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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1722, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773975

ABSTRACT

The rapidly growing popularity of RNA structure probing methods is leading to increasingly large amounts of available RNA structure information. This demands the development of efficient tools for the identification of RNAs sharing regions of structural similarity by direct comparison of their reactivity profiles, hence enabling the discovery of conserved structural features. We here introduce SHAPEwarp, a largely sequence-agnostic SHAPE-guided algorithm for the identification of structurally-similar regions in RNA molecules. Analysis of Dengue, Zika and coronavirus genomes recapitulates known regulatory RNA structures and identifies novel highly-conserved structural elements. This work represents a preliminary step towards the model-free search and identification of shared and conserved RNA structural features within transcriptomes.


Subject(s)
Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Algorithms , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA/chemistry , RNA/genetics , RNA, Guide , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Zika Virus/genetics
2.
Clin Perinatol ; 48(3): 485-511, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767998

ABSTRACT

Maternal pathogens can be transmitted to the fetus resulting in congenital infection with sequelae ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe debilitating disease and still birth. The TORCH pneumonic (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) is used widely, but it provides a limited description of the expanding list of pathogens associated with congenital infection. This article focuses on the evaluation and management of infants with common congenital infections such as cytomegalovirus, and infections that warrant early diagnosis and treatment to prevent serious complications, such as toxoplasmosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and syphilis. Zika virus and Chagas disease remain uncommon.


Subject(s)
Fetal Diseases , Herpes Simplex , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Rubella , Syphilis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital , Toxoplasmosis , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Female , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Rubella/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/drug therapy , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
3.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760845

ABSTRACT

Pathogenesis of viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood, and this is partly due to the limitations of currently used preclinical models. Brain organoid models can overcome some of these limitations, as they are generated from human derived stem cells, differentiated in three dimensions (3D), and can mimic human neurodevelopmental characteristics. Therefore, brain organoids have been increasingly used as brain models in research on various viruses, such as Zika virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, human cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. Brain organoids allow for the study of viral tropism, the effect of infection on organoid function, size, and cytoarchitecture, as well as innate immune response; therefore, they provide valuable insight into the pathogenesis of neurotropic viral infections and testing of antivirals in a physiological model. In this review, we summarize the results of studies on viral CNS infection in brain organoids, and we demonstrate the broad application and benefits of using a human 3D model in virology research. At the same time, we describe the limitations of the studies in brain organoids, such as the heterogeneity in organoid generation protocols and age at infection, which result in differences in results between studies, as well as the lack of microglia and a blood brain barrier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain/pathology , Humans , Organoids , Zika Virus Infection/pathology
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e051216, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741624

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) of young people continue to present a high burden and remain underinvested. This is more so in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), where empirical evidence reveals disruption of SRHR maintenance, need for enhancement of programmes, resources and services during pandemics. Despite the importance of the subject, there is no published review yet combining recent disease outbreaks such as (H1N1/09, Zika, Ebola and SARS-COV-2) to assess their impact on adolescents and youth SRHR in LMICs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will adopt a four-step search to reach the maximum possible number of studies. In the first step, we will carry out a limitedpreliminary search in databases for getting relevant keywords (appendix 1). Second, we will search in four databases: Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase and PsycINFO. The search would begin from the inception of the first major outbreak in 2009 (H1N1/09) up to the date of publication of the protocol in early 2022. We will search databases using related keywords, screen title & abstract and review full texts of the selected titles to arrive at the list of eligible studies. In the third stage, we will check their eligibility to the included article's reference list. In the fourth stage, we will check the citations of included papers in phase 2 to complete our study selection. We will include all types of original studies and without any language restriction in our final synthesis. Our review results will be charted for each pandemic separately and include details pertaining to authors, year, country, region of the study, study design, participants (disaggregated by age and gender), purpose and report associated SRHR outcomes. The review will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guideline (PRISMA-ScR). PATIENT AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT: Patients or public were not involved in this study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical assessment is not required for this study. The results of the study will be presented in peer-reviewed publications and conferences on adolescent SRHR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(10): 375-377, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737447

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of dengue disease, caused by the dengue virus (DENV) (a flavivirus), often requires serologic testing during acute and early convalescent phases of the disease. Some symptoms of DENV infection, such as nonspecific fever, are similar to those caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. In studies with few COVID-19 cases, positive DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM) results were reported with various serologic tests, indicating possible cross-reactivity in these tests for DENV and SARS-CoV-2 infections (1,2). DENV antibodies can cross-react with other flaviviruses, including Zika virus. To assess the potential cross-reactivity of SARS-CoV-2, DENV, and Zika virus IgM antibodies, serum specimens from 97 patients from Puerto Rico and 12 U.S.-based patients with confirmed COVID-19 were tested using the DENV Detect IgM Capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (InBios International).* In addition, 122 serum specimens from patients with confirmed dengue and 121 from patients with confirmed Zika virus disease (all from Puerto Rico) were tested using the SARS-CoV-2 pan-Ig Spike Protein ELISA (CDC).† Results obtained for DENV, Zika virus IgM, and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies indicated 98% test specificity and minimal levels of cross-reactivity between the two flaviviruses and SARS-CoV-2. These findings indicate that diagnoses of dengue or Zika virus diseases with the serological assays described in this report are not affected by COVID-19, nor do dengue or Zika virus diseases interfere with the diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Dengue Virus/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serologic Tests , Zika Virus/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross Reactions/immunology , Dengue/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Puerto Rico , Sensitivity and Specificity , United States , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
6.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(1): 18-20, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737354

ABSTRACT

A large majority of neurological infections remain undiagnosed worldwide. Emerging and re-emerging infections are likely to be responsible for a significant proportion of these. Over the last two decades, several new organisms producing neurological infection and the neurotropic potential of many other known pathogens have been identified. Large outbreaks caused by re-emerging pathogens such as Chikungunya virus, Zika virus and Ebola virus have led to better delineation of their neurological manifestations. Recognition of the pandemic potential of emerging pathogens and an improved understanding of their host-vector-environment interactions would help us be better prepared to meet these emerging threats.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever , Chikungunya virus , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
7.
Cell Rep ; 38(10): 110434, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729611

ABSTRACT

Type I interferons (IFN-I) are essential to establish antiviral innate immunity. Unanchored (or free) polyubiquitin (poly-Ub) has been shown to regulate IFN-I responses. However, few unanchored poly-Ub interactors are known. To identify factors regulated by unanchored poly-Ub in a physiological setting, we developed an approach to isolate unanchored poly-Ub from lung tissue. We identified the RNA helicase DHX16 as a potential pattern recognition receptor (PRR). Silencing of DHX16 in cells and in vivo diminished IFN-I responses against influenza virus. These effects extended to members of other virus families, including Zika and SARS-CoV-2. DHX16-dependent IFN-I production requires RIG-I and unanchored K48-poly-Ub synthesized by the E3-Ub ligase TRIM6. DHX16 recognizes a signal in influenza RNA segments that undergo splicing and requires its RNA helicase motif for direct, high-affinity interactions with specific viral RNAs. Our study establishes DHX16 as a PRR that partners with RIG-I for optimal activation of antiviral immunity requiring unanchored poly-Ub.


Subject(s)
DEAD Box Protein 58 , Interferon Type I , RNA Helicases , RNA, Viral , Receptors, Immunologic , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , COVID-19 , DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Type I/immunology , RNA Helicases/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tripartite Motif Proteins , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/immunology
8.
Acta Trop ; 227: 106269, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729465

ABSTRACT

Monte Verde, a peri­urban squatter community near San Pedro Sula, virtually eliminated Aedes aegypti production in all known larval habitats: wells; water storage containers including pilas (open concrete water tanks used for laundry), 200-liter drums, 1000-liter plastic "cisterns," buckets; and objects collecting rainwater. The project began in 2016 when Monte Verde was overrun with dengue, Zika, and chikungunya. During more than a year of experimentation, Monte Verde residents crafted an effective, sustainable, and environmentally friendly toolkit that was inexpensive but required full community participation. Biological control with copepods, turtles, and tilapia was at the core of the toolkit, along with a mix of other methods such as getting rid of unnecessary containers, scrubbing them to remove Ae. aegypti eggs, and covering them to exclude mosquitoes or rainwater. Environmentally friendly larvicides also had a limited but crucial role. Key design features: (1) toolkit components known to be nearly 100% effective at preventing Ae. aegypti production when fitted to appropriate larval habitats; (2) using Ae. aegypti larval habitats as a resource by transforming them into "egg sinks" to drive Ae. aegypti population decline; (3) dedicated community volunteers who worked with their neighbors, targeting 100% coverage of all known Ae. aegypti larval habitats with an appropriate control method; (4) monthly monitoring in which the volunteers visited every house to assess progress and improve coverage as an ongoing learning experience for both volunteers and residents. Taking pupae as an indicator of Ae. aegypti production, from September 2018 to the end of the record in December 2021 (except for a brief lapse during COVID lockdown in 2020), the monthly count of pupae fluctuated between zero and 0.6% of the 22,984 pupae counted in the baseline survey at the beginning of the project. Adult Ae. aegypti declined to low numbers but did not disappear completely. There were no recognizable cases of dengue, Zika, or chikungunya after June 2018, though the study design based on a single site did not provide a basis for rigorous confirmation that Monte Verde's Ae. aegypti control program was responsible. Nonetheless, Monte Verde's success at eliminating Ae. aegypti production can serve as a model for extending this approach to other communities. Key ingredients for success were outside stimulation and facilitation to foster shared community awareness and commitment regarding the problem and its solution, enduring commitment of local leadership, compatibility of the toolkit with the local community, overcoming social obstacles, rapid results with "success breeding success," and building resilience.


Subject(s)
Aedes , COVID-19 , Copepoda , Dengue , Tilapia , Turtles , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Aedes/physiology , Animals , Communicable Disease Control , Community Participation , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Honduras , Humans , Larva , Mosquito Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 157(2): 134-138, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714692

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses are responsible for several infectious diseases, including dengue fever, Zika fever, and COVID-19. Reverse genetics is a powerful tool to elucidate which domain or mutations in RNA viruses determine their pathogenicity and ability to evade antiviral drugs and host immune response. Previous reverse genetics systems for flaviviruses and coronaviruses have been technically challenging and time-consuming, thereby hampering the further understanding of events during viral evolution. A novel reverse genetics system-circular polymerase extension reaction (CPER)-has been developed to overcome this limitation. CPER is based on PCR-mediated assembly of DNA fragments that encode the whole genome of these viruses. CPER requires a relatively short time to introduce specific mutations into the viral genome of flaviviruses and SARS-CoV-2. In this review article, we explain the mode of action of this system and discuss the future direction of reverse genetics for RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Genome, Viral , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/genetics
10.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715777

ABSTRACT

In recent years, infectious diseases caused by viral infections have seriously endangered human health, especially COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, which continues to spread worldwide. The development of broad-spectrum antiviral inhibitors is urgently needed. Here, we report a series of small-molecule compounds that proved effective against human coronaviruses (HCoV), such as SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern (VOCs), including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529), SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, HCoV-OC43, and other viruses with class I viral fusion proteins, such as influenza virus, Ebola virus (EBOV), Nipah virus (NiV), and Lassa fever virus (LASV). They are also effective against class II enveloped viruses represented by ZIKV and class III enveloped viruses represented by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Further studies have shown that these compounds may exert antiviral effects through a variety of mechanisms, including inhibiting the formation of the six-helix bundle, which is a typical feature of enveloped virus fusion with cell membranes, and/or targeting viral membrane to inactivate cell-free virions. These compounds are expected to become drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 and other enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rhodanine , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715765

ABSTRACT

Flaviviruses such as dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to suppress the host immune system. For instance, flavivirus infections were found to sabotage peroxisomes, organelles with an important role in innate immunity. The current model suggests that the capsid (C) proteins of DENV and ZIKV downregulate peroxisomes, ultimately resulting in reduced production of interferons by interacting with the host protein PEX19, a crucial chaperone in peroxisomal biogenesis. Here, we aimed to explore the importance of peroxisomes and the role of C interaction with PEX19 in the flavivirus life cycle. By infecting cells lacking peroxisomes we show that this organelle is required for optimal DENV replication. Moreover, we demonstrate that DENV and ZIKV C bind PEX19 through a conserved PEX19-binding motif, which is also commonly found in cellular peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs). However, in contrast to PMPs, this interaction does not result in the targeting of C to peroxisomes. Furthermore, we show that the presence of C results in peroxisome loss due to impaired peroxisomal biogenesis, which appears to occur by a PEX19-independent mechanism. Hence, these findings challenge the current model of how flavivirus C might downregulate peroxisomal abundance and suggest a yet unknown role of peroxisomes in flavivirus biology.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins/chemistry , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Dengue Virus/physiology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Zika Virus/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Dengue Virus/chemistry , Humans , Organelle Biogenesis , Peroxisomes/physiology , Virus Replication , Zika Virus/chemistry
12.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 8(3): 964-1000, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713110

ABSTRACT

Graphene- and carbon-based nanomaterials are key materials to develop advanced biosensors for the sensitive detection of many biomarkers owing to their unique properties. Biosensors have attracted increasing interest because they allow efficacious, sensitive, selective, rapid, and low-cost diagnosis. Biosensors are analytical devices based on receptors for the process of detection and transducers for response measuring. Biosensors can be based on electrochemical, piezoelectric, thermal, and optical transduction mechanisms. Early virus identification provides critical information about potentially effective and selective therapies, extends the therapeutic window, and thereby reduces morbidity. The sensitivity and selectivity of graphene can be amended via functionalizing it or conjoining it with further materials. Amendment of the optical and electrical features of the hybrid structure by introducing appropriate functional groups or counterparts is especially appealing for quick and easy-to-use virus detection. Various techniques for the electrochemical detection of viruses depending on antigen-antibody interactions or DNA hybridization are discussed in this work, and the reasons behind using graphene and related carbon nanomaterials for the fabrication are presented and discussed. We review the existing state-of-the-art directions of graphene-based classifications for detecting DNA, protein, and hormone biomarkers and summarize the use of the different biosensors to detect several diseases, like cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetes, to sense numerous viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, human immunodeficiency virus, rotavirus, Zika virus, and hepatitis B virus, and to detect the recent pandemic virus COVID-19. The general concepts, mechanisms of action, benefits, and disadvantages of advanced virus biosensors are discussed to afford beneficial evidence of the creation and manufacture of innovative virus biosensors. We emphasize that graphene-based nanomaterials are ideal candidates for electrochemical biosensor engineering due to their special and tunable physicochemical properties.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Nanostructures , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Carbon , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Humans , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(4): 1574-1583, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707013

ABSTRACT

In the past years, numerous new fatal infections have emerged, including Ebola, Nipah, and Zika viruses, as well as coronaviruses. Recently, infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged in China, and were then transmitted all over the world, causing the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is transmitted at a higher rate than other diseases caused by coronaviruses. At the time of writing this review, COVID-19 is not contained in most countries in spite of quarantine, physical distancing, and enhanced hygiene measures. In this review, I address different methods for passive and active immunization against this virus, which is known to cause fatal respiratory disease, including natural passive immunization by breast milk, natural active immunization by herd immunization, artificial passive immunization by convalescent plasma or monoclonal antibodies, and artificial active immunization by vaccination. I hope this review will help design a prophylactic approach against outbreaks and pandemics of related coronaviruses in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 147: 112682, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664682

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have a great impact on human health. The urgent need to find a cure against different viruses led us to investigations in a vast range of drugs. Azithromycin (AZT), classified as a macrolide, showed various effects on different known viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Zika, Ebola, Enterovirus (EVs) and Rhinoviruses (RVs), and Influenza A previously; namely, these viruses, which caused global concerns, are considered as targets for AZT different actions. Due to AZT background in the treatment of known viral infections mentioned above (which is described in this study), in the early stages of COVID-19 (a new zoonotic disease caused by a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) development, AZT drew attention to itself due to its antiviral and immunomodulatory effects as a valuable candidate for COVID-19 treatment. AZT usage instructions for treating different viral infections have always been under observation, and COVID-19 is no exception. There are still debates about the use of AZT in COVID-19 treatment. However, eventually, novel researches convinced WHO to announce the discontinuation of AZT use (alone or in combination with hydroxychloroquine) in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection. This research aims to study the structure of all of the viruses mentioned above and the molecular and clinical effects of AZT against the virus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Zika Virus/drug effects
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 3850-3854, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655941

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination has been known to reduce morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases since the emergence of the 1st vaccine in the 18th century. That's why global efforts are directed toward finding a vaccine for COVID-19 in order to eliminate its threat.The current pandemic of COVID-19 has changed the world affecting all fields significantly as a result of the preventive measures including locking down, social distancing, obligatory mask wearing, stopping flights, etc. The medical field is clearly the most significantly affected starting from altering most of the research efforts toward the new virus passing through the inadequate number of physicians as well as unavailable intensive care unit (ICU) beds. In order to break the restricted preventive measures, we need to minimize the newly infected cases which can be achieved by reaching adequate herd immunity. Moreover, calculating the basic reproduction number (R0) of COVID-19 is crucial to estimate the herd immunity threshold (Ic).Methods: In this review, we searched PubMed for studies that mentioned the R0 of COVID_19, SARS, and MERS as well as measles, Zika and dengue virus to calculate the herd immunity threshold and the minimal vaccination coverage.Results: The value of R0 could vary for the same disease and consequently the herd immunity threshold as well as the vaccination coverage. The R0 of COVID-19 ranged widely through various articles from 1.4 to 6.68. As a result, the herd immunity threshold would range from 28.57% to 85.03%. However, the vaccination coverage depends also on the effectiveness of the vaccine which is still unknown.Conclusion: The calculations of vaccination coverage include many variables such as the R0 of the disease, Ic that depends on that value as well as sensitivity and specificity of the vaccine itself.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Herd , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(3): 896-899, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649221

ABSTRACT

We provide evidence of concurrent and close sequential infections between SARS-CoV-2 and select arboviruses-namely, chikungunya virus (CHIKV); dengue viruses 1, 2, and 3 (DENV1-3), and Zika virus (ZIKV)-in patients in Guerrero, southwest Mexico, in 2020-2021. The study population consisted of 176 febrile patients with laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sera from all patients were serologically and antigenically tested for seven arboviruses known to occur in Guerrero. Eighteen patients contained CHIKV IgM, six of whom also contained CHIKV RNA. Another 16 patients contained flavivirus antigen. The flaviviruses responsible for the infections were identified by plaque reduction neutralization test as DENV1 (two patients), DENV2 (five patients), DENV3 (three patients), ZIKV (three patients), and an undetermined flavivirus (three patients). In summary, we identified patients in Guerrero, Mexico, with concurrent or recent sequential infections between SARS-CoV-2 and select arboviruses, exemplifying the importance of performing differential diagnosis in regions where these viruses cocirculate.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses , COVID-19 , Chikungunya Fever , Coinfection , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue Virus/genetics , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 802428, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636471

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Evidence on authorship trends of health research conducted about or in Africa shows that there is a lack of local researchers in the first and last authorship positions, with high income country collaborations taking up these positions. The differences in authorship calls into question power imbalances in global health research and who benefits from the production of new discoveries and innovations. Health studies may further go on to inform policy and clinical practice within the region having an impact on public health. This paper aims to compare the differences in authorship between COVID-19 and relevant infectious diseases in Africa. Materials and Methods: We will conduct a bibliometric analysis comparing authorship for COVID-19 research during a public health emergency with authorship for four other infectious diseases of relevance to Africa namely: Ebola, Zika Virus (ZIKV), Tuberculosis (TB) and Influenza. Our scoping review will follow the framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley and reviewed by Levac et al. We will search MEDLINE (Ovid), African Index Medicus (AIM), Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR) Index Medicus, Embase (Ovid), and Web of Science (Clarivate). We will compare the different trends of disease research between the selected diseases. This study is registered with OSF registries and is licensed with the Academic Free License version 3.0. The open science registration number is 10.17605/OSF.IO/5ZPGN.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Africa , Bibliometrics , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Genomics ; 114(2): 110270, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633861

ABSTRACT

Viruses can subvert a number of cellular processes including splicing in order to block innate antiviral responses, and many viruses interact with cellular splicing machinery. SARS-CoV-2 infection was shown to suppress global mRNA splicing, and at least 10 SARS-CoV-2 proteins bind specifically to one or more human RNAs. Here, we investigate 17 published experimental and clinical datasets related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, datasets from the betacoronaviruses SARS-CoV and MERS, as well as Streptococcus pneumonia, HCV, Zika virus, Dengue virus, influenza H3N2, and RSV. We show that genes showing differential alternative splicing in SARS-CoV-2 have a similar functional profile to those of SARS-CoV and MERS and affect a diverse set of genes and biological functions, including many closely related to virus biology. Additionally, the differentially spliced transcripts of cells infected by coronaviruses were more likely to undergo intron-retention, contain a pseudouridine modification, and have a smaller number of exons as compared with differentially spliced transcripts in the control groups. Viral load in clinical COVID-19 samples was correlated with isoform distribution of differentially spliced genes. A significantly higher number of ribosomal genes are affected by differential alternative splicing and gene expression in betacoronavirus samples, and the betacoronavirus differentially spliced genes are depleted for binding sites of RNA-binding proteins. Our results demonstrate characteristic patterns of differential splicing in cells infected by SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS. The alternative splicing changes observed in betacoronaviruses infection potentially modify a broad range of cellular functions, via changes in the functions of the products of a diverse set of genes involved in different biological processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Alternative Splicing , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zika Virus/genetics
20.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 6, 2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622238

ABSTRACT

The frequency and scale of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) with pandemic potential has been increasing over the last two decades and, as COVID-19 has shown, such zoonotic spill-over events are an increasing threat to public health globally. There has been considerable research into EIDs - especially in the case of COVID-19. However, most of this has focused on disease emergence, symptom identification, chains of transmission, case prevalence and mortality as well as prevention and treatment. Much less attention has been paid to health equity concerns and the relationship between socio-economic inequalities and the spread, scale and resolution of EID pandemics. This commentary article therefore explores socio-economic inequalities in the nature of EID pandemics. Drawing on three diverse case studies (Zika, Ebola, COVID-19), it hypothesises the four main pathways linking inequality and infectious disease (unequal exposure, unequal transmission, unequal susceptibility, unequal treatment) - setting out a new model for understanding EIDs and health inequalities. It concludes by considering the research directions and policy actions needed to reduce inequalities in future EID outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Health Equity , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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