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1.
Bioanalysis ; 12(13): 919-935, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656243

ABSTRACT

Aim: Evaluation of a novel microsampling device for its use in clinical sample collection and biomarker analysis. Methodology: Matching samples were collected from 16 healthy donors (ten females, six males; age 42 ± 20) via K2EDTA touch activated phlebotomy (TAP) device and phlebotomy. The protein profile differences between sampling groups was evaluated using aptamer-based proteomic assay SomaScan and selected ELISA. Conclusion: Somascan signal concordance between phlebotomy- and TAP-generated samples was studied and comparability of protein abundances between these blood sample collection methods was demonstrated. Statistically significant correlation in selected ELISA assays also confirmed the TAP device applicability to the quantitative analysis of protein biomarkers in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/analysis , Phlebotomy/instrumentation , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hemolysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Proteomics/instrumentation , Young Adult
2.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(3): 453-455, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654519

ABSTRACT

Young adults with chronic and complex diseases face systemic barriers, care fragmentation, and increased vulnerabilities. Novel coronavirus pandemic has proven to further complicate care coordination for young adult patients with medical and psychosocial complexities. The BRIDGES Young Adult Program at Boston Children's Hospital has 6 years of experience advocating for and empowering young adults with chronic medical conditions, and their families, through outpatient consults aimed to assist with subspecialty guidance and defragmentation of care during the time of transition from pediatric to adult care. Recently, the BRIDGES consult team developed a pandemic-responsive approach to facilitate individual emergency planning and empowerment of self-management for these high-risk patients. Through the use of a virtual platform, consults were conducted with a multidisciplinary team to support patients and families with system navigation, advance care planning, emergency preparedness, chronic care management, and coping during this time of crisis. BRIDGES aimed to equip patients and families with knowledge and resources, within a rapidly changing environment, to allow for optimal self-care and self-advocacy.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Participation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Transitional Care/organization & administration , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Patient Navigation , Self Care/psychology , Young Adult
3.
Euro Surveill ; 25(28)2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647502

ABSTRACT

Serological reactivity was analysed in plasma from 436 individuals with a history of disease compatible with COVID-19, including 256 who had been laboratory-confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Over 99% of laboratory-confirmed cases developed a measurable antibody response (254/256) and 88% harboured neutralising antibodies (226/256). Antibody levels declined over 3 months following diagnosis, emphasising the importance of the timing of convalescent plasma collections. Binding antibody measurements can inform selection of convalescent plasma donors with high neutralising antibody levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibody Specificity , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , England , Humans , Immunization, Passive/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Young Adult
4.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(9)2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622362

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led many clinics to move from clinician-collected to self-collected oropharyngeal swabs for the detection of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Before this change, however, self-collection was used primarily for genital and anorectal infections, with only limited studies on the performance of self-collection of oropharyngeal swabs for oropharyngeal STI detection. The Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) changed from clinician-collected to self-collected oropharyngeal swabs for oropharyngeal gonorrhea and chlamydia screening on 16 March 2020 in order to reduce health care worker risk during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared the proportions of valid and positive samples for gonorrhea and chlamydia among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two time periods; the clinician collection period, between 20 January and 15 March 2020, and the self-collection period, between 16 March and 8 May 2020. A total of 4,097 oropharyngeal swabs were included. The proportion of oropharyngeal swabs with equivocal or invalid results for Neisseria gonorrhoeae was higher in the self-collection period (1.6% [24/1,497]) than in the clinician collection period (0.9% [23/2,600]) (P = 0.038), but the proportions did not differ for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis The positivity rates of oropharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR], 1.07 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.85 to 1.34]) (P = 0.583) and oropharyngeal C. trachomatis (adjusted PR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.51 to 1.39]) (P = 0.504) specimens did not differ between the two periods. Self-collected oropharyngeal swabs for the detection of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis have acceptable performance characteristics and, importantly, reduce health care worker exposure to respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Pharyngeal Diseases/diagnosis , Specimen Handling , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Oropharynx/microbiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Self Care , Specimen Handling/methods , Specimen Handling/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(9)2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636249

ABSTRACT

The clinical performances of six molecular diagnostic tests and a rapid antigen test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were clinically evaluated for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in self-collected saliva. Saliva samples from 103 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (15 asymptomatic and 88 symptomatic) were collected on the day of hospital admission. SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva was detected using a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) laboratory-developed test (LDT), a cobas SARS-CoV-2 high-throughput system, three direct RT-qPCR kits, and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). The viral antigen was detected by a rapid antigen immunochromatographic assay. Of the 103 samples, viral RNA was detected in 50.5 to 81.6% of the specimens by molecular diagnostic tests, and an antigen was detected in 11.7% of the specimens by the rapid antigen test. Viral RNA was detected at significantly higher percentages (65.6 to 93.4%) in specimens collected within 9 days of symptom onset than in specimens collected after at least 10 days of symptoms (22.2 to 66.7%) and in specimens collected from asymptomatic patients (40.0 to 66.7%). Self-collected saliva is an alternative specimen option for diagnosing COVID-19. The RT-qPCR LDT, a cobas SARS-CoV-2 high-throughput system, direct RT-qPCR kits (except for one commercial kit), and RT-LAMP showed sufficient sensitivities in clinical use to be selectively used in clinical settings and facilities. The rapid antigen test alone is not recommended for an initial COVID-19 diagnosis because of its low sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Saliva/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoassay/standards , Immunoassay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/standards , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling , Young Adult
6.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020047, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646722

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate time-variant reproductive number (Rt) of coronavirus disease 19 based on either number of daily confirmed cases or their onset date to monitor effectiveness of quarantine policies. METHODS: Using number of daily confirmed cases from January 23, 2020 to March 22, 2020 and their symptom onset date from the official website of the Seoul Metropolitan Government and the district office, we calculated Rt using program R's package "EpiEstim". For asymptomatic cases, their symptom onset date was considered as -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2 days of confirmed date. RESULTS: Based on the information of 313 confirmed cases, the epidemic curve was shaped like 'propagated epidemic curve'. The daily Rt based on Rt_c peaked to 2.6 on February 20, 2020, then showed decreased trend and became <1.0 from March 3, 2020. Comparing both Rt from Rt_c and from the number of daily onset cases, we found that the pattern of changes was similar, although the variation of Rt was greater when using Rt_c. When we changed assumed onset date for asymptotic cases (-2 days to +2 days of the confirmed date), the results were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Rt can be estimated based on Rt_c which is available from daily report of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Estimation of Rt would be useful to continuously monitor the effectiveness of the quarantine policy at the city and province levels.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Policy , Quarantine , Seoul/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
7.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 9(3): 453-454, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633806

ABSTRACT

After the video tutorials created a few months ago and published in the Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology, Milan's Youth Project young cancer patients decided to record another video: a "special issue" dedicated to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The video addresses critical issues of the social isolation imposed by the lockdown and the fear the patients face in addition to their actual worries related to the disease. When many people across the world are forced to social distance for the imposed lockdown, the positive attitude and the advice of young cancer patients who experience social isolation regularly may be of great support and a fine example.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Young Adult
8.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 159, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the feasibility of using multiple technologies to recruit and conduct cognitive interviews among young people across the United States to test items measuring sexual and reproductive empowerment. We sought to understand whether these methods could achieve a diverse sample of participants. With more researchers turning to approaches that maintain social distancing in the context of COVID-19, it has become more pressing to refine these remote research methods. METHODS: We used several online sites to recruit for and conduct cognitive testing of survey items. To recruit potential participants we advertised the study on the free online bulletin board, Craigslist, and the free online social network, Reddit. Interested participants completed an online Qualtrics screening form. To maximize diversity, we purposefully selected individuals to invite for participation. We used the video meeting platform, Zoom, to conduct the cognitive interviews. The interviewer opened a document with the items to be tested, shared the screen with the participant, and gave them control of the mouse and keyboard. After the participant self-administered the survey, the interviewer asked about interpretation and comprehension. After completion of the interviews we sent participants a follow-up survey about their impressions of the research methods and technologies used. We describe the processes, the advantages and disadvantages, and offer recommendations for researchers. RESULTS: We recruited and interviewed 30 young people from a range of regions, gender identities, sexual orientations, ages, education, and experiences with sexual activity. These methods allowed us to recruit a purposefully selected diverse sample in terms of race/ethnicity and region. It also may have offered potential participants a feeling of safety and anonymity leading to greater participation from gay, lesbian, and transgender people who would not have agreed to participate in-person. Conducting the interviews using video chat may also have facilitated the inclusion of individuals who would not volunteer for in-person meetings. Disadvantages of video interviewing included participant challenges to finding a private space for the interview and problems with electronic devices. CONCLUSIONS: Online technologies can be used to achieve a diverse sample of research participants, contributing to research findings that better respond to young people's unique identities and situations.


Subject(s)
Cognition/physiology , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Interviews as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Psychometrics/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Health Surveys/methods , Humans , Internet , Interviews as Topic/methods , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Percept Mot Skills ; 127(5): 960-979, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626367

ABSTRACT

As the Covid 19 crisis has revealed, the internet is a first-line tool for learning critical health-related information. However, internet searches are a complex and dynamic process that can be fraught with subtleties and potential error. The mechanics of searching for and using electronic health (eHealth) information is ostensibly cognitively demanding; yet we know little about the role of neurocognitive abilities in this regard. Fifty-six young adults completed two naturalistic eHealth search tasks: fact-finding (eHealth Fact) and symptom-diagnosis (eHealth Search). Participants also completed neurocognitive tests of attention, psychomotor speed, learning/memory, and executive functions. Shorter eHealth symptom-diagnosis search time was related to better executive functions, while better eHealth symptom-diagnosis search accuracy was related to better episodic and prospective memory. In contrast, neither eHealth Fact search time nor its accuracy were related to any of the neurocognitive measures. Our findings suggest a differential relationship between neurocognitive abilities and eHealth search behaviors among young adults such that higher-order abilities may be implicated in eHealth searches requiring greater synthesis of information. Future work should examine the cognitive architecture of eHealth search in persons with neurocognitive disorders, as well as that of other aspects of eHealth search behaviors (e.g., search term generation, website reliability, and decision-making).


Subject(s)
Aptitude , Attention , Cognition , Consumer Health Information , Executive Function , Information Seeking Behavior , Internet , Memory , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Decision Making , Female , Health Behavior , Health Literacy , Humans , Learning , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychomotor Performance , Telemedicine , Young Adult
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 206, 2020 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) global pandemic has resulted in unprecedented public health measures. This has impacted the UK education sector with many universities halting campus-based teaching and examinations. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of COVID-19 on final year medical students' examinations and placements in the United Kingdom (UK) and how it might impact their confidence and preparedness going into their first year of foundation training. METHODS: A 10-item online survey was distributed to final year medical students across 33 UK medical schools. The survey was designed by combining dichotomous, multiple choice and likert response scale questions. Participants were asked about the effect that the COVID-19 global pandemic had on final year medical written exams, electives, assistantships and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). The survey also explored the student's confidence and preparedness going into their first year of training under these new unprecedented circumstances. RESULTS: Four hundred forty students from 32 UK medical schools responded. 38.4% (n = 169) of respondents had their final OSCEs cancelled while 43.0% (n = 189) had already completed their final OSCEs before restrictions. 43.0% (n = 189) of assistantship placements were postponed while 77.3% (n = 340) had electives cancelled. The impact of COVID-19 on OSCEs, written examinations and student assistantships significantly affected students' preparedness (respectively p = 0.025, 0.008, 0.0005). In contrast, when measuring confidence, only changes to student assistantships had a significant effect (p = 0.0005). The majority of students feel that measures taken during this pandemic to amend their curricula was necessary. Respondents also agree that assisting in hospitals during the outbreak would be a valuable learning opportunity. CONCLUSIONS: The impact on medical student education has been significant, particularly affecting the transition from student to doctor. This study showed the disruptions to student assistantships had the biggest effect on students' confidence and preparedness. For those willing to assist in hospitals to join the front-line workforce, it is crucial to maintain their wellbeing with safeguards such as proper inductions, support and supervision.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Attitude of Health Personnel , Clinical Competence , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom , Young Adult
11.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(8): e19857, 2020 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is the greatest public health crisis of the last 100 years. Countries have responded with various levels of lockdown to save lives and stop health systems from being overwhelmed. At the same time, lockdowns entail large socioeconomic costs. One exit strategy under consideration is a mobile phone app that traces the close contacts of those infected with COVID-19. Recent research has demonstrated the theoretical effectiveness of this solution in different disease settings. However, concerns have been raised about such apps because of the potential privacy implications. This could limit the acceptability of app-based contact tracing in the general population. As the effectiveness of this approach increases strongly with app uptake, it is crucial to understand public support for this intervention. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the user acceptability of a contact-tracing app in five countries hit by the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a largescale, multicountry study (N=5995) to measure public support for the digital contact tracing of COVID-19 infections. We ran anonymous online surveys in France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We measured intentions to use a contact-tracing app across different installation regimes (voluntary installation vs automatic installation by mobile phone providers) and studied how these intentions vary across individuals and countries. RESULTS: We found strong support for the app under both regimes, in all countries, across all subgroups of the population, and irrespective of regional-level COVID-19 mortality rates. We investigated the main factors that may hinder or facilitate uptake and found that concerns about cybersecurity and privacy, together with a lack of trust in the government, are the main barriers to adoption. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological evidence shows that app-based contact tracing can suppress the spread of COVID-19 if a high enough proportion of the population uses the app and that it can still reduce the number of infections if uptake is moderate. Our findings show that the willingness to install the app is very high. The available evidence suggests that app-based contact tracing may be a viable approach to control the diffusion of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Intention , Mobile Applications , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Female , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 130(7-8): 615-621, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761203

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) is an infectious disease caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to present an epidemiological analysis of the first 2 months (March and April 2020) of the COVID­19 epidemic in Poland. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This analysis was based on data from epidemiological reports collected between March 4 and April 30, 2020, by the Chief Sanitary Inspectorate. These epidemiological reports include data on sociodemographic characteristics of new laboratory­confirmed COVID 19 cases, the number of COVID­19-related deaths, the number of recovered COVID-19 patients as well as the number of laboratory tests performed. RESULTS: From March 4 to April 30, 2020, a total of 12 877 laboratory­confirmed COVID 19 cases were registered in Poland (55.7% women; mean [SD] age, 50.6 [20.5] years). The RT­ PCR test was performed in 338 000 patients. The notification rate for COVID­19 was 33.2 per 100 000 inhabitants. One third of laboratory­confirmed COVID 19 cases were among quarantined persons, 26.1% were related to the healthcare system (hospital or clinic), and 13.3% occurred in nursing homes. As of April 30, 2020, 644 COVID­19-related deaths were registered in Poland (46.5% women). The death rate for the whole country was 1.7 per 100 000 inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed higher notification rate for COVID­19 among women than men, but men were more likely to die from COVID­19. The notification rate for COVID-19 in Poland among women aged 45 to 54 years was 2­fold higher than among men.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
14.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 130(7-8): 629-634, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761202

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Currently, there are known contributing factors but no comprehensive methods for predicting the mortality risk or intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore risk factors for mortality and ICU admission in patients with COVID­19, using computed tomography (CT) combined with clinical laboratory data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID­19 (n = 63) from university hospitals in Tehran, Iran, were included. All patients underwent CT examination. Subsequently, a total CT score and the number of involved lung lobes were calculated and compared against collected laboratory and clinical characteristics. Univariable and multivariable proportional hazard analyses were used to determine the association among CT, laboratory and clinical data, ICU admission, and in­hospital death. RESULTS: By univariable analysis, in­hospital mortality was higher in patients with lower oxygen saturation on admission (below 88%), higher CT scores, and a higher number of lung lobes (more than 4) involved with a diffuse parenchymal pattern. By multivariable analysis, in­hospital mortality was higher in those with oxygen saturation below 88% on admission and a higher number of lung lobes involved with a diffuse parenchymal pattern. The risk of ICU admission was higher in patients with comorbidities (hypertension and ischemic heart disease), arterial oxygen saturation below 88%, and pericardial effusion. CONCLUSIONS: We can identify factors affecting in­hospital death and ICU admission in COVID-19. This can help clinicians to determine which patients are likely to require ICU admission and to inform strategic healthcare planning in critical conditions such as the COVID­19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
15.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(9)2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751568

ABSTRACT

The clinical performances of six molecular diagnostic tests and a rapid antigen test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were clinically evaluated for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in self-collected saliva. Saliva samples from 103 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (15 asymptomatic and 88 symptomatic) were collected on the day of hospital admission. SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva was detected using a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) laboratory-developed test (LDT), a cobas SARS-CoV-2 high-throughput system, three direct RT-qPCR kits, and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). The viral antigen was detected by a rapid antigen immunochromatographic assay. Of the 103 samples, viral RNA was detected in 50.5 to 81.6% of the specimens by molecular diagnostic tests, and an antigen was detected in 11.7% of the specimens by the rapid antigen test. Viral RNA was detected at significantly higher percentages (65.6 to 93.4%) in specimens collected within 9 days of symptom onset than in specimens collected after at least 10 days of symptoms (22.2 to 66.7%) and in specimens collected from asymptomatic patients (40.0 to 66.7%). Self-collected saliva is an alternative specimen option for diagnosing COVID-19. The RT-qPCR LDT, a cobas SARS-CoV-2 high-throughput system, direct RT-qPCR kits (except for one commercial kit), and RT-LAMP showed sufficient sensitivities in clinical use to be selectively used in clinical settings and facilities. The rapid antigen test alone is not recommended for an initial COVID-19 diagnosis because of its low sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Saliva/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoassay/standards , Immunoassay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/standards , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling , Young Adult
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1384, 2020 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, many have flagged racial and ethnic differences in health outcomes in western countries as an urgent global public health priority. Kuwait has a unique demographic profile with two-thirds of the population consisting of non-nationals, most of which are migrant workers. We aimed to explore whether there is a significant difference in health outcomes between non-Kuwaiti and Kuwaiti patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: We used a prospective COVID-19 registry of all patients (symptomatic and asymptomatic) in Kuwait who tested positive from February 24th to April 20th, 2020, collected from Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah Hospital, the officially-designated COVID-19 healthcare facility in the country. We ran separate logistic regression models comparing non-Kuwaitis to Kuwaitis for death, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pneumonia. RESULTS: The first 1123 COVID-19 positive patients in Kuwait were all recruited in the study. About 26% were Kuwaitis and 73% were non-Kuwaiti. With adjustments made to age, gender, smoking and selected co-morbidities, non-Kuwaitis had two-fold increase in the odds of death or being admitted to the intensive care unit compared to Kuwaitis (OR: 2.14, 95% CI 1.12-4.32). Non-Kuwaitis had also higher odds of ARDS (OR:2.44, 95% CI 1.23-5.09) and pneumonia (OR: 2.24, 95% CI 1.27-4.12). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report on COVID-19 outcomes between Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti patients. The current pandemic may have amplified the differences of health outcomes among marginalized subpopulations. A number of socioeconomic and environmental factors could explain this health disparity. More research is needed to advance the understanding of policymakers in Kuwait in order to make urgent public health interventions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Kuwait/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Registries , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3360, 2020 Sep 07.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors associated with the use and reuse of masks among Brazilian individuals in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted in the five Brazilian regions, among adult individuals, via an electronic form disseminated in social media, addressing general information and the use of masks. Bivariate analysis and binary logistic regression were used to identify the factors associated with the use and reuse of masks. RESULTS: 3,981 (100%) individuals participated in the study. In total, 95.5% (CI 95%: 94.8-96.1) reported using masks. Fabric masks were more frequently reported (72.7%; CI 95%: 71.3-74.1), followed by surgical masks (27.8%; CI 95%: 26.5-29.2). The percentage of reuse was 71.1% (CI 95%: 69.7-72.5). Most (55.8%; CI 95%: 51.7-60.0) of those exclusively wearing surgical masks reported its reuse. Being a woman and having had contact with individuals presenting respiratory symptoms increased the likelihood of wearing masks (p≤0.001). Additionally, being a woman decreased the likelihood of reusing surgical masks (p≤0.001). CONCLUSION: virtually all the participants reported the use of masks, most frequently fabric masks. The findings draw attention to a risky practice, that of reusing surgical and paper masks. Therefore, guidelines, public policies, and educational strategies are needed to promote the correct use of masks to control and prevent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Equipment Reuse , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e20572, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To track and reduce the spread of COVID-19, apps have been developed to identify contact with individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 and warn those who are at risk of having contracted the virus. However, the effectiveness of these apps depends highly on their uptake by the general population. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated factors influencing app use intention, based on the health belief model. In addition, associations with respondents' level of news consumption and their health condition were investigated. METHODS: A survey was administered in Flanders, Belgium, to 1500 respondents, aged 18 to 64 years. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate relationships across the model's constructs. RESULTS: In total, 48.70% (n=730) of respondents indicated that they intend to use a COVID-19 tracing app. The most important predictor was the perceived benefits of the app, followed by self-efficacy and perceived barriers. Perceived severity and perceived susceptibility were not related to app uptake intention. Moreover, cues to action (ie, individuals' exposure to [digital] media content) were positively associated with app use intention. As the respondents' age increased, their perceived benefits and self-efficacy for app usage decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Initiatives to stimulate the uptake of contact tracing apps should enhance perceived benefits and self-efficacy. A perceived barrier for some potential users is privacy concerns. Therefore, when developing and launching an app, clarification on how individuals' privacy will be protected is needed. To sustain perceived benefits in the long run, supplementary options could be integrated to inform and assist users.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Smartphone , Adolescent , Adult , Belgium , Betacoronavirus , Contact Tracing , Humans , Middle Aged , Privacy , Young Adult
19.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(3): 870-875, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, several acral chilblain-like lesions were observed in young patients with suspected, but mostly unconfirmed, infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The histopathologic aspect of these lesions is as yet poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathologic features of chilblain-like lesions. METHODS: Biopsies were obtained from 17 cases of chilblain-like lesions during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in France and were studied by routine histologic examination, immunohistochemistry, and direct immunofluorescence. The patients had suspected but unconfirmed infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (negative nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction and serologic test results). RESULTS: Chilblain-like lesions showed many features in common with those reported in idiopathic and autoimmune-related chilblains, including epidermal necrotic keratinocytes, dermal edema, perivascular and perieccrine sweat gland lymphocytic (predominantly CD3/CD4+) inflammation, and frequent vascular changes (endothelialitis, microthromboses, fibrin deposition, and immunoreactant deposits on vessels). CONCLUSIONS: Chilblain-like lesions show histopathologic features similar to those of idiopathic and autoimmune-related chilblains, with a high rate of vascular changes and direct immunofluorescence positivity. The role of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the development of these puzzling lesions remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Chilblains/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biopsy , Chilblains/immunology , Chilblains/pathology , Chilblains/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , France , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Skin/immunology , Skin/virology , Skin Diseases/immunology , Skin Diseases/pathology , Skin Diseases/virology , Toes , Young Adult
20.
Trials ; 21(1): 766, 2020 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the potential efficacy of Acacia Senegal extract Gum Arabic (GA) supplementation as immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory dietary intervention among newly diagnosed COVID 19 Sudanese patients. To study the effect of GA on the level of cytokines, TNFα, IL8, IL6 IL10, CRP and the viral load. Secondary outcomes will be the effect of GA oral intake on mortality rate and days of hospital admission. TRIAL DESIGN: Quadruple blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial Phase II & III. Prospective, two-arm, parallel-group, randomised (1:1 allocation ratio) superiority trial of oral GA among seropositive COVID-19 patients. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria: COVID-19 infected (newly diagnosed) as proved by real-time PCR within 72 hours of PCR. Age 8-90 years Both genders Exclusion criteria: Intubated patients on parenteral treatment Allergy to Gum Arabic The study will be conducted in COVID Isolation Centres and Soba University Hospital Khartoum State Sudan. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Experimental: Intervention Group This arm will receive 100% natural Gum Arabic provided in a powder form in 30-grams-dose once daily for four weeks Placebo Comparator: Control group: This group will be provided with pectin powder provided as one-gram-dose once daily for four weeks Both GA and placebo will be in addition to standard care treatment based on local clinical guidelines. MAIN OUTCOMES: Mean change from baseline score of Immune Response to end of the trial. Changes of the level of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNFα), interleukin IL8, IL6, and IL10 from the baseline values (Four weeks from the start of randomization). Mortality rate: The percentage of deaths among COVID 19 patients received Gum Arabic compared to placebo (Four weeks from the start of randomization]). RANDOMISATION: Randomization (1:1 allocation ratio) and will be conducted using a sequence of computer-generated random numbers by an independent individual. Each participating centre will be assigned a special code generated by the computer. The randomization will be kept by the PI and a research assistant. BLINDING (MASKING): Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor) NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 110 eligible patients will be randomly assigned to either GA (n=55) or placebo (n=55) groups. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version no 2, 30th June 2020. Recruitment will start on 15th September 2020. The intended completion date is 15th January 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04381871 . Date of trial registration: 11 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Gum Arabic/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Child , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gum Arabic/adverse effects , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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