systematically examine changes in suicide trends following the initial COVID-19 outbreak, focusing on geographical and temporal heterogeneity and on differences across sociodemographic subgroups. RECENT FINDINGS: Of 46 studies, 26 had low risk of bias. In general, suicides remained stable or decreased following the initial outbreak - however, suicide increases were detected during spring 2020 in Mexico, Nepal, India, Spain, and Hungary; and after summer 2020 in Japan. Trends were heterogeneous across sociodemographic groups (i.e., there were increases among racially minoritized individuals in the US, young adults and females across ages in Japan, older males in Brazil and Germany, and older adults across sex in China and Taiwan). Variations may be explained by differences in risk of COVID-19 contagion and death and in socioeconomic vulnerability. Monitoring geographical, temporal, and sociodemographic differences in suicide trends during the COVID-19 pandemic is critical to guide suicide prevention efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Male , Young Adult , Female , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , Suicide Prevention , India
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8557, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239361

ABSTRACT

Access to vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 virus was limited in poor countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, a low-cost mRNA vaccine, PTX-COVID19-B, was produced and evaluated in a Phase 1 trial. PTX-COVID19-B encodes Spike protein D614G variant without the proline-proline (986-987) mutation present in other COVID-19 vaccines. The aim of the study was to evaluate safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of PTX-COVID19-B vaccine in healthy seronegative adults 18-64 years old. The trial design was observer-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, and tested ascending doses of 16-µg, 40-µg, or 100-µg in a total of 60 subjects who received two intramuscular doses, 4 weeks apart. Participants were monitored for solicited and unsolicited adverse events after vaccination and were provided with a Diary Card and thermometer to report any reactogenicity during the trial. Blood samples were collected on baseline, days 8, 28, 42, 90, and 180 for serum analysis of total IgG anti-receptor binding domain (RBD)/Spike titers by ELISA, and neutralizing antibody titers by pseudovirus assay. Titers in BAU/mL were reported as geometric mean and 95% CI per cohort. After vaccination, few solicited adverse events were observed and were mild to moderate and self-resolved within 48 h. The most common solicited local and systemic adverse event was pain at the injection site, and headache, respectively. Seroconversion was observed in all vaccinated participants, who showed high antibody titers against RBD, Spike, and neutralizing activity against the Wuhan strain. Neutralizing antibody titers were also detected against Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants of concerns in a dose dependent manner. All tested doses of PTX-COVID19-B were safe, well-tolerated, and provided a strong immunogenicity response. The 40-µg dose showed fewer adverse reactions than the 100-µg dose, and therefore was selected for a Phase 2 trial, which is currently ongoing.Clinical Trial Registration number: NCT04765436 (21/02/2021). ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04765436 ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , mRNA Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral , Double-Blind Method
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(11)2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the demand for utilising telehealth as a major mode of healthcare delivery, with increasing interest in the use of tele-platforms for remote patient assessment. In this context, the use of smartphone technology to measure squat performance in people with and without femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome has not been reported yet. We developed a novel smartphone application, the TelePhysio app, which allows the clinician to remotely connect to the patient's device and measure their squat performance in real time using the smartphone inertial sensors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association and test-retest reliability of the TelePhysio app in measuring postural sway performance during a double-leg (DLS) and single-leg (SLS) squat task. In addition, the study investigated the ability of TelePhysio to detect differences in DLS and SLS performance between people with FAI and without hip pain. METHODS: A total of 30 healthy (nfemales = 12) young adults and 10 adults (nfemales = 2) with diagnosed FAI syndrome participated in the study. Healthy participants performed DLS and SLS on force plates in our laboratory, and remotely in their homes using the TelePhysio smartphone application. Sway measurements were compared using the centre of pressure (CoP) and smartphone inertial sensor data. A total of 10 participants with FAI (nfemales = 2) performed the squat assessments remotely. Four sway measurements in each axis (x, y, and z) were computed from the TelePhysio inertial sensors: (1) average acceleration magnitude from the mean (aam), (2) root-mean-square acceleration (rms), (3) range acceleration (r), and (4) approximate entropy (apen), with lower values indicating that the movement is more regular, repetitive, and predictable. Differences in TelePhysio squat sway data were compared between DLS and SLS, and between healthy and FAI adults, using analysis of variance with significance set at 0.05. RESULTS: The TelePhysio aam measurements on the x- and y-axes had significant large correlations with the CoP measurements (r = 0.56 and r = 0.71, respectively). The TelePhysio aam measurements demonstrated moderate to substantial between-session reliability values of 0.73 (95% CI 0.62-0.81), 0.85 (95% CI 0.79-0.91), and 0.73 (95% CI 0.62-0.82) for aamx, aamy, and aamz, respectively. The DLS of the FAI participants showed significantly lower aam and apen values in the medio-lateral direction compared to the healthy DLS, healthy SLS, and FAI SLS groups (aam = 0.13, 0.19, 0.29, and 0.29, respectively; and apen = 0.33, 0.45, 0.52, and 0.48, respectively). In the anterior-posterior direction, healthy DLS showed significantly greater aam values compared to the healthy SLS, FAI DLS, and FAI SLS groups (1.26, 0.61, 0.68, and 0.35, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The TelePhysio app is a valid and reliable method of measuring postural control during DLS and SLS tasks. The application is capable of distinguishing performance levels between DLS and SLS tasks, and between healthy and FAI young adults. The DLS task is sufficient to distinguish the level of performance between healthy and FAI adults. This study validates the use of smartphone technology as a tele-assessment clinical tool for remote squat assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Femoracetabular Impingement , Young Adult , Humans , Femoracetabular Impingement/diagnosis , Smartphone , Reproducibility of Results , Leg , Pandemics , Pain , Postural Balance
10.
Clin Nurs Res ; 32(6): 971-982, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238506

ABSTRACT

High rates of COVID-19 infection and lower vaccination rates among young adults aged 18 to 26 in the United States prompted this study to examine motivating factors and barriers to COVID-19 vaccination and identify preferences in COVID-19 vaccine education. Three focus group discussions were completed. Transcribed data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three key themes were identified including (1) motivating factors to vaccination, (2) barriers to vaccination, and (3) COVID-19 vaccination educational intervention design recommendations. Motivating factors included five relevant subthemes: civic duty, fear related to the disease process; fear related to emerging variants and breakthroughs; fear regarding the suffering of others; and freedom. Barriers included four subthemes: lack of trust, misinformation, politics, and pressure. Attempts to further educate young adults about the COVID-19 vaccine should consider strategies that target motivating factors and barriers while also making accurate information accessible through social media.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Young Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Educational Status , Fear , Vaccination
11.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286636, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the corresponding lockdown have drastically changed our lives and led to high psychological distress and mental health problems. This study examined whether psychological factors such as loneliness, perfectionism, and health anxiety are associated with COVID-19 related anxiety and depression during the pandemic in young Korean adults, after controlling for various socio-demographic factors and early life stress. METHODS: A total of 189 participants (58.2% women) completed a cross-sectional online survey including the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, 3-item Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and Whiteley Index-6. Hierarchical linear regression analyses with three blocks were employed to identify the factors that contributed to COVID-19 related anxiety and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Hierarchical regression analyses showed that higher health anxiety was significantly associated with more severe COVID-19 related anxiety (standardized regression coefficient, ß = 0.599, p < 0.001). Additionally, higher levels of loneliness (ß = 0.482, p < 0.001), perfectionism (ß = 0.124, p = 0.035), and health anxiety (ß = 0.228, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher depression scores. The three psychological factors explained 32.8% of the total variance in depressive symptom scores, after taking all covariates into account. CONCLUSION: The results showed that health anxiety was a risk factor for both COVID-19 related anxiety and depression in young adults. Loneliness was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings highlight the importance of identifying vulnerable individuals and encouraging psychological counselling and social connections to reduce the burden of psychiatric disorders during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
12.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 528-546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238115

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in 2020 in Poland and to compare with the situation in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of case-based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility in cases notified in 2020, data from Statistics Poland on deaths from tuberculosis in 2019, data from National Institute of Public Health NIH - National Research Institute (NIPH NIH - NRI) on HIV-positive subjects for whom TB was an AIDS-defining disease, data from the report "European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, WHO Regional Office for Europe. Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe 2022 - 2020 data. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe and Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; 2022." RESULTS: In 2020, 3,388 TB cases were reported in Poland. The incidence rate was 8.8 cases per 100,000 with large variability between voivodeships from 5.5 to 13.3 per 100,000. A decrease in the incidence was found in 15 voivodeships, the most significant in Slaskie voivodship (63.9%). The number of all pulmonary tuberculosis cases was 3,237 i.e. 8.4 per 100,000. Pulmonary cases represented 95.5% of all TB cases. In 2020, 151 extrapulmonary TB cases were notified (4.5% of all TB cases). Pulmonary tuberculosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 2,573 cases (79.5% of all pulmonary TB cases, the incidence rate 6.7 per 100,000). The number of smear-positive pulmonary TB cases was 1,771 i.e. 4.6 per 100,000 (54.7% of all pulmonary TB cases). In 2020, there were 38 cases (15 of foreign origin) with multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) representing 1.6% of cases with known drug sensitivity. The incidence rates of tuberculosis were growing along with increasing age from 0.7 per 100,000 among children (0-14 years) to 15.0 per 100,000 among subjects in the age group 45-64 years, the incidence rate in the age group ≥65 years was 12.1 per 100,000. There were 39 cases in children up to 14 years of age (1.2% of the total) and 49 cases in adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age - rates 0.7 and 2.7 per 100,000 respectively. In 2020, there were 2,506 cases of tuberculosis in men and 882 in women. The TB incidence in men - 13.5 per 100,000 was 3.0 times higher than among women - 4.5. The biggest difference in the TB incidence between the two sex groups occurred in persons aged 50-54 years - 26.8 vs. 4.1 and in age group 55 to 59 years - 28.7 vs. 4.8. In 2020, there were 116 patients of foreign origin among all cases of tuberculosis in Poland (3.4%). In 2019, TB was the cause of death for 456 people (mortality rate - 1.2 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: TB incidence in Poland in 2020 was 36.7% lower than in 2019. Such significant declines in the incidence have not been observed in the last two decades. As in previous years, there were differences in incidence rates between voivodeships with an unexpectedly sharp decrease in incidence in Silesia (Slaskie voivodeship). The percentage of tuberculosis cases with bacteriological confirmation exceeded 78%, more than in EU/EEA countries (67.3%). The percentage of MDR-TB cases was still lower than the average in EU/EEA countries (1.6% vs. 3.8%). The highest incidence rates were found in Poland in the older age groups (EU/EEAaged 25 to 44). The percentage of children up to 14 years of age among the total number of TB patients was 1.2%, less than the average in EU/EEA countries (3.8%). The incidence of tuberculosis in men was three times higher than in women in Poland, and six times higher in patients aged 50 to 59. The impact of migration on the TB pattern in Poland has not yet become significant in 2020. The percentage of foreigners among TB patients was 3.4% (33% in EU/EEA countries).


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Child , Male , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Aged , Young Adult , Adult , Child, Preschool , Poland/epidemiology , Urban Population , Age Distribution , Rural Population , Sex Distribution , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Incidence
13.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 33(6): 691-699, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237521

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is linked to poor clinical outcomes and high mortality in Coronavirus patients. The primary objective of this systematic review was to determine the prevalence, clinical features, glycemic parameters, and outcomes of newly diagnosed diabetes in individuals with COVID-19 in developing and developed countries. By searching PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and PakMediNet databases, an online literature search was conducted from March 2020 to November 2021. Guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) were used. There were 660 publications found, of which 27 were original studies involving 3241 COVID-19 patients were selected. In the COVID-19 patients with new-onset diabetes, mean age was 43.21±21.00 years. Fever, cough, polyuria, and polydipsia were the most frequently reported symptoms, followed by shortness of breath, arthralgia, and myalgia. The developed world reported (109/1119) new diabetes cases (9.74%), while the developing world reported (415/2122) (19.5%). COVID-19 new-onset diabetic mortality rate was 470/3241 (14.5%). Key Words: COVID-19, New onset diabetes mellitus, SARS-CoV-2, Prevalence, Clinical outcomes, Developing countries, Developed countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevalence , Developed Countries , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
14.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285903, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression is common in medical students and the Mexican state of Guerrero has the highest rates of depression in the country. Acapulco, the seat of the state medical school, is a tourist destination that experienced early high rates of COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic closed all schools in Mexico, obliging a shift from face-to-face to virtual education. In this new context, medical students faced challenges of online teaching including inadequate connectivity and access technologies. Prolonged isolation during the pandemic may have had additional mental health implications. AIM: Assess depression prevalence and its associated factors affecting medical students in Acapulco, Mexico during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of students of the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, in November 2020. After informed consent, students completed a self-administered questionnaire collating socio-demographic, academic and clinical variables, major life events and changes in mood. The Beck inventory provided an assessment of depression. Bivariate and multivariate analyses relied on the Mantel-Haenszel procedure to identify factors associated with depression. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 33.8% (435/1288) of student questionnaires showed evidence of depression in the two weeks prior to the study, with 39.9% (326/817) of young women affected. Factors associated with depression included female sex (OR 1.95; 95%CI 1.48-2.60), age 18-20 years (OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.05-1.77), perceived academic performance (OR 2.97; 95%CI 2.16-4.08), perceived economic hardship (OR 2.18; 95%CI 1.57-3.02), and a family history of depression (OR 1.85; 95%CI 10.35-2.54). Covid-19 specific factors included a life event during the pandemic (OR 1.99; 95%CI 1.54-2.59), connectivity problems during virtual classes and difficulties accessing teaching materials (OR 1.75; 95%CI 1.33-2.30). CONCLUSIONS: The high risk of depression in medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with perceived academic performance and technical barriers to distance learning, in addition to known individual and family factors. This evidence may be useful for the improvement of programs on prevention and control of depression in university students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Depression/epidemiology
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(10): 4801-4811, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of information on the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on young volunteers. Therefore, the aim of this survey was to examine the QoL and mental health of young volunteers of the Novi Sad Voluntary Service during the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional prospective study included 255 members of the Novi Sad Voluntary Service, Serbia. The survey instrument probed into the respondents' demographic characteristics and was followed by the anonymous WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire that measured their quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic and DASS-21 scale. All statistical analyses were carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, vers. 24.0. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 255 young volunteers (71.4% females, 28.6% males), 62.0% of whom were aged 18-25 years, and 52.2% were students. Lower Physical Capacity scores could be predicted by female gender (p < 0.01) and COVID-19 infection among friends (p < 0.05). Male gender (p < 0.05) and being employed (p < 0.05) predicted greater QoL in the Psychological domain. The only predictor of a lower QoL in the Social Relationships domain was the internet as the main COVID-19-related information source (p < 0.05). On the other hand, being female (p < 0.05) and having COVID-19-positive household members (p = 0.01) predicted lower environment domain scores. For the lower overall DASS-21 score, having COVID-19-positive household members was the only significant predictor (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Mental health support should pursue strategies to improve all domains of QoL, especially for vulnerable sub-groups of the population, such as young females and the unemployed. Bearing in mind the importance of public engagement and community support in pandemic circumstances, as well as generally in public health, these results are relevant for interventions far beyond the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Quality of Life/psychology , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Serbia/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(2): 2215677, 2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236782

ABSTRACT

Certain aspects of the immunogenicity and effectiveness of the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines (mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2) developed in response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic are still uncharacterized. Serum or plasma samples from healthy donor recipients of either vaccine (BNT162b2 n = 53, mRNA-1273 n = 49; age 23-67), and individuals naturally infected with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 106; age 18-82) were collected 0-2 months post-infection or 1- and 4 months after second dose of vaccination. Anti-Spike antibody levels and avidity were measured via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, vaccination induced higher circulating anti-Spike protein immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels and avidity compared to infection at similar time intervals. Both vaccines produced similar anti-Spike IgG concentrations at 1 month, while mRNA-1273 demonstrated significantly higher circulating antibody concentrations after 4 months. mRNA-1273 induced significantly higher avidity at month 1 compared to BNT162b2 across all age groups. However, the 23-34 age group was the only group to maintain statistical significance by 4 months. Male BNT162b2 recipients were approaching statistically significant lower anti-Spike IgG avidity compared to females by month 4. These findings demonstrate enhanced anti-Spike IgG levels and avidity following vaccination compared to natural infection. In addition, the mRNA-1273 vaccine induced higher antibody levels by 4 months compared to BNT162b2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Female , Male , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Adolescent , Aged, 80 and over , Infant , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , RNA, Messenger , Immunoglobulin G , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2209919, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235641

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 vaccination campaign, possible ChAdOx1-S-associated risks of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome led to implement ChAdOx1-S/BNT162b2 heterologous vaccination, despite the limited information on its reactogenicity and safety. We conducted a prospective observational post-marketing surveillance study to assess the safety of this heterologous schedule. A casually selected sample of recipients (n: 85; age: 18-60 years) of ChAdOx1-S/BNT162b2 at the vaccination hub of the Foggia Hospital, Italy, was matched with an equal sample of recipients of homologous BNT162b2. Safety was evaluated 7 days, 1 month and 14 weeks after the primary vaccination series using an adapted version of the "V-safe active surveillance for COVID-19 vaccine safety" CDC standardized questionnaire. After 7 days, local reactions were highly frequent (>80%) in both groups, and systemic reactions were less common (<70%). Moderate or severe pain at the injection site (OR = 3.62; 95%CI, 1.45-9.33), moderate/severe fatigue (OR = 3.40; 95%CI, 1.22-9.49), moderate/severe headache (OR = 4.72; 95%CI, 1.37-16.23), intake of antipyretics (OR = 3.05; 95 CI%, 1.35-6.88), inability to perform daily activities and work (OR = 2.64; 95%CI, 1.24-5.62) were significantly more common with heterologous than homologous vaccination. No significant difference in self-reported health status was recorded 1 month or 14 weeks after the second dose with BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1-S/BNT162b2. Our study confirms the safety of both heterologous and homologous vaccination, with a slight increase in some short-term adverse events for the heterologous regimen. Therefore, administering a second dose of a mRNA vaccine to the recipients of a previous dose of viral vector vaccine may have represented an advantageous strategy to improve flexibility and to accelerate the vaccination campaign.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects , Italy , Marketing
18.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0284374, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Online anti-social behaviour is on the rise, reducing the perceived benefits of social media in society and causing a number of negative outcomes. This research focuses on the factors associated with young adults being perpetrators of anti-social behaviour when using social media. METHOD: Based on an online survey of university students in Canada (n = 359), we used PLS-SEM to create a model and test the associations between four factors (online disinhibition, motivations for cyber-aggression, self-esteem, and empathy) and the likelihood of being a perpetrator of online anti-social behaviour. RESULTS: The model shows positive associations between two appetitive motives for cyber-aggression (namely recreation and reward) and being a perpetrator. This finding indicates that young adults engage in online anti-social behaviour for fun and social approval. The model also shows a negative association between cognitive empathy and being a perpetrator, which indicates that perpetrators may be engaging in online anti-social behaviour because they do not understand how their targets feel.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Humans , Young Adult , Aggression , Antisocial Personality Disorder , Canada , Emotions
19.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1026, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted on public health in several ways. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in lifestyle, adiposity, and cardiometabolic markers among young adults in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic and their determinants. METHODS: The study included 1 004 participants from the population-based birth cohort BAMSE. Anthropometrics, body composition (bioelectric impedance analyses), pulse, and blood pressure were measured before (December 2016-May 2019; mean age 22.6 years) and during (October 2020-June 2021; mean age 25.7 years) the COVID-19 pandemic. Lifestyle changes during the pandemic were assessed through a questionnaire. RESULTS: All measures of adiposity (weight, BMI, body fat percentage, trunk fat percentage) and cardiometabolic markers (blood pressure, pulse) increased during the study period (e.g., body fat percentage by a median of + 0.8% in females, p < 0.001, and + 1.5% in males, p < 0.001). Male sex, non-Scandinavian ethnicity, BMI status (underweight and obesity), and changes in lifestyle factors, e.g., decreased physical activity during the pandemic, were associated with higher increase in BMI and/or adiposity. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle factors, adiposity and cardiometabolic markers may have been adversely affected among young adults in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the preceding years. Targeted public health measures to reduce obesity and improve healthy lifestyle are important to prevent future non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Female , Male , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Adiposity , Pandemics , Sweden/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Obesity , Life Style , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(5)2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235032

ABSTRACT

(1) Introduction: Liver transplantation represents the gold-standard therapy in eligible patients with acute liver failure or end-stage liver disease. The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically affected the transplantation landscape by reducing patients' addressability to specialized healthcare facilities. Since evidence-based acceptance guidelines for non-lung solid organ transplantation from SARS-CoV-2 positive donors are lacking, and the risk of bloodstream-related transmission of the disease is debatable, liver transplantation from SARS-CoV-2 positive donors could be lifesaving, even if long-term interactions are unpredictable. The aim of this case report is to highlight the relevance of performing liver transplantation from SARS-CoV-2 positive donors to negative recipients by emphasizing the perioperative care and short-term outcome. (2) Case presentation: A 20-year-old female patient underwent orthotropic liver transplantation for Child-Pugh C liver cirrhosis secondary to overlap syndrome, from a SARS-CoV-2 positive brain death donor. The patient was not infected nor vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, and the titer of neutralizing antibodies against the spike protein was negative. The liver transplantation was performed with no significant complications. As immunosuppression therapy, the patient received 20 mg basiliximab (Novartis Farmacéutica S.A., Barcelona, Spain) and 500 mg methylprednisolone (Pfizer Manufacturing Belgium N.V, Puurs, Belgium) intraoperatively. Considering the risk of non-aerogene-related SARS-CoV-2 reactivation syndrome, the patient received remdesivir 200 mg (Gilead Sciences Ireland UC, Carrigtohill County Cork, Ireland) in the neo-hepatic stage, which was continued with 100 mg/day for 5 days. The postoperative immunosuppression therapy consisted of tacrolimus (Astellas Ireland Co., Ltd., Killorglin, County Kerry, Ireland) and mycophenolate mofetil (Roche România S.R.L, Bucharest, Romania) according to the local protocol. Despite the persistent negative PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 in the upper airway tract, the blood titer of neutralizing antibodies turned out positive on postoperative day 7. The patient had a favorable outcome, and she was discharged from the ICU facility seven days later. (3) Conclusions: We illustrated a case of liver transplantation of a SARS-CoV-2 negative recipient, whose donor was SARS-CoV-2 positive, performed in a tertiary, university-affiliated national center of liver surgery, with a good outcome, in order to raise the medical community awareness on the acceptance limits in the case of COVID-19 incompatibility for non-lung solid organs transplantation procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Uncertainty
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