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1.
Public Health Rep ; 136(3): 327-337, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223668

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Few US studies have examined the usefulness of participatory surveillance during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for enhancing local health response efforts, particularly in rural settings. We report on the development and implementation of an internet-based COVID-19 participatory surveillance tool in rural Appalachia. METHODS: A regional collaboration among public health partners culminated in the design and implementation of the COVID-19 Self-Checker, a local online symptom tracker. The tool collected data on participant demographic characteristics and health history. County residents were then invited to take part in an automated daily electronic follow-up to monitor symptom progression, assess barriers to care and testing, and collect data on COVID-19 test results and symptom resolution. RESULTS: Nearly 6500 county residents visited and 1755 residents completed the COVID-19 Self-Checker from April 30 through June 9, 2020. Of the 579 residents who reported severe or mild COVID-19 symptoms, COVID-19 symptoms were primarily reported among women (n = 408, 70.5%), adults with preexisting health conditions (n = 246, 70.5%), adults aged 18-44 (n = 301, 52.0%), and users who reported not having a health care provider (n = 131, 22.6%). Initial findings showed underrepresentation of some racial/ethnic and non-English-speaking groups. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This low-cost internet-based platform provided a flexible means to collect participatory surveillance data on local changes in COVID-19 symptoms and adapt to guidance. Data from this tool can be used to monitor the efficacy of public health response measures at the local level in rural Appalachia.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Data Collection/methods , Internet-Based Intervention , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Self Report , Symptom Assessment , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Appalachian Region/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Participation , Young Adult
2.
JAMA ; 325(15): 1535-1544, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222577

ABSTRACT

Importance: Control of the global COVID-19 pandemic will require the development and deployment of safe and effective vaccines. Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) in humans, including the kinetics, magnitude, and phenotype of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Design, Setting, and Participants: Twenty-five participants were enrolled from July 29, 2020, to August 7, 2020, and the follow-up for this day 71 interim analysis was completed on October 3, 2020; follow-up to assess durability will continue for 2 years. This study was conducted at a single clinical site in Boston, Massachusetts, as part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 clinical trial of Ad26.COV2.S. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 1 or 2 intramuscular injections with 5 × 1010 viral particles or 1 × 1011 viral particles of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine or placebo administered on day 1 and day 57 (5 participants in each group). Main Outcomes and Measures: Humoral immune responses included binding and neutralizing antibody responses at multiple time points following immunization. Cellular immune responses included immunospot-based and intracellular cytokine staining assays to measure T-cell responses. Results: Twenty-five participants were randomized (median age, 42; age range, 22-52; 52% women, 44% male, 4% undifferentiated), and all completed the trial through the day 71 interim end point. Binding and neutralizing antibodies emerged rapidly by day 8 after initial immunization in 90% and 25% of vaccine recipients, respectively. By day 57, binding and neutralizing antibodies were detected in 100% of vaccine recipients after a single immunization. On day 71, the geometric mean titers of spike-specific binding antibodies were 2432 to 5729 and the geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies were 242 to 449 in the vaccinated groups. A variety of antibody subclasses, Fc receptor binding properties, and antiviral functions were induced. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were induced. Conclusion and Relevance: In this phase 1 study, a single immunization with Ad26.COV2.S induced rapid binding and neutralization antibody responses as well as cellular immune responses. Two phase 3 clinical trials are currently underway to determine the efficacy of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04436276.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , /prevention & control , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , /administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccine Potency , Young Adult
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e27503, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A decrease in the level of pulse oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) is an indicator of hypoxemia that may occur in various respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sleep apnea syndrome, and COVID-19. Currently, no mass-market wrist-worn SpO2 monitor meets the medical standards for pulse oximeters. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this monocentric and prospective clinical study with single-blind analysis was to test and validate the accuracy of the reflective pulse oximeter function of the Withings ScanWatch to measure SpO2 levels at different stages of hypoxia. The secondary objective was to confirm the safety of this device when used as intended. METHODS: To achieve these objectives, we included 14 healthy participants aged 23-39 years in the study, and we induced several stable plateaus of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) ranging from 100%-70% to mimic nonhypoxic conditions and then mild, moderate, and severe hypoxic conditions. We measured the SpO2 level with a Withings ScanWatch on each participant's wrist and the SaO2 from blood samples with a co-oximeter, the ABL90 hemoximeter (Radiometer Medical ApS). RESULTS: After removal of the inconclusive measurements, we obtained 275 and 244 conclusive measurements with the two ScanWatches on the participants' right and left wrists, respectively, evenly distributed among the 3 predetermined SpO2 groups: SpO2≤80%, 80%

Subject(s)
/blood , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/complications , Oximetry/standards , Wrist , Adult , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/complications , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic , Oximetry/adverse effects , Oxygen/blood , Prospective Studies , Single-Blind Method , Young Adult
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e27433, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Egypt started in 2000 at 8 sentinel sites geographically distributed all over the country. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 was added to the panel of viral testing by polymerase chain reaction for the first 2 patients with ILI seen at one of the sentinel sites. We report the first SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1) virus co-infection with mild symptoms detected through routine ILI surveillance in Egypt. OBJECTIVE: This report aims to describe how the case was identified and the demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of the patient. METHODS: The case was identified by Central Public Health Laboratory staff, who contacted the ILI sentinel surveillance officer at the Ministry of Health. The case patient was contacted through a telephone call. Detailed information about the patient's clinical picture, course of disease, and outcome was obtained. The contacts of the patient were investigated for acute respiratory symptoms, disease confirmation, and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 510 specimens collected from patients with ILI symptoms from October 2019 to August 2020, 61 (12.0%) were COVID-19-positive and 29 (5.7%) tested positive for influenza, including 15 (51.7%) A(H1N1), 11 (38.0%) A(H3N2), and 3 (10.3%) influenza B specimens. A 21-year-old woman was confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1) virus coinfection. She had a high fever of 40.2 °C and mild respiratory symptoms that resolved within 2 days with symptomatic treatment. All five of her family contacts had mild respiratory symptoms 2-3 days after exposure to the confirmed case, and their symptoms resolved without treatment or investigation. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the possible occurrence of SARS-CoV-2/influenza A(H1N1) coinfection in younger and healthy people, who may resolve the infection rapidly. We emphasize the usefulness of the surveillance system for detection of viral causative agents of ILI and recommend broadening of the testing panel, especially if it can guide case management.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Coinfection , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Sentinel Surveillance , /epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(5): e27412, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218859

ABSTRACT

This article briefly describes Egypt's acute respiratory infection (ARI) epidemic preparedness and containment plan and illustrates the impact of implementation of the plan on combating the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic in Egypt. Pillars of the plan include crisis management, enhancing surveillance systems and contact tracing, case and hospital management, raising community awareness, and quarantine and entry points. To identify the impact of the implementation of the plan on epidemic mitigation, a literature review was performed of studies published from Egypt in the early stage of the pandemic. In addition, data for patients with COVID-19 from February to July 2020 were obtained from the National Egyptian Surveillance system and studied to describe the situation in the early stage of the epidemic in Egypt. The lessons learned indicated that the single most important key to success in early-stage epidemic containment is the commitment of all partners to a predeveloped and agreed-upon preparedness plan. This information could be useful for other countries in the region and worldwide in mitigating future anticipated ARI epidemics and pandemics. Postepidemic evaluation is needed to better assess Egypt's national response to the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health Surveillance , Quarantine , Young Adult
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(18): 685-688, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218746

ABSTRACT

On April 7, 2021, after 5 weeks' use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), CDC received reports of clusters of anxiety-related events after administration of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine from five mass vaccination sites, all in different states. To further investigate these cases, CDC interviewed vaccination site staff members to gather additional information about the reported events and vaccination site practices. Four of the five sites temporarily closed while an investigation took place. Overall, 64 anxiety-related events, including 17 reports of syncope (fainting), an anxiety-related event, among 8,624 Janssen COVID-19 vaccine recipients, were reported from these sites for vaccines administered during April 7-9. As a follow-up to these interviews, CDC analyzed reports of syncope shortly after receipt of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), the vaccine safety monitoring program managed by CDC and FDA. To compare the occurrence of these events with those reported after receipt of other vaccines, reports of syncopal events after influenza vaccine administered in the 2019-20 influenza season were also reviewed. Syncope after Janssen COVID-19 vaccination was reported to VAERS (8.2 episodes per 100,000 doses). By comparison, after influenza vaccination, the reporting rate of syncope was 0.05 episodes per 100,000 doses. Anxiety-related events can occur after any vaccination. It is important that vaccination providers are aware that anxiety-related adverse events might be reported more frequently after receipt of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine than after influenza vaccination and observe all COVID-19 vaccine recipients for any adverse reactions for at least 15 minutes after vaccine administration.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Syncope/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(18): 680-684, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218745

ABSTRACT

On February 27, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Janssen (Ad.26.COV2.S) COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen Biotech, Inc., a Janssen Pharmaceutical company, Johnson & Johnson) (1). The Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, the third COVID-19 vaccine authorized for use in the United States, uses a replication-incompetent human adenoviral type 26 vector platform* (2) and is administered as a single intramuscular dose, whereas the first two authorized vaccines use an mRNA platform and require 2 doses. On February 28, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued interim recommendations for use of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine among persons aged ≥18 years (3). During April 13-23, CDC and FDA recommended a pause in use of Janssen vaccine after reports of six cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000/µL of blood) among Janssen vaccine recipients (4). Similar thrombotic events, primarily among women aged <60 years, have been described in Europe after receipt of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, which uses a replication-incompetent chimpanzee adenoviral vector (5-7). The U.S. CVST cases that prompted the pause in Janssen vaccination, as well as subsequently detected CVST cases, are described elsewhere (8). This report summarizes adverse events among Janssen vaccine recipients, including non-CVST cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), reported to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), a passive surveillance system, and through v-safe, an active monitoring system. As of April 21, 2021, 7.98 million doses of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine had been administered. Among 13,725 VAERS reports reviewed, 97% were classified as nonserious and 3% as serious,† including three reports among women of cases of thrombosis in large arteries or veins accompanied by thrombocytopenia during the second week after vaccination. These three cases and the previously detected CVST cases are consistent with 17 cases of TTS,§ a newly defined condition. Approximately 338,700 Janssen COVID-19 vaccine recipients completed at least one v-safe survey during the week after vaccination; 76% reported a systemic reaction, 61% reported a local reaction, and 34% reported a health impact.¶ Fatigue and pain were commonly reported symptoms in both VAERS and v-safe. The overall safety profile is consistent with preauthorization clinical trials data. Prompt review of U.S. vaccine safety data detected three additional cases of non-CVST TTS, in addition to the previously recognized CVST cases that initiated the pause in use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. Ongoing monitoring of adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination, including vaccination with the Janssen single-dose vaccine, is essential for evaluating the risks and benefits of each vaccine.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Approval , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration , Young Adult
8.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(5): e25895, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Melanoma is attributable to predisposing phenotypical factors, such as skin that easily sunburns and unprotected exposure to carcinogenic UV radiation. Reducing the proportion of young adults who get sunburned may reduce the incidence of melanoma, a deadly form of skin cancer. Advances in technology have enabled the delivery of real-time UV light exposure and content-relevant health interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the feasibility of young adults performing the following tasks daily: wearing a UV dosimeter, receiving text messages and real-time UV-B doses on their smartphone, and responding to daily web-based surveys about sunburn and sun protection. METHODS: Young adults aged 18-39 years (n=42) were recruited in the United States in June 2020 via social media. Participants received the UV Guard sun protection system, which consisted of a UV dosimeter and a smartphone app. During 3 consecutive periods, intervention intensity increased as follows: real-time UV-B dose; UV-B dose and daily behavioral facilitation text messages; and UV-B dose, goal setting, and daily text messages to support self-efficacy and self-regulation. Data were self-reported through daily web-based surveys for 28 days, and UV-B doses were transmitted to cloud-based storage. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 22 years (IQR 20, 29), and all patients had sun-sensitive skin. Sunburns were experienced during the study by fewer subjects (n=18) than those in the preceding 28 days (n=30). In July and August, the face was the most commonly sunburned area among 13 body locations; 52% (22/42) of sunburns occurred before the study and 45% (19/42) occurred during the study. The mean daily UV-B dose decreased during the 3 periods; however, this was not statistically significant. Young adults were most often exercising outdoors from 2 to 6 PM, walking from 10 AM to 6 PM, and relaxing from noon to 2 PM. Sunburn was most often experienced during exercise (odds ratio [OR] 5.65, 95% CI 1.60-6.10) and relaxation (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.03-4.67) relative to those that did not exercise or relax in each category. The self-reported exit survey indicated that participants felt that they spent less time outdoors this summer compared to the last summer because of the COVID-19 pandemic and work. In addition, 38% (16/42) of the participants changed their use of sun protection based on their app-reported UV exposure, and 48% (20/42) shifted the time they went outside to periods with less-intense UV exposure. A total of 79% (33/42) of the participants were willing to continue using the UV Guard system outside of a research setting. CONCLUSIONS: In this proof-of-concept research, young adults demonstrated that they used the UV Guard system; however, optimization was needed. Although some sun protection behaviors changed, sunburn was not prevented in all participants, especially during outdoor exercise. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03344796; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03344796.


Subject(s)
Sunburn , Adolescent , Adult , Health Behavior , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Sunburn/drug therapy , Sunburn/epidemiology , Sunburn/prevention & control , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , United States , Young Adult
9.
Neurosurgery ; 88(4): 785-790, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies have shown high rates of sleep disordered breathing in children with myelomeningocele. However, most patients included in those studies underwent polysomnography because of symptoms, so the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in this population is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in children with myelomeningocele using screening polysomnography. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, all children with myelomeningocele seen in a multi-disciplinary spina bifida clinic between 2016 and 2020 were referred for polysomnography regardless of clinical symptoms. Included children had not previously undergone polysomnography. The primary outcome for this study was presence of sleep disordered breathing, defined as Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI, number of apnea or hypopnea events per hour of sleep) greater than 2.5. Clinical and demographic variables relevant to myelomeningocele were also prospectively collected and tested for association with presence of sleep apnea. RESULTS: A total of 117 participants underwent polysomnography (age 1 mo to 21 yr, 49% male). The majority were white, non-Hispanic. Median AHI was 1.9 (interquartile range 0.6-4.2). A total of 49 children had AHI 2.5 or greater, yielding a sleep disordered breathing prevalence of 42% (95% CI 33%-51%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, children with more rostral neurological lesion levels had higher odds of sleep disordered breathing (OR for thoracic, mid-lumbar, and low-lumbar: 7.34, 3.70, 4.04, respectively, compared to sacral level, P = .043). CONCLUSION: Over 40% of a sample of children with myelomeningocele, who underwent screening polysomnography, had significant sleep disordered breathing. Routine screening polysomnography may be indicated in this population.


Subject(s)
Meningomyelocele/diagnosis , Meningomyelocele/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Meningomyelocele/physiopathology , Polysomnography/methods , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/physiopathology , Young Adult
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2543-2547, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217399

ABSTRACT

We described the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in stool samples from patients presenting only acute gastroenteritis (AGE) symptoms. From January to July 2020, 121 AGE stool samples were screened by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We detected SARS-CoV-2 in 27.5% of samples received during the epidemic period. No infectious viruses were observed in Vero E6 cells.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Gastroenteritis/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , /isolation & purification , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Young Adult
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2431-2438, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217392

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at higher risk of contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Information regarding co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with vector-borne diseases (malaria and dengue) is crucial especially for the countries wherein malaria and dengue are endemic. The objective was to study the prevalence, demographic, clinical presentations among HCWs with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to compare the viral clearance in HCWs with COVID-19 and co-infection of malaria and dengue. This retrospective study was conducted at a dedicated COVID-19 hospital, BYL Nair Charitable Hospital (NH), Mumbai, India April 6th-October 31st 2020. The SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs was confirmed by reverse transcription-plymerase chain reaction. Out of 491 HCWs infected with SARS-CoV-2, analysis of viral clearance was carried out in 467 HCWs over seven month periods, The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs was 13% (491 out of 3711). Out of the HCWs with COVID-19, prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher among security guards (25%) with 1% mortality. The co-infection of malaria or dengue was reported in 31 HCWs (6.3%). The mean duration of virus clearance was longer (12 days) in symptomatic HCWs as compared to asymptomatic (8 days, p < .005). The recovery of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs was faster (mean 8 days) with co-infection of malaria than without malaria (p < .005). We recommend universal testing of HCWs, to optimize staffing levels during the current pandemic as HCWs are the most precious resource. There is a need to effectively implement standard protocols for prevention of vector-borne diseases, especially in the hospital settings.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Dengue/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2420-2430, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217390

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) lead to one of the pandemics of the last century. We aimed to predict poor prognosis among severe patients to lead early intervention. METHODS: The data of 534 hospitalized patients were assessed retrospectively. Risk factors and laboratory tests that might enable the prediction of prognosis defined as being transferred to the intensive care unit and/or exitus have been investigated. RESULTS: At the admission, 398 of 534 patients (74.5%) were mild-moderate ill. It was determined that the male gender, advanced age, and comorbidity were risk factors for severity. To estimate the severity of the disease, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the areas under the curve which were determined based on the optimal cut off values that were calculated for the variables of values of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR > 3.69), C-reactive protein (CRP > 46 mg/L), troponin I ( > 5.3 ng/L), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH > 325 U/L), ferritin ( > 303 ug/L), d-dimer ( > 574 µg/L), neutrophil NE ( > 4.99 × 109 /L), lymphocyte (LE < 1.04 × 109 /L), SO2 ( < %92) were 0.762, 0.757,0.742, 0.705, 0.698, 0.694,0.688, 0.678, and 0.66, respectively. To predict mortality, AUC of values for optimal cutoff troponin I ( > 7.4 ng/L), age ( > 62), SO2 ( < %89), urea ( > 40 mg/dL), procalcitonin ( > 0.21 ug/L), CKMB ( > 2.6 ng/L) were 0.715, 0.685, 0.644, 0.632, 0.627, and 0.617, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical progress could be severe if the baseline values of NLR, CRP, troponin I, LDH, are above, and LE is below the specified cut-off point. We found that the troponin I, elder age, and SO2 values could predict mortality.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2365-2373, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217386

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease. Our understanding of the clinical characteristics of liver damage and the relationship with disease severity in COVID-19 is still limited. To investigate the serum hepatic enzyme activities in different phenotypes of COVID-19 patients, evaluate their relationship with the illness severity and analyze the correlation of glycyrrhizin treatment and abnormal liver enzyme activities, one hundred and forty-seven patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in a retrospective study that investigated hepatic dysfunction. Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), Y-glutamyl transferase (GGT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were analyzed in these patients. Patients with diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) treatment were further investigated. Of the 147 patients, 56 (38.1%) had abnormal ALT activity and 80 (54.4%) had abnormal AST activity. The peak of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities occurred at 3 to 6 days after on admission. Serum AST and LDH levels were elevated, while the SOD level was decreased in severe and critical patients, compared with mild cases. DG treatment may alleviate the abnormal liver enzyme activities in non-critical COVID-19 patients. Abnormal liver functions may be observed in patients with COVID-19, and were associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced acute liver damage. Glycyrrhizin treatment may be an effective therapeutic approach for the outcome of abnormal hepatic enzyme activities in severe COVID-19 cases. Serum hepatic enzyme tests may reflect the illness severity and should be monitored.


Subject(s)
/enzymology , Liver/enzymology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , /metabolism , Female , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Young Adult
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 863-865, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217826

ABSTRACT

We analyzed age-/sex-specific morbidity and mortality data from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in China and Republic of Korea (ROK). Data from China exhibit a Gaussian distribution with peak morbidity in the 50-59-year cohort, while the ROK data have a bimodal distribution with the highest morbidity in the 20-29-year cohort.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 786-792, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid identification of COVID-19 cases, which is crucial to outbreak containment efforts, is challenging due to the lack of pathognomonic symptoms and in settings with limited capacity for specialized nucleic acid-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study involves subjects (7-98 years) presenting at the designated national outbreak screening center and tertiary care hospital in Singapore for SARS-CoV-2 testing from 26 January to 16 February 2020. COVID-19 status was confirmed by PCR testing of sputum, nasopharyngeal swabs, or throat swabs. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and exposure-risk variables ascertainable at presentation were analyzed to develop an algorithm for estimating the risk of COVID-19. Model development used Akaike's information criterion in a stepwise fashion to build logistic regression models, which were then translated into prediction scores. Performance was measured using receiver operating characteristic curves, adjusting for overconfidence using leave-one-out cross-validation. RESULTS: The study population included 788 subjects, of whom 54 (6.9%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive and 734 (93.1%) were SARS-CoV-2 negative. The median age was 34 years, and 407 (51.7%) were female. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, all the models incorporating clinical tests (models 1, 2, and 3) performed well with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of 0.91, 0.88, and 0.88, respectively. In comparison, model 4 had an AUC of 0.65. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly ascertainable clinical and laboratory data could identify individuals at high risk of COVID-19 and enable prioritization of PCR testing and containment efforts. Basic laboratory test results were crucial to prediction models.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Retrospective Studies , Singapore/epidemiology , Sputum/virology , Young Adult
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217075

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aims to investigate the mental health of COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out targeting confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. Due to travel and time constraints as well as the accessibility of patients, cases were included from East Jeddah Hospital, King Abdulaziz Hospital, and the Oncology Center in Jeddah. The data were collected using a predesigned self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed COVID-19 cases, personal data, medical history, smoking, traveling abroad, and work-related conditions. Additionally, data regarding contact level with COVID-19 cases were considered. The mental health statuses of the patients were assessed using a validated Arabic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. The study included 261 COVID-19 patients whose ages ranged from 18 to 65 years. Results: The survey findings revealed that 13% of COVID-19 patients had a borderline level of anxiety, 26.8% were considered anxiety cases, while 60.2% were normal. The findings also revealed that 29.9% had a borderline level of depression, 18.4% were considered depression cases, while 51.7% were normal. Conclusions: This study concluded that COVID-19 patients experience anxiety and depression, and as the COVID-19 epidemic continues to spread, the results of the study are particularly useful in developing a strategy to psychologically support COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217072

ABSTRACT

The gripping coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has imposed dramatic changes to many areas of daily living in all sectors of society across the world. We examined the relationship between perceived stress and health behaviors among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. An online survey with measures of psychological stress, physical activity and exercise, and sleep and social connectedness was distributed in June and July of 2020. The survey was completed by 550 college students (mean age: 21.3 ± 3.8 years, 74.2% female, 94.4% Caucasian). Being female and unemployed and having a lower annual income were significantly associated with higher levels of stress. In addition, regression analysis found that reduced exercise and sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic significantly predicted the levels of stress of participants after controlling for gender, employment status, and annual income. University officials should aim to implement health-promotion strategies directed at preventing reductions in exercise and sleep duration, especially in those at greater risk of increased perceived stress such as females and economically disadvantaged students.


Subject(s)
Universities , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Young Adult
18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(17): e115, 2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We performed a prospective survey on the adverse reactions following the first dose of two types of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Korea. METHODS: HCWs at a tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea, received a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) or an mRNA-based vaccine (BNT162b2) between March 5 and March 26, 2021. The HCWs were asked to report adverse reactions through a mobile self-report questionnaire for three days after vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 7,625 HCWs received the first dose of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccine during the study period. Of them, 5,866 (76.9%) HCWs (ChAdOx1, n = 5,589 [95.3%]; BNT162b2, n = 277 [4.7%]) participated at least once in the survey, of whom 77% were female and 86% were younger than 50 years. The overall adverse reaction rate was 93% in the ChAdOx1 group and 80% in the BNT162b2 group (P < 0.001). Both local and systemic reactions were more commonly reported in the ChAdOx1 group, and the difference was larger in systemic reactions such as fever and fatigue. In the ChAdOx1 group, the incidence of adverse reactions was significantly higher in females and those in the younger age groups, while the BNT162b2 group showed such difference according to age. CONCLUSION: In our prospective survey, vaccine-associated adverse reactions were more commonly reported in the ChAdOx1 group than in the BNT162b2 group. Females and younger age groups experienced vaccine-associated adverse reactions more frequently.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , /immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Sex Characteristics , Young Adult
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e045325, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented disruption to daily life. This study investigated depression, anxiety and stress in New Zealand (NZ) during the first 10 weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic, and associated psychological and behavioural factors. It also compares the results with a similar cross-sectional study in the UK. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: NZ community cohort. PARTICIPANTS: N=681 adults (≥18 years) in NZ. The cohort was predominantly female (89%) with a mean age of 42 years (range 18-87). Most (74%) identified as NZ European and almost half (46%) were keyworkers. Most were non-smokers (95%) and 20% identified themselves as having clinical risk factors which would put them at increased or greatest risk of COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Depression, anxiety, stress, positive mood and engagement in health behaviours (smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption). RESULTS: Depression and anxiety significantly exceeded population norms (p<0.0001). Being younger (p<0.0001) and most at risk of COVID-19 (p<0.05) were associated with greater depression, anxiety and stress. Greater positive mood, lower loneliness and greater exercise were protective factors for all outcomes (p<0.0001). Smoking (p=0.037) and alcohol consumption (p<0.05) were associated with increased anxiety. Pet ownership was associated with lower depression (p=0.006) and anxiety (p=0.008). When adjusting for age and gender differences, anxiety (p=0.002) and stress (p=0.007) were significantly lower in NZ than in the UK. The NZ sample reported lower perceived risk (p<0.0001) and worry about COVID-19 (p<0.0001) than the UK sample. CONCLUSIONS: The NZ population had higher depression and anxiety compared with population norms. Younger people and those most at risk of COVID-19 reported poorer mental health. Interventions should promote frequent exercise, and reduce loneliness and unhealthy behaviours.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
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