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1.
Clin Perinatol ; 48(3): 485-511, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767998

ABSTRACT

Maternal pathogens can be transmitted to the fetus resulting in congenital infection with sequelae ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe debilitating disease and still birth. The TORCH pneumonic (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) is used widely, but it provides a limited description of the expanding list of pathogens associated with congenital infection. This article focuses on the evaluation and management of infants with common congenital infections such as cytomegalovirus, and infections that warrant early diagnosis and treatment to prevent serious complications, such as toxoplasmosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and syphilis. Zika virus and Chagas disease remain uncommon.


Subject(s)
Fetal Diseases , Herpes Simplex , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Rubella , Syphilis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital , Toxoplasmosis , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Female , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Rubella/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/drug therapy , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(10): 375-377, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737447

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of dengue disease, caused by the dengue virus (DENV) (a flavivirus), often requires serologic testing during acute and early convalescent phases of the disease. Some symptoms of DENV infection, such as nonspecific fever, are similar to those caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. In studies with few COVID-19 cases, positive DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM) results were reported with various serologic tests, indicating possible cross-reactivity in these tests for DENV and SARS-CoV-2 infections (1,2). DENV antibodies can cross-react with other flaviviruses, including Zika virus. To assess the potential cross-reactivity of SARS-CoV-2, DENV, and Zika virus IgM antibodies, serum specimens from 97 patients from Puerto Rico and 12 U.S.-based patients with confirmed COVID-19 were tested using the DENV Detect IgM Capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (InBios International).* In addition, 122 serum specimens from patients with confirmed dengue and 121 from patients with confirmed Zika virus disease (all from Puerto Rico) were tested using the SARS-CoV-2 pan-Ig Spike Protein ELISA (CDC).† Results obtained for DENV, Zika virus IgM, and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies indicated 98% test specificity and minimal levels of cross-reactivity between the two flaviviruses and SARS-CoV-2. These findings indicate that diagnoses of dengue or Zika virus diseases with the serological assays described in this report are not affected by COVID-19, nor do dengue or Zika virus diseases interfere with the diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Dengue Virus/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serologic Tests , Zika Virus/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross Reactions/immunology , Dengue/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Puerto Rico , Sensitivity and Specificity , United States , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
3.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(1): 18-20, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737354

ABSTRACT

A large majority of neurological infections remain undiagnosed worldwide. Emerging and re-emerging infections are likely to be responsible for a significant proportion of these. Over the last two decades, several new organisms producing neurological infection and the neurotropic potential of many other known pathogens have been identified. Large outbreaks caused by re-emerging pathogens such as Chikungunya virus, Zika virus and Ebola virus have led to better delineation of their neurological manifestations. Recognition of the pandemic potential of emerging pathogens and an improved understanding of their host-vector-environment interactions would help us be better prepared to meet these emerging threats.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever , Chikungunya virus , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
4.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488755

ABSTRACT

Understanding the dynamic relationship between viral pathogens and cellular host factors is critical to furthering our knowledge of viral replication, disease mechanisms and development of anti-viral therapeutics. CRISPR genome editing technology has enhanced this understanding, by allowing identification of pro-viral and anti-viral cellular host factors for a wide range of viruses, most recently the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2. This review will discuss how CRISPR knockout and CRISPR activation genome-wide screening methods are a robust tool to investigate the viral life cycle and how other class 2 CRISPR systems are being repurposed for diagnostics.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Gene Editing , Zika Virus Infection/virology , Zika Virus/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zika Virus/physiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
5.
Urologe A ; 60(9): 1150-1158, 2021 Sep.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372789

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic has shown impressively that infectious diseases can have an enormous impact on the healthcare system and beyond. In the specialty of urology, patients present in daily practice with viral infections that are associated with numerous diseases. METHODOLOGY: The aim of this review is to describe viral infections relevant for urology, and in particular to emphasize vaccination prevention. A selective literature search was carried out on the subjects of "COVID and urology", "urogenital viral infections", "viral urological infections in transplant medicine", and "vaccination prevention of viral diseases". RESULTS: Coronaviruses have already caused two local epidemics: SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) epidemic and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) epidemic. The fact that the SARS-CoV­2 (SARS coronavirus 2) disease is contagious even without symptoms has essentially led to the rapid spread and global pandemic. A large number of viruses, which can also induce viremia, have been detected in the ejaculate and are thus associated with a possible urogenital infection. These include the mumps virus, Coxsackie viruses or enteroviruses, among others. It has also been shown that a Zika virus infection can also be sexually transmitted via the sperm as a carrier. Viruses therefore also play an important role in reproduction. When performing kidney transplants, urologists are often confronted with viral infections. The most effective weapon against viruses is prevention by vaccination. CONCLUSION: In terms of ethiopathogenesis, the genitourinary tract is most often affected by viruses, in the context of viremia or through reactivation due to immunosuppression. Immunomodulation and vaccination prophylaxis play a leading role in therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urology , Virus Diseases , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control
6.
Urologe A ; 60(9): 1150-1158, 2021 Sep.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296924

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic has shown impressively that infectious diseases can have an enormous impact on the healthcare system and beyond. In the specialty of urology, patients present in daily practice with viral infections that are associated with numerous diseases. METHODOLOGY: The aim of this review is to describe viral infections relevant for urology, and in particular to emphasize vaccination prevention. A selective literature search was carried out on the subjects of "COVID and urology", "urogenital viral infections", "viral urological infections in transplant medicine", and "vaccination prevention of viral diseases". RESULTS: Coronaviruses have already caused two local epidemics: SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) epidemic and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) epidemic. The fact that the SARS-CoV­2 (SARS coronavirus 2) disease is contagious even without symptoms has essentially led to the rapid spread and global pandemic. A large number of viruses, which can also induce viremia, have been detected in the ejaculate and are thus associated with a possible urogenital infection. These include the mumps virus, Coxsackie viruses or enteroviruses, among others. It has also been shown that a Zika virus infection can also be sexually transmitted via the sperm as a carrier. Viruses therefore also play an important role in reproduction. When performing kidney transplants, urologists are often confronted with viral infections. The most effective weapon against viruses is prevention by vaccination. CONCLUSION: In terms of ethiopathogenesis, the genitourinary tract is most often affected by viruses, in the context of viremia or through reactivation due to immunosuppression. Immunomodulation and vaccination prophylaxis play a leading role in therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urology , Virus Diseases , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control
7.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1831): 20200228, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284967

ABSTRACT

The goal of achieving enhanced diagnosis and continuous monitoring of human health has led to a vibrant, dynamic and well-funded field of research in medical sensing and biosensor technologies. The field has many sub-disciplines which focus on different aspects of sensor science; engaging engineers, chemists, biochemists and clinicians, often in interdisciplinary teams. The trends which dominate include the efforts to develop effective point of care tests and implantable/wearable technologies for early diagnosis and continuous monitoring. This review will outline the current state of the art in a number of relevant fields, including device engineering, chemistry, nanoscience and biomolecular detection, and suggest how these advances might be employed to develop effective systems for measuring physiology, detecting infection and monitoring biomarker status in wild animals. Special consideration is also given to the emerging threat of antimicrobial resistance and in the light of the current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, zoonotic infections. Both of these areas involve significant crossover between animal and human health and are therefore well placed to seed technological developments with applicability to both human and animal health and, more generally, the reviewed technologies have significant potential to find use in the measurement of physiology in wild animals. This article is part of the theme issue 'Measuring physiology in free-living animals (Part II)'.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Synthetic Biology/methods , Wearable Electronic Devices , Zika Virus Infection/veterinary , Zoonoses/diagnosis , Animals , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Animals, Wild/virology , Biomarkers/analysis , Cell Engineering/methods , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Nanotechnology/instrumentation , Nanotechnology/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
8.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(3): 453-465, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263258

ABSTRACT

The role of the emergency provider lies at the forefront of recognition and treatment of novel and re-emerging infectious diseases in children. Familiarity with disease presentations that might be considered rare, such as vaccine-preventable and non-endemic illnesses, is essential in identifying and controlling outbreaks. As we have seen thus far in the novel coronavirus pandemic, susceptibility, severity, transmission, and disease presentation can all have unique patterns in children. Emergency providers also have the potential to play a public health role by using lessons learned from the phenomena of vaccine hesitancy and refusal.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Pediatrics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Chickenpox/diagnosis , Chickenpox/therapy , Chickenpox/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/therapy , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Child , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Decision Trees , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/therapy , Dengue/transmission , Emergency Medicine , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/therapy , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/therapy , Malaria/transmission , Measles/diagnosis , Measles/therapy , Measles/transmission , Physician's Role , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Travel-Related Illness , Vaccination , Vaccination Refusal , Whooping Cough/diagnosis , Whooping Cough/therapy , Whooping Cough/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/therapy , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
9.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(10): 166198, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263225

ABSTRACT

Some maternal infections, contracted before or during pregnancy, can be transmitted to the fetus, during gestation (congenital infection), during labor and childbirth (perinatal infection) and through breastfeeding (postnatal infection). The agents responsible for these infections can be viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi. Among the viruses most frequently responsible for congenital infections are Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex 1-2, Herpes virus 6, Varicella zoster. Moreover Hepatitis B and C virus, HIV, Parvovirus B19 and non-polio Enteroviruses when contracted during pregnancy may involve the fetus or newborn at birth. Recently, new viruses have emerged, SARS-Cov-2 and Zika virus, of which we do not yet fully know the characteristics and pathogenic power when contracted during pregnancy. Viral infections in pregnancy can damage the fetus (spontaneous abortion, fetal death, intrauterine growth retardation) or the newborn (congenital anomalies, organ diseases with sequelae of different severity). Some risk factors specifically influence the incidence of transmission to the fetus: the timing of the infection in pregnancy, the order of the infection, primary or reinfection or chronic, the duration of membrane rupture, type of delivery, socio-economic conditions and breastfeeding. Frequently infected neonates, symptomatic at birth, have worse outcomes than asymptomatic. Many asymptomatic babies develop long term neurosensory outcomes. The way in which the virus interacts with the maternal immune system, the maternal-fetal interface and the placenta explain these results and also the differences that are observed from time to time in the fetal­neonatal outcomes of maternal infections. The maternal immune system undergoes functional adaptation during pregnancy, once thought as physiological immunosuppression. This adaptation, crucial for generating a balance between maternal immunity and fetus, is necessary to promote and support the pregnancy itself and the growth of the fetus. When this adaptation is upset by the viral infection, the balance is broken, and the infection can spread and lead to the adverse outcomes previously described. In this review we will describe the main viral harmful infections in pregnancy and the potential mechanisms of the damages on the fetus and newborn.


Subject(s)
Congenital Abnormalities/etiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Virus Diseases/complications , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Congenital Abnormalities/diagnosis , Congenital Abnormalities/prevention & control , Cytomegalovirus/isolation & purification , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytomegalovirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
10.
Trop Doct ; 51(4): 606-607, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261234

ABSTRACT

As international travels and destinations increase, travel-related infections increase. It is reported that 6-87% of the travellers contract travel-related infection during or after the trip. Vector-associated pathogens comprise a significant percentage of travel-related infections. Apart from the ubiquitous COVID19, threats such as Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika virus and tick-borne agents have emerged or re-emerged in recent years. The fact that these infections are carried with similar vectors and cause similar symptoms makes diagnosis difficult. Herein, a case of travel-associated infection with nonspecific symptoms is presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chikungunya Fever , Dengue , Malaria , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Travel-Related Illness , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
13.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 179: 113074, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064881

ABSTRACT

On global scale, the current situation of pandemic is symptomatic of increased incidences of contagious diseases caused by pathogens. The faster spread of these diseases, in a moderately short timeframe, is threatening the overall population wellbeing and conceivably the economy. The inadequacy of conventional diagnostic tools in terms of time consuming and complex laboratory-based diagnosis process is a major challenge to medical care. In present era, the development of point-of-care testing (POCT) is in demand for fast detection of infectious diseases along with "on-site" results that are helpful in timely and early action for better treatment. In addition, POCT devices also play a crucial role in preventing the transmission of infectious diseases by offering real-time testing and lab quality microbial diagnosis within minutes. Timely diagnosis and further treatment optimization facilitate the containment of outbreaks of infectious diseases. Presently, efforts are being made to support such POCT by the technological development in the field of internet of medical things (IoMT). The IoMT offers wireless-based operation and connectivity of POCT devices with health expert and medical centre. In this review, the recently developed POC diagnostics integrated or future possibilities of integration with IoMT are discussed with focus on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases like malaria, dengue fever, influenza A (H1N1), human papilloma virus (HPV), Ebola virus disease (EVD), Zika virus (ZIKV), and coronavirus (COVID-19). The IoMT-assisted POCT systems are capable enough to fill the gap between bioinformatics generation, big rapid analytics, and clinical validation. An optimized IoMT-assisted POCT will be useful in understanding the diseases progression, treatment decision, and evaluation of efficacy of prescribed therapy.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Internet of Things , Point-of-Care Testing , Animals , Artificial Intelligence , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Equipment Design , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Malaria/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
14.
Sci Adv ; 6(39)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796906

ABSTRACT

Detection of viruses is critical for controlling disease spread. Recent emerging viral threats, including Zika virus, Ebola virus, and SARS-CoV-2 responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) highlight the cost and difficulty in responding rapidly. To address these challenges, we develop a platform for low-cost and rapid detection of viral RNA with DNA nanoswitches that mechanically reconfigure in response to specific viruses. Using Zika virus as a model system, we show nonenzymatic detection of viral RNA with selective and multiplexed detection between related viruses and viral strains. For clinical-level sensitivity in biological fluids, we paired the assay with sample preparation using either RNA extraction or isothermal preamplification. Our assay requires minimal laboratory infrastructure and is adaptable to other viruses, as demonstrated by quickly developing DNA nanoswitches to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva. Further development and field implementation will improve our ability to detect emergent viral threats and ultimately limit their impact.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , DNA, Single-Stranded/genetics , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Base Sequence , COVID-19 , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel/economics , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/virology , Sequence Analysis, RNA/economics , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/virology
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