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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742488

ABSTRACT

In 2019, the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), started spreading around the word, giving rise to the world pandemic we are still facing. Since then, many strategies for the prevention and control of COVID-19 have been studied and implemented. In addition to pharmacological treatments and vaccines, it is mandatory to ensure the cleaning and disinfection of the skin and inanimate surfaces, especially in those contexts where the contagion could spread quickly, such as hospitals and clinical laboratories, schools, transport, and public places in general. Here, we report the efficacy of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) against SARS-CoV-2. NPs were produced using an ecofriendly method and fully characterized; their antiviral activity was tested in vitro against SARS-CoV-2, showing a decrease in viral load between 70% and 90%, as a function of the material's composition. Application of these nano-antimicrobials as coatings for commonly touched surfaces is envisaged.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/chemically induced , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorimetry , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanostructures/ultrastructure , Pandemics/prevention & control , Photoelectron Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load/drug effects , X-Ray Diffraction , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(8): 10844-10855, 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692677

ABSTRACT

The widespread and long-lasting effect of the COVID-19 pandemic has called attention to the significance of technological advances in the rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study reports the use of a highly stable buffer-based zinc oxide/reduced graphene oxide (bbZnO/rGO) nanocomposite coated on carbon screen-printed electrodes for electrochemical immuno-biosensing of SARS-CoV-2 nuelocapsid (N-) protein antigens in spiked and clinical samples. The incorporation of a salt-based (ionic) matrix for uniform dispersion of the nanomixture eliminates multistep nanomaterial synthesis on the surface of the electrode and enables a stable single-step sensor nanocoating. The immuno-biosensor provides a limit of detection of 21 fg/mL over a linear range of 1-10 000 pg/mL and exhibits a sensitivity of 32.07 ohms·mL/pg·mm2 for detection of N-protein in spiked samples. The N-protein biosensor is successful in discriminating positive and negative clinical samples within 15 min, demonstrating its proof of concept used as a COVID-19 rapid antigen test.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Graphite/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Antibodies, Immobilized/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Electrodes , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Immunoassay/methods , Limit of Detection , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Proof of Concept Study , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry
3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(11): e2103982, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680237

ABSTRACT

Currently, the incidence of acute liver injury (ALI) is increasing year by year, and infection with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can also induce ALI, but there are still no targeted therapeutic drugs. ZnO-NiO particles is mainly used to clean up reactive oxygen species (ROS) in industrial wastewater, and it is insoluble in water. Its excellent properties are discovered and improved by adding shuttle-based bonds to make it more water-soluble. ZnO-NiO@COOH particles are synthetically applied to treat ALI. The p-n junction in ZnO-NiO@COOH increases the surface area and active sites, thereby creating large numbers of oxygen vacancies, which can quickly adsorb ROS. The content in tissues and serum levels of L-glutathione (GSH) and the GSH/oxidized GSH ratio are measured to assess the capacity of ZnO-NiO@COOH particles to absorb ROS. The ZnO-NiO@COOH particles significantly reduce the expression levels of inflammatory factors (i.e., IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α), macrophage infiltration, and granulocyte activation. ZnO-NiO@COOH rapidly adsorb ROS in a short period of time to block the generation of inflammatory storms and gain time for the follow-up treatment of ALI, which has important clinical significance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zinc Oxide , Glutathione , Humans , Liver , Nickel/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Water , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24318, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585786

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique challenge to the healthcare community due to the high infectivity rate and need for effective personal protective equipment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have shown promising antimicrobial properties and are recognized as a safe additive in many food and cosmetic products. This work presents a novel nanocomposite synthesis approach, which allows zinc oxide nanoparticles to be grown within textile and face mask materials, including melt-blown polypropylene and nylon-cotton. The resulting nanocomposite achieves greater than 3 log10 reduction (≥ 99.9%) in coronavirus titer within a contact time of 10 min, by disintegrating the viral envelope. The new nanocomposite textile retains activity even after 100 laundry cycles and has been dermatologist tested as non-irritant and hypoallergenic. Various face mask designs were tested to improve filtration efficiency and breathability while offering antiviral protection, with Claros' design reporting higher filtration efficiency than surgical masks (> 50%) for particles ranged 200 nm to 5 µm in size.


Subject(s)
Masks/virology , Nanocomposites/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Filtration/methods , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nylons/chemistry , Polypropylenes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/analysis , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
5.
Microb Biotechnol ; 15(2): 548-560, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480082

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 virus has led to a rising interest in antimicrobial and antiviral coatings for frequently touched surfaces in public and healthcare settings. Such coatings may have the ability to kill a variety of microorganisms and bio-structures and reduce the risk of virus transmission. This paper proposes an extremely rapid method to introduce rare-earth doping nano-ZnO in polyamines for the preparation of the anti-microbial polyurea coatings. The nano-ZnO is prepared by wet chemical method, and the RE-doped nano-ZnO was obtained by mixing nano ZnO and RE-dopants with an appropriate amount of nitric acid. This rapidly fabricated polyurea coating can effectively reduce bacteria from enriching on the surface. Comparing with pure nano-ZnO group, all the polyurea coatings with four different rare-earth elements (La, Ce, Pr and Gd) doped nano-ZnO. The La-doped nano-ZnO formula group indicates the highest bactericidal rate over 85% to Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas). Followed by Ce/ZnO, the bactericidal rate may still remain as high as 83% at room temperature after 25-min UV-exposure. It is believed that the RE-doping process may greatly improve the photocatalytic response to UV light as well as environmental temperature due to its thermal catalytic enhancement. Through the surface characterizations and bioassays, the coatings have a durably high bactericidal rate even after repeated usage. As polyurea coating itself has high mechanical strength and adhesive force with most substrate materials without peel-off found, this rapid preparation method will also provide good prospects in practical applications.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Zinc Oxide , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Humans , Polymers , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
6.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403854

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the results of the first part of testing a novel electrospun fiber mat based on a unique macromolecule: polyisobutylene (PIB). A PIB-based compound containing zinc oxide (ZnO) was electrospun into self-supporting mats of 203.75 and 295.5 g/m2 that were investigated using a variety of techniques. The results show that the hydrophobic mats are not cytotoxic, resist fibroblast cell adhesion and biofilm formation and are comfortable and easy to breathe through for use as a mask. The mats show great promise for personal protective equipment and other applications.


Subject(s)
Polyenes/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Biofilms/drug effects , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Humans , Materials Testing/methods , Nanofibers/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
7.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(7): 5471-5484, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337090

ABSTRACT

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) warns the use of one-way valves or vents in face masks for potential threat of spreading COVID-19 through expelled respiratory droplets. Here, we have developed a nanoceutical cotton fabric duly sensitized with non-toxic zinc oxide nanomaterial for potential use as a membrane filter in the one-way valve for the ease of breathing without the threat of COVID-19 spreading. A detailed computational study revealed that zinc oxide nanoflowers (ZnO NFs) with almost two-dimensional petals trap SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, responsible to attach to ACE-2 receptors in human lung epithelial cells. The study also confirmed significant denaturation of the spike proteins on the ZnO surface, revealing removal of the virus upon efficient trapping. Following the computational study, we have synthesized ZnO NF on a cotton matrix using a hydrothermal-assisted strategy. Electron-microscopic, steady-state, and picosecond-resolved spectroscopic studies confirm attachment of ZnO NF to the cotton (i.e., cellulose) matrix at the atomic level to develop the nanoceutical fabric. A detailed antimicrobial assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (model SARS-CoV-2 mimic) reveals excellent antimicrobial efficiency of the developed nanoceutical fabric. To our understanding, the nanoceutical fabric used in the one-way valve of a face mask would be the choice to assure breathing comfort along with source control of COVID-19 infection. The developed nanosensitized cloth can also be used as an antibacterial/anti CoV-2 washable dress material in general.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanostructures/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cotton Fiber/analysis , Humans , Masks , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism , Recycling , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8692, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199310

ABSTRACT

A metal nanoparticle composite, namely TPNT1, which contains Au-NP (1 ppm), Ag-NP (5 ppm), ZnO-NP (60 ppm) and ClO2 (42.5 ppm) in aqueous solution was prepared and characterized by spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis and potentiometric titration. Based on the in vitro cell-based assay, TPNT1 inhibited six major clades of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with effective concentration within the range to be used as food additives. TPNT1 was shown to block viral entry by inhibiting the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and to interfere with the syncytium formation. In addition, TPNT1 also effectively reduced the cytopathic effects induced by human (H1N1) and avian (H5N1) influenza viruses, including the wild-type and oseltamivir-resistant virus isolates. Together with previously demonstrated efficacy as antimicrobials, TPNT1 can block viral entry and inhibit or prevent viral infection to provide prophylactic effects against both SARS-CoV-2 and opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
Gold/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Silver/pharmacology , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Food Additives/pharmacology , Gold/chemistry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Particle Size , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Silver/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082973

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to obtain an external coating based on nanoparticles of ZnO, carvacrol, and geraniol that could be active against viruses such as SARS-Co-V2. Additionally, the synergistic effect of the chosen substances in coatings was analyzed. The goal of the study was to measure the possible antibacterial activity of the coatings obtained. Testing antiviral activity with human pathogen viruses, such as SARS-Co-V2, requires immense safety measures. Bacteriophages such as phi 6 phage represent good surrogates for the study of airborne viruses. The results of the study indicated that the ZC1 and ZG1 coatings containing an increased amount of geraniol or carvacrol and a very small amount of nanoZnO were found to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is also important that a synergistic effect between these active substances was noted. This explains why polyethylene (PE) films covered with the ZC1 or ZG1 coatings (as internal coatings) were found to be the best packaging materials to extend the quality and freshness of food products. The same coatings may be used as the external coatings with antiviral properties. The ZC1 and ZG1 coatings showed moderate activity against the phi 6 phage that has been selected as a surrogate for viruses such as coronaviruses. It can be assumed that coatings ZG1 and ZC1 will also be active against SARS-CoV-2 that is transmitted via respiratory droplets.


Subject(s)
Acyclic Monoterpenes/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cymenes/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacteriophages/drug effects , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(4): 5678-5690, 2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065790

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has clearly shown the importance of developments in fabrication of advanced protective equipment. This study investigates the potential of using multifunctional electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers decorated with ZnO nanorods and Ag nanoparticles (PMMA/ZnO-Ag NFs) in protective mats. Herein, the PMMA/ZnO-Ag NFs with an average diameter of 450 nm were simply prepared on a nonwoven fabric by directly electrospinning from solutions containing PMMA, ZnO nanorods, and Ag nanoparticles. The novel material showed high performance with four functionalities (i) antibacterial agent for killing of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, (ii) antiviral agent for inhibition of corona and influenza viruses, (iii) photocatalyst for degradation of organic pollutants, enabling a self-cleaning protective mat, and (iv) reusable surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate for quantitative analysis of trace pollutants on the nanofiber. This multi-functional material has high potential for use in protective clothing applications by providing passive and active protection pathways together with sensing capabilities.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Silver/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nanofibers/chemistry , Nanotubes/chemistry , Polymethyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis, Raman
11.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 177: 112672, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844839

ABSTRACT

Accurate, rapid, and low-cost molecular diagnostics is essential in managing outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Accordingly, microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) have emerged as promising diagnostic tools. Among the extensive efforts to improve the performance and usability of diagnostic tools, biosensing mechanisms based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) have shown great promise because of their label-free operation and high sensitivity. However, the method to improve EIS biosensing on µPADs is less explored. Here, we present an experimental approach to enhancing the performance of paper-based EIS biosensors featuring zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) directly grown on working electrodes (WEs). Through a comparison of different EIS settings and an examination of ZnO-NW effects on EIS measurements, we show that ZnO-NW-enhanced WEs function reliably with Faradaic processes utilizing iron-based electron mediators. We calibrate paper-based EIS biosensors with different morphologies of ZnO NWs and achieve a low limit of detection (0.4 pg ml-1) in detecting p24 antigen as a marker for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Through microscopic imaging and electrochemical characterization, we reveal that the morphological and the electrochemical surface areas of ZnO-NW-enhanced WEs indicate the sensitivities and sensing ranges of the EIS nanobiosensors. Finally, we report that the EIS nanobiosensors are capable of differentiating the concentrations (blank, 10 ng ml-1, 100 ng ml-1, and 1 µg ml-1) of IgG antibody (CR3022) to SARS-CoV-2 in human serum samples, demonstrating the efficacy of these devices for COVID-19 diagnosis. This work provides a methodology for the rational design of high-performance EIS µPADs and has the potential to facilitate diagnosis in pandemics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dielectric Spectroscopy/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Dielectric Spectroscopy/methods , Equipment Design , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Limit of Detection , Nanowires/chemistry , Paper , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
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