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1.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 535-544, 2020 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spain is one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Serological surveys are a valuable tool to assess the extent of the epidemic, given the existence of asymptomatic cases and little access to diagnostic tests. This nationwide population-based study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Spain at national and regional level. METHODS: 35 883 households were selected from municipal rolls using two-stage random sampling stratified by province and municipality size, with all residents invited to participate. From April 27 to May 11, 2020, 61 075 participants (75·1% of all contacted individuals within selected households) answered a questionnaire on history of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and risk factors, received a point-of-care antibody test, and, if agreed, donated a blood sample for additional testing with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Prevalences of IgG antibodies were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification to allow for differences in non-response rates based on age group, sex, and census-tract income. Using results for both tests, we calculated a seroprevalence range maximising either specificity (positive for both tests) or sensitivity (positive for either test). FINDINGS: Seroprevalence was 5·0% (95% CI 4·7-5·4) by the point-of-care test and 4·6% (4·3-5·0) by immunoassay, with a specificity-sensitivity range of 3·7% (3·3-4·0; both tests positive) to 6·2% (5·8-6·6; either test positive), with no differences by sex and lower seroprevalence in children younger than 10 years (<3·1% by the point-of-care test). There was substantial geographical variability, with higher prevalence around Madrid (>10%) and lower in coastal areas (<3%). Seroprevalence among 195 participants with positive PCR more than 14 days before the study visit ranged from 87·6% (81·1-92·1; both tests positive) to 91·8% (86·3-95·3; either test positive). In 7273 individuals with anosmia or at least three symptoms, seroprevalence ranged from 15·3% (13·8-16·8) to 19·3% (17·7-21·0). Around a third of seropositive participants were asymptomatic, ranging from 21·9% (19·1-24·9) to 35·8% (33·1-38·5). Only 19·5% (16·3-23·2) of symptomatic participants who were seropositive by both the point-of-care test and immunoassay reported a previous PCR test. INTERPRETATION: The majority of the Spanish population is seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in hotspot areas. Most PCR-confirmed cases have detectable antibodies, but a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 did not have a PCR test and at least a third of infections determined by serology were asymptomatic. These results emphasise the need for maintaining public health measures to avoid a new epidemic wave. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Health, Institute of Health Carlos III, and Spanish National Health System.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Vaccine ; 40(45): 6512-6519, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported evidence about the effectiveness of a third dose with BNT162b2 for preventing hospitalization and death by COVID-19. However, there is little evidence regarding other primary vaccine schedules such as BBIBP-CorV and ChAdOx1-S. We estimated the relative vaccine effectiveness (RVE) of the booster dose versus the primary regimens of COVID-19 vaccines based on BBIBP-CorV, ChAdOx1-S, or BNT162b2 for preventing death during the Omicron wave in Peruvian adult people. METHODS: We carried out a nested case-control study with a risk set sampling of controls using data from Peru between December 20, 2021, and February 20, 2022 (during the Omicron wave). Data on vaccination, COVID-19 tests and deaths were collected from national surveillance databases. We performed conditional logistic regression models to estimate the RVE on the adult population. In addition, we executed sub-group analysis per age group (18 to 59 years, and 60 years or more) and per primary regime (based on BNT162b2, BBIBP-CorV, or ChAdOx1-S). RESULTS: Of the 11,188,332 people eligible to enter the study 1,974 met the case definition (death from COVID-19) and were matched to 9,183 controls. The overall RVE of a third dose to prevent death was 87.2% (84.2%-89.7%), which varied according to the primary regime (87.3% for BNT162b2, 82.0% for BBIPB-CorV-2, and 79.5% for ChAdOx-S). In older adults, the RVE was 87.1%, without significant variations according to the primary regime (86.1% for BNT162b2, 86.1 for BBIBP-CorV, and 82% for ChAdOx-S). CONCLUSIONS: The booster) dose of vaccine against COVID-19 had a high RVE for preventing death by COVID-19 in the Peruvian population in all primary regimes of vaccines during the Omicron wave. This effect was consistent in people over 60 years of age, the group most vulnerable to die from this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , Peru/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Efficacy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control
3.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6640-6648, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on sociodemographic disparities in Covid-19 vaccination uptake in the general population are still limited and mostly focused on older adults. This study examined sociodemographic differences in Covid-19 vaccination uptake in the total Swedish population aged 18-64 years. METHODS: National Swedish register data within the SCIFI-PEARL project were used to cross-sectionally investigate sociodemographic differences in Covid-19 vaccination among Swedish adults aged 18-64 years (n = 5,987,189) by 12 October 2021. Using logistic regression models, analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, region of residence, history of Covid-19, and comorbidities. An intersectional analysis approach including several cross-classified subgroups was used to further address the complexity of sociodemographic disparities in vaccination uptake. FINDINGS: By 12 October 2021, 76·0% of the Swedish population 18-64 years old had received at least two doses of Covid-19 vaccine, an additional 5·5% had received only one dose, and 18·5% were non-vaccinated. Non-vaccinated individuals were, compared to vaccinated, more often younger, male, had a lower income, were not gainfully employed, and/or were born outside Sweden. The social patterning for vaccine dose two was similar, but weaker, than for dose one. After multivariable adjustments, findings remained but were attenuated indicating the need to consider different sociodemographic factors simultaneously. The intersectional analysis showed a large variation in vaccine uptake ranging from 32% to 96% in cross-classified subgroups, reflecting considerable sociodemographic heterogeneity in vaccination coverage. INTERPRETATION: Our study, addressing the entire Swedish population aged 18-64 years, showed broad sociodemographic disparities in Covid-19 vaccine uptake but also wide heterogeneities in coverage. The intersectional analysis approach indicates that focusing on specific sociodemographic factors in isolation and group average risks without considering the heterogeneity within such groups will risk missing the full variability of vaccine coverage. FUNDING: SciLifeLab / Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Swedish Research Council, Swedish government ALF agreement, FORMAS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Sweden/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
4.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(5): 847-864, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105693

ABSTRACT

Adolescent Medicine addresses the health care of adolescents, young adults, and their families. Adolescent psychology constitutes an important part. The COVID-19 pandemic has given insight into adolescent needs, bringing the focus on prevention rather than mere correction. One needs to factor in the unique aspects of adolescence, their need to impress peers and gain acceptance, and their unique information processing, not calculating trade-offs between risk and reward the way adults might, in a linear, rational, logical, and verbal manner. The article focuses on the need for collaborative training among the various stakeholders in Child and Adolescent Mental Health.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Medicine , COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics , Psychology, Adolescent , Young Adult
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 521-526, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged in Wuhan, China and has spread all over the world and affected global mental health. Pregnant women may be particularly vulnerable and experience high levels of distress during an infectious disease outbreak. The aim of this study was to determine anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study surveyed a total of 283 pregnant women within the period of May 11 to May 28,2020. During their regular antenatal visit, pregnant women were invited to participate in the study. The self-created personal information form was used to assess the main characteristics of the participants. Anxiety and PTSD symptoms of the pregnant women were measured by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), respectively. RESULTS: The mean age of the pregnant women was 29.20±5.55 years. Regarding gestational age, 72 (25.4%), 86 (30.4) and 125 (44.2) were in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. The mean gestational age was 23.82±11.05 weeks. The mean STAI-S and STAI-T scores were 39.52±10.56 within the cut-off value (39-40) of the instrument and 42.74±8.33, respectively. Furthermore, the mean total IES-R score was 36.60±15.65 within the cut-off value (24) of the instrument. Multiple regression analysis revealed that pregnancy complication (p=0.01) and employment status of husband (p=0.04) were the best predictors of state anxiety. Additionally, the presence of COVID-19-related symptoms (p=0.01) and educational level (p=0.01) were found to predict PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women would be likely to experience high levels of anxiety and PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic's delay phase. The results should sensitize the medical team to increased anxiety and PTDS symptoms of the pregnant women in order to prevent negative outcomes for women and their fetuses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological , Young Adult
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 499-504, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemics are direct antecedent of distinctive physical, psychological, social and financial impacts. A large number of researches are being conducted regarding previous epidemics and pandemics and lot more is currently in progress vis-?-vis COVID-19. The current research is an attempt to explore psychological impacts of COVID-19 specifically to find out the existence, intensity and dynamics of COVID-19 fear in non-clinical educated population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross sectional online study was conducted with non-clinical educated Pakistani citizens. Self-structured questionnaire comprising close and open ended questions was used for data collection from different cities of Pakistan. N=317 participants (men=121, women=196) were the sample for this study. Demographic information was also sought. The age range of sample was 18 to 50+ years. Most of the participants fall in the category of age group 23-28 of sample. All the participants were educated from Intermediate till PhD but majority of participants had 16 years of education. SPSS 22 was used for quantitative data analysis. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis and content analysis. RESULTS: Results yield significant age wise and profession wise difference in existence of COVID fear. Nine major themes were extracted regarding nature of fear i.e. Corona Fear, Loss, fear of isolation or quarantine, religion related fear, death, consequences of COVID-19, Under developed country, Psychological component of fear and empathy. Those who denied fear were asked the reasons and six major themes were extracted here i.e Religion, Inevitability of death, Precautions, Belief in self, Myths or misinterpretation of disease and Avoidant approach. CONCLUSIONS: Age and profession significantly influenced fear of COVID-19. Gender-wise exploration of themes yields interesting insights. Participants reflected positivity and empathy in crisis situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 482-490, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to know the effect of the Corona pandemic on mental health among Al Ain University students and its relationship to some demographic variables (gender, academic level age, college, and marital status). SUBJECT AND METHOD: The sample of the study consisted of (258) male and female students from Al Ain University students from humanities and scientific colleges. The modified Mental Health Scale: R S CL-90 Symptoms Check List was used, which was developed by Derogatis, Lipman, and Linocovi, it included (74) items divided into seven dimensions: physical symptoms, obsessive-compulsive disorder, reactive sensitivity, depression, anxiety, enmity, and fear anxiety, after modifying it for the purposes of the study. RESULTS: The results showed that the level of mental health of the sample as a whole was very high. The results also showed that the level of mental health was low for females when compared to males. The second-year students were less in the level of mental health compared to the rest of the levels. For students who were less than twenty years old, the level of mental health was low compared to those over twenty years old. No differences were found in the level of mental health among students of scientific and human colleges. As for the social situation, the level of mental health among single students was low compared to married people. CONCLUSION: The results of the study indicate that the higher the average mental problems (the dimensions of the mental health level), the lower of the mental health problems. Although the level of mental health was varied according to the demographic variables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Demography , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 273-279, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Turkey is one of the countries affected during the period of COVID-19 outbreak. The purpose of the current study is to investigate psychological resilience and depression in individuals during the period of COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey in relation to different variables. The study also aims to explore the relationship between psychological resilience and depression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The current study was conducted on a total of 518 people over the social media through the Google e-forms. In the study, the "Short Psychological Resilience Scale" and the "Beck Depression Scale" were used to collect data. In the analysis of the collected data, t-test, One Way Anova, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal Wallis-H Test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used. RESULTS: In the current study, psychological resilience and depression were investigated in relation to different variables. Psychological resilience was found to be higher male participants, educators,university graduates and groups with not mental health problems. Depression was found to be higher females, university students, high school and lower graduates,with mental health problems. When the relationship between psychological resilience and depression was investigated, it was found that there is a medium and negative correlation between them. Moreover, the cut-off point for the depression score was set to be 17 and the rate of the people having 17 points or higher scores was found to be 16.6%. CONCLUSION: In light of the findings of the current study, it can be suggested to offer more mental health care services to those having higher levels of depression. Studies can be conducted to improve online psychological support services. A medium and negative correlation was found between psychological resilience and depression in the current study, which shows that more importance should be attached to activities to improve psychological resilience.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Acta Med Acad ; 51(2): 99-107, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100260

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Airway management has undergone a dramatic transformation since the arrival of video laryngoscope (VL). VL has higher intubation success rate on first try and lower complications in comparison to direct laryngoscope (DL). The use of VL is recommended in intubating COVID-19 patients to speed up intubation time and reduce failure rate. A team from Airlangga University developed Wycope Video Laryngoscope (Wycope VL), a VL with Wi-Fi connection to smartphones for an easier VL with low cost. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of Wycope VL, C-MAC Video Laryngoscope (C-MAC VL), and DL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was an analytic observational study with a cross sectional design, involving 63 patients who were divided into 3 groups based on the type of laryngoscope, namely Wycope VL, C-MAC VL, and DL. Intubation is carried out by 4th year anaesthesiology resident. Research subjects were patients who will undergo elective surgery at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital under general anaesthesia using orotracheal tube. Inclusion age of 19-64 years, PS ASA 1-2, no anatomical abnormalities of the airway, did not have difficult airway, and was willing to participate in the study. RESULTS: All patients were successfully intubated without complications. C-MAC VL (5.33±1.42 seconds) and Wycope VL (5.95±0.74 seconds) was significantly faster in seeing vocal folds and glottis compared to DL (7.14±0.72 seconds) with P=0.000. DL was significantly faster in average time of intubation (15.52±5.90 seconds) compared to C-MAC VL (16.95±1.11 seconds) and Wycope VL (20.29±2.81 seconds) with P=0.000. CONCLUSION: DL was faster compared to VL in speed of intubation while C-MAC VL and Wycope VL was faster in viewing the vocal folds and glottis compared to DL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laryngoscopes , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopy
10.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(10): 1647-1653, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100048

ABSTRACT

Background: Most educational institutions in Nigeria were shut down for a long while at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic as a preventive measure, and this affected dental students' academic and clinical training. Aim: To determine the influence of the pandemic on the academic, clinical training, and psychosocial well-being of dental students in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate dental students in clinical years in Nigerian dental schools. Participants received the questionnaire through an online platform, it had four sections; socio-demographics, impact on academic training, psychosocial well-being, and an open-ended segment for participants' suggestions to challenges. A mixed method was utilized to analyze the data. The statistical significance level was P < 0.05. Results: One hundred two dental students from nine dental schools participated, with a mean age of 25.3 ± 2.4 years. There were 56 (54.9%) males. Most students, 80 (78.4%) reported that their stay-at-home had not been rewarding academically. The majority, 90 (88.2%) were worried about contracting COVID-19 on school resumption. Participants' psychosocial well-being had significant associations with gender (P = 0.001) and self-directed learning during their stay-at-home (P = 0.001). More female students, 33 (71.7%) were severely worried compared to males 20 (35.7%). Their major suggestions were to commence online teaching and examinations (40.1%) and be provided with adequate personal protective equipment (18.6%). Conclusion: Most undergraduate students in Nigeria were anxious about COVID-19, and females were more affected. This negatively impacted their academic and clinical training. This underscores the importance of adequate psychological support for undergraduate dental students by school authorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Nigeria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students, Dental/psychology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(8): 1564-1571, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101070

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To find the moderating role of social support and creative coping, and the mediating role of cyberchondria in relationship between fear of coronavirus disease-2019 and stress in university students. METHODS: The correlational study was conducted at the Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan, between May and September 2020, and comprised students regardless of gender and age from different public and private universities across Pakistan. Data was collected online using Fear of Coronavirus Disease-2019 Scale, Cyberchondria Severity Scale, Creative Coping Strategies Scale, Social Support Survey, Perceived Stress Scale and Perception of Academic Stress Scale. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of the 205 subjects, 83(40.5%) were males and 122(59.5%) were females. The overall mean age was 21.22±1.84 years. Fear of coronavirus disease-2019 had significant positive relationship with cyberchondria, and cyberchondria had significant positive relationship with creative coping and academic stress (p<0.05). Social support had significant negative relationship with general stress (p<0.05). There was significant interaction among fear of coronavirus disease-2019, creative coping, social support and cyberchondria in predicting general stress (p<0.05). Fear of coronavirus disease-2019 alone did not predict stress (p>0.05), but it significantly predicted cyberchondria which, in turn, predicted stress (p<0.05). Creative coping and social support significantly moderated the relationship involving fear of coronavirus disease-2019, cyberchondria and general stress (p<0.05). The female subjects utilised more creative coping strategies, received more social support, and had higher levels of general stress compared to the males (p<0.05), while the male subjects had more mistrust on medical professionals (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings are important for students, parents and teachers to understand the role of social support to reduce the fear of coronavirus disease-2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adaptation, Psychological , Fear , Social Support , Students
12.
Acta Myol ; 41(2): 76-83, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101026

ABSTRACT

The recent approval of disease-modifying therapies for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) raised the need of alternative outcome measures to evaluate treatment efficacy. In this study, we investigated the potential of muscle quantitative MRI (qMRI) as a biomarker of disease progression in adult SMA3 patients during nusinersen treatment. Six adult SMA3 patients (age ranging from 19 to 65 years) underwent 2-point Dixon muscle qMRI at beginning of nusinersen treatment (T0) and after 14 months (T14) to evaluate the muscle fat fraction (FF) at thigh and leg levels; patients were clinically assessed at T0 and T14 with the Hammersmith Functional Rating Scale Expanded (HFMSE), the Revised Upper Limb Module (RULM) and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). At T0, vastus lateralis muscle displayed the highest mean FF (67.5%), while tibialis anterior was the most preserved one (mean FF = 35.2%). At T0, a slightly significant correlation of FF with HFMSE (p = 0.042) and disease duration (p = 0.042) at thigh level and only with HFMSE (p = 0.042) at leg level was found. At T14, no significant change of mean FF values at thigh and leg muscles was found compared to T0. Conversely, a statistically significant (p = 0.042) improvement of HFMSE was reported at T14. We observed no significant change of FF in thigh and leg muscles after 14 months of nusinersen therapy despite a significant clinical improvement of HFMSE. Further studies with longer follow-up and larger cohorts are needed to better investigate the role of qMRI as marker of disease progression in SMA patients.


Subject(s)
Muscular Atrophy, Spinal , Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood , Adult , Aged , Disease Progression , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Oligonucleotides , Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood/drug therapy , Young Adult
13.
Trials ; 23(1): 161, 2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Science-driven storytelling and entertainment-education (E-E) media demonstrate potential for promoting improved attitudes and behavioral intent towards health-related practices. Months after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerging research highlights the essential role of interventions to improve public confidence in the COVID-19 vaccine. To improve vaccine confidence, we designed three short, animated videos employing three research-informed pedagogical strategies. These can be distributed globally through social media platforms, because of their wordless and culturally accessible design. However, the effectiveness of short, animated storytelling videos, deploying various pedagogic strategies, needs to be explored across different global regions. METHODS/DESIGN: The present study is a multi-site, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the effectiveness of (i) a storytelling-instructional-humor approach, (ii) a storytelling-analogy approach, (iii) a storytelling-emotion-focused approach, and (iv) no video. For our primary outcomes, we will measure vaccine hesitancy, and for secondary outcomes, we will measure behavioral intent to seek vaccination and hope. Using online platforms, we will recruit 12,000 participants (aged 18-59 years) from the USA and China, respectively, yielding a total sample size of 24,000. DISCUSSION: This trial uses innovative online technology, reliable randomization algorithms, validated survey instruments, and list experiments to establish the effectiveness of three short, animated videos employing various research-informed pedagogical strategies. Results will be used to scientifically support the broader distribution of these short, animated video as well as informing the design of future videos for rapid, global public health communication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS #00023650 . Date of registration: 2021/02/09.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(2): 228-229, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096442

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has migrated to regions that were initially spared, and it is likely that different populations are currently at risk for illness. Herein, we present our observations of the change in characteristics and resource use of COVID-19 patients over time in a national system of community hospitals to help inform those managing surge planning, operational management, and future policy decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitals, Community , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virginia/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(4): 392-398, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibody was evaluated among employees of a Veterans Affairs healthcare system to assess potential risk factors for transmission and infection. METHODS: All employees were invited to participate in a questionnaire and serological survey to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 as part of a facility-wide quality improvement and infection prevention initiative regardless of clinical or nonclinical duties. The initiative was conducted from June 8 to July 8, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 2,900 employees, 51% participated in the study, revealing a positive SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of 4.9% (72 of 1,476; 95% CI, 3.8%-6.1%). There were no statistically significant differences in the presence of antibody based on gender, age, frontline worker status, job title, performance of aerosol-generating procedures, or exposure to known patients with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) within the hospital. Employees who reported exposure to a known COVID-19 case outside work had a significantly higher seroprevalence at 14.8% (23 of 155) compared to those who did not 3.7% (48 of 1,296; OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 2.67-7.68; P < .0001). Notably, 29% of seropositive employees reported no history of symptoms for SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among employees was not significantly different among those who provided direct patient care and those who did not, suggesting that facility-wide infection control measures were effective. Employees who reported direct personal contact with COVID-19-positive persons outside work were more likely to have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Employee exposure to SARS-CoV-2 outside work may introduce infection into hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
N Engl J Med ; 387(20): 1865-1876, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has been authorized for use in children 5 to 11 years of age and adolescents 12 to 17 years of age but in different antigen doses. METHODS: We assessed the real-world effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine against infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children and adolescents in Qatar. To compare the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the national cohort of vaccinated participants with the incidence in the national cohort of unvaccinated participants, we conducted three matched, retrospective, target-trial, cohort studies - one assessing data obtained from children 5 to 11 years of age after the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant became prevalent and two assessing data from adolescents 12 to 17 years of age before the emergence of the omicron variant (pre-omicron study) and after the omicron variant became prevalent. Associations were estimated with the use of Cox proportional-hazards regression models. RESULTS: Among children, the overall effectiveness of the 10-µg primary vaccine series against infection with the omicron variant was 25.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0 to 38.6). Effectiveness was highest (49.6%; 95% CI, 28.5 to 64.5) right after receipt of the second dose but waned rapidly thereafter and was negligible after 3 months. Effectiveness was 46.3% (95% CI, 21.5 to 63.3) among children 5 to 7 years of age and 16.6% (95% CI, -4.2 to 33.2) among those 8 to 11 years of age. Among adolescents, the overall effectiveness of the 30-µg primary vaccine series against infection with the omicron variant was 30.6% (95% CI, 26.9 to 34.1), but many adolescents had been vaccinated months earlier. Effectiveness waned over time since receipt of the second dose. Effectiveness was 35.6% (95% CI, 31.2 to 39.6) among adolescents 12 to 14 years of age and 20.9% (95% CI, 13.8 to 27.4) among those 15 to 17 years of age. In the pre-omicron study, the overall effectiveness of the 30-µg primary vaccine series against SARS-CoV-2 infection among adolescents was 87.6% (95% CI, 84.0 to 90.4) and waned relatively slowly after receipt of the second dose. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination in children was associated with modest, rapidly waning protection against omicron infection. Vaccination in adolescents was associated with stronger, more durable protection, perhaps because of the larger antigen dose. (Funded by Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar and others.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(11): e976-e982, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096193

ABSTRACT

Firearm-related injury is a leading cause of death disproportionately affecting adolescents and young adults across the world, especially in the Americas. Little progress has been made over the past four decades, as inaction and the adoption of ineffective or unevidenced interventions have become commonplace. The COVID-19 pandemic reconfigured health systems towards prevention and harm reduction, sharpened public attention to the burden of preventable deaths, and inspired a fresh ambition of eliminating avertable deaths. In this Viewpoint, we argue that preventing firearm injury should garner bolder action in post-pandemic public health and we present a case for reducing the global burden of firearm injury supported by evidence and international examples. Crucially, we aim to guide policy making in directions that end the cycle of grief, anger, activism, deflection, and inaction and create more peaceful and fairer societies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Wounds, Gunshot , Adolescent , Young Adult , Humans , United States , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/prevention & control , Public Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control
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