Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 43
Filter
1.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742569

ABSTRACT

Zinc is an essential nutrient for human health; it is involved in the catalytic, structural, and regulatory functions of the human cellular system. Different compositions of zinc, as well as its pharmaceutically acceptable salts, are available on the market. Recent studies have demonstrated the role of zinc in combating COVID-19. It has been determined that zinc prevents the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells by lowering the expression of ACE-2 receptors and inhibiting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2. Zinc also prevents the cytokine storm that takes place after the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the cell, via its anti-inflammatory activity. The authors believe that no study has yet been published that has reviewed the trends, inventions, and patent literature of zinc compositions to treat/prevent COVID-19. Accordingly, this review has been written in order to fill this gap in the literature. The information about the clinical studies and the published patents/patent applications was retrieved from different databases. This review covers patent literature on zinc compositions up to 31 January 2022. Many important patents/patent applications for zinc-based compositions filed by innovative universities and industries were identified. The patent literature revealed zinc compositions in combination with zinc ionophores, antioxidants, antivirals, antibiotics, hydroxychloroquine, heparin, ivermectin, and copper. Most of these studies were supported by clinical trials. The patent literature supports the potential of zinc and its pharmaceutical compositions as possible treatments for COVID-19. The authors believe that countless zinc-based compositions are still unexplored, and there is an immense opportunity to evaluate a considerable number of the zinc-based compositions for use against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inventions , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc/therapeutic use
2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 59-73, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719339

ABSTRACT

As of April 15, 2020, the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic has swept through 213 countries and infected more than 1,870,000 individuals, posing an unprecedented threat to international health and the economy. There is currently no specific treatment available for patients with COVID-19 infection. The lessons learned from past management of respiratory viral infections have provided insights into treating COVID-19. Numerous potential therapies, including supportive intervention, immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapy, and convalescent plasma transfusion, have been tentatively applied in clinical settings. A number of these therapies have provided substantially curative benefits in treating patients with COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, intensive research and clinical trials are underway to assess the efficacy of existing drugs and identify potential therapeutic targets to develop new drugs for treating COVID-19. Herein, we summarize the current potential therapeutic approaches for diseases related to COVID-19 infection and introduce their mechanisms of action, safety, and effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Killer Cells, Natural , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use
3.
Biofactors ; 48(2): 294-306, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712029

ABSTRACT

Microelements represent an emerging resource for medicine and its preventive branch. Zinc is the second most abundant element in our organism with peculiar physiologic functions and pathophysiologic implications in systemic and gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. It interacts very often with gut microbiota (GM) and can affect natural course of GI diseases through a bidirectional relationship with intestinal bugs. We aimed to review literature data regarding zinc chemistry, role in health, and GI diseases in man with a special focus on its interaction with GM. We conducted a search on the main medical databases for original articles, reviews, meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and case series using the following keywords and acronyms and their associations: zinc, microelements, gut microbiota, gut health, and COVID-19. Zinc has a rapid and simple metabolism and limited storage within our body. Its efficacy on immune system modulation reflects on improved response to pathogens, reduced inflammatory response, and improved atopic/allergic reactions. Zinc is also involved in cell cycle regulation (namely, apoptosis) with potential anti-cancerogenic effects. All these effects are in a "symbiotic" relationship with GM. Finally, zinc shows preliminary viral antireplicative effects. Zinc seems to gain more and more evidences on its efficacy in allergic, atopic and infectious diseases treatment, and prevention. COVID-19 can be the booster for research on future applications of zinc as perfect "postbiotic" in medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Humans , Immunity , Zinc/therapeutic use
4.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708909

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an epidemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). Populations at risk as well as those who can develop serious complications are people with chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and the elderly. Severe symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection are associated with immune failure and dysfunction. The approach of strengthening immunity may be the right choice in order to save lives. This review aimed to provide an overview of current information revealing the importance of bee products in strengthening the immune system against COVID-19. We highlighted the immunomodulatory and the antiviral effects of zinc and polyphenols, which may actively contribute to improving symptoms and preventing complications caused by COVID-19 and can counteract viral infections. Thus, this review will pave the way for conducting advanced experimental research to evaluate zinc and polyphenols-rich bee products to prevent and reduce the severity of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Animals , Bees , Humans , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc/therapeutic use
5.
Br J Nutr ; 127(8): 1172-1179, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665637

ABSTRACT

Zn deficiency compromises its biological functions, its effect on the immune system and its antiviral activity, increasing vulnerability to infectious diseases. This narrative review aims at presenting and discussing functional aspects and possible mechanisms involved in the potential role of Zn in the immune response and antiviral activity for coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) prevention and control. The searches were conducted in PubMed and Science Direct databases, using clinical trials, experimental studies in animals and humans, case-control studies, case series, letters to the editor, and review articles published in English, without restrictions on year of publication. Search approach was based on using the terms: 'zinc', 'COVID-19', 'antiviral agents', 'immunologic factors' and 'respiratory tract infections'. Literature shows the importance of Zn as an essential mineral immunomodulator with relevant antiviral activity in the body. Thus, although there is still a scarcity of studies evaluating Zn supplementation in patients with COVID-19, the results on the topic show the necessity of controlling Zn mineral deficiency, as well as maintaining its homoeostasis in the body in order to strengthen the immune system and improve the prevention of highly complex viral infections, such as that of the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Virus Diseases , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Zinc/therapeutic use
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e047474, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501711

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefits and risks of zinc formulations compared with controls for prevention or treatment of acute viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in adults. METHOD: Seventeen English and Chinese databases were searched in April/May 2020 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and from April/May 2020 to August 2020 for SARS-CoV-2 RCTs. Cochrane rapid review methods were applied. Quality appraisals used the Risk of Bias 2.0 and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: Twenty-eight RCTs with 5446 participants were identified. None were specific to SARS-CoV-2. Compared with placebo, oral or intranasal zinc prevented 5 RTIs per 100 person-months (95% CI 1 to 8, numbers needed to treat (NNT)=20, moderate-certainty/quality). Sublingual zinc did not prevent clinical colds following human rhinovirus inoculations (relative risk, RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.21, moderate-certainty/quality). On average, symptoms resolved 2 days earlier with sublingual or intranasal zinc compared with placebo (95% CI 0.61 to 3.50, very low-certainty/quality) and 19 more adults per 100 were likely to remain symptomatic on day 7 without zinc (95% CI 2 to 38, NNT=5, low-certainty/quality). There were clinically significant reductions in day 3 symptom severity scores (mean difference, MD -1.20 points, 95% CI -0.66 to -1.74, low-certainty/quality), but not average daily symptom severity scores (standardised MD -0.15, 95% CI -0.43 to 0.13, low-certainty/quality). Non-serious adverse events (AEs) (eg, nausea, mouth/nasal irritation) were higher (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.69, NNHarm=7, moderate-certainty/quality). Compared with active controls, there were no differences in illness duration or AEs (low-certainty/quality). No serious AEs were reported in the 25 RCTs that monitored them (low-certainty/quality). CONCLUSIONS: In adult populations unlikely to be zinc deficient, there was some evidence suggesting zinc might prevent RTIs symptoms and shorten duration. Non-serious AEs may limit tolerability for some. The comparative efficacy/effectiveness of different zinc formulations and doses were unclear. The GRADE-certainty/quality of the evidence was limited by a high risk of bias, small sample sizes and/or heterogeneity. Further research, including SARS-CoV-2 clinical trials is warranted. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020182044.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc/therapeutic use
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 699389, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450805

ABSTRACT

The impact of zinc (Zn) sufficiency/supplementation on COVID-19-associated mortality and incidence (SARS-CoV-2 infections) remains unknown. During an infection, the levels of free Zn are reduced as part of "nutritional immunity" to limit the growth and replication of pathogen and the ensuing inflammatory damage. Considering its key role in immune competency and frequently recorded deficiency in large sections of different populations, Zn has been prescribed for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes in COVID-19 without any corroborating evidence for its protective role. Multiple trials are underway evaluating the effect of Zn supplementation on COVID-19 outcome in patients getting standard of care treatment. However, the trial designs presumably lack the power to identify negative effects of Zn supplementation, especially in the vulnerable groups of elderly and patients with comorbidities (contributing 9 out of 10 deaths; up to >8,000-fold higher mortality). In this study, we have analyzed COVID-19 mortality and incidence (case) data from 23 socially similar European populations with comparable confounders (population: 522.47 million; experiencing up to >150-fold difference in death rates) and at the matching stage of the pandemic (March 12 to June 26, 2020; first wave of COVID-19 incidence and mortality). Our results suggest a positive correlation between populations' Zn-sufficiency status and COVID-19 mortality [r (23): 0.7893-0.6849, p-value < 0.0003] as well as incidence [r (23):0.8084-0.5658; p-value < 0.005]. The observed association is contrary to what would be expected if Zn sufficiency was protective in COVID-19. Thus, controlled trials or retrospective analyses of the adverse event patients' data should be undertaken to correctly guide the practice of Zn supplementation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Zinc/blood , Zinc/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Dietary Supplements , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Nutr Rev ; 80(5): 1086-1093, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337279

ABSTRACT

Zinc supplementation is indicated for diarrhea and taste disorders, which are both features of COVID-19 . Nevertheless, this strategy has not been tested for the treatment of these secondary complications in the current pandemic. Through an updated review, a practical appraisal was considered as a means of providing a medical nexus of therapeutic zinc regimens as an adjunct in the management of COVID-19-related diarrhea and ageusia/dysgeusia. While diarrhea and taste disorders are consequences of COVID-19, zinc supplementation is useful for non-COVID-19 patients with these clinical problems. The overwhelming evidence for supplementing with zinc in diarrhea and pneumonia is associated with the treatment of children, while for taste disorders the use of supplementing with zinc is more examined in adults. Whereas COVID-19 is more prevalent in adults, precautions should be exercised not to translate the zinc dosage used for children with diarrhea and taste disorders into the current pandemic. Therapeutic doses of zinc used for adults (∼50-150 mg/day of elemental zinc) could be included in the treatment strategies for COVID-19, but this proposal should be examined through randomized studies.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Adult , Ageusia/complications , Ageusia/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Dysgeusia/drug therapy , Dysgeusia/etiology , Humans , Taste Disorders/complications , Taste Disorders/drug therapy , Zinc/therapeutic use
9.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 107-117, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300698

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has had a profound effect on our lives and careers; this presentation explores some of the lessons we have learned from it and others that it may yet teach us. Socioeconomic effects have been profound, not all of them favorable. Travel and meeting activities, as well as many other activities, have been severely restricted. Social unrest has become intense, and it may have questionable political consequences, as the United States is undergoing a contested election result.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Statistics as Topic , Zinc/therapeutic use
10.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211026193, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES AND SETTING.: As the lethal COVID-19 pandemic enters its second year, the need for effective modalities of alleviation remains urgent. This includes modalities that can readily be used by the public to reduce disease spread and severity. Such preventive measures and early-stage treatments may temper the immediacy of demand for advanced anti-COVID measures (drugs, antibodies, vaccines) and help relieve strain also on other health system resources. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS.: We present results of a clinical study with a multi-component OTC "core formulation" regimen used in a multiply exposed adult population. Analysis of clinical outcome data from our sample of over 100 subjects - comprised of roughly equal sized regimen-compliant (test) and non-compliant (control) groups meeting equivalent inclusion criteria - demonstrates a strong statistical significance in favor of use of the core formulations. RESULTS.: While both groups were moderate in size, the difference between them in outcomes over the 20-week study period was large and stark: Just under 4% of the compliant test group presented flu-like symptoms, but none of the test group was COVID-positive; whereas 20% of the non-compliant control group presented flu-like symptoms, three-quarters of whom (15% overall of the control group) were COVID-positive. CONCLUSIONS.: Offering a low cost, readily implemented anti-viral approach, the study regimen may serve, at the least, as a stopgap modality and, perhaps, as a useful tool in combatting the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Dietary Supplements , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Cinchona , Female , Humans , Ionophores/therapeutic use , Lysine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Nonprescription Drugs , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use
11.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273493

ABSTRACT

The interplay between inflammation and oxidative stress is a vicious circle, potentially resulting in organ damage. Essential micronutrients such as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) support anti-oxidative defense systems and are commonly depleted in severe disease. This single-center retrospective study investigated micronutrient levels under Se and Zn supplementation in critically ill patients with COVID-19 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and explored potential relationships with immunological and clinical parameters. According to intensive care unit (ICU) standard operating procedures, patients received 1.0 mg of intravenous Se daily on top of artificial nutrition, which contained various amounts of Se and Zn. Micronutrients, inflammatory cytokines, lymphocyte subsets and clinical data were extracted from the patient data management system on admission and after 10 to 14 days of treatment. Forty-six patients were screened for eligibility and 22 patients were included in the study. Twenty-one patients (95%) suffered from severe ARDS and 14 patients (64%) survived to ICU discharge. On admission, the majority of patients had low Se status biomarkers and Zn levels, along with elevated inflammatory parameters. Se supplementation significantly elevated Se (p = 0.027) and selenoprotein P levels (SELENOP; p = 0.016) to normal range. Accordingly, glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) activity increased over time (p = 0.021). Se biomarkers, most notably SELENOP, were inversely correlated with CRP (rs = -0.495), PCT (rs = -0.413), IL-6 (rs = -0.429), IL-1ß (rs = -0.440) and IL-10 (rs = -0.461). Positive associations were found for CD8+ T cells (rs = 0.636), NK cells (rs = 0.772), total IgG (rs = 0.493) and PaO2/FiO2 ratios (rs = 0.504). In addition, survivors tended to have higher Se levels after 10 to 14 days compared to non-survivors (p = 0.075). Sufficient Se and Zn levels may potentially be of clinical significance for an adequate immune response in critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Deficiency Diseases/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Selenium/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Deficiency Diseases/complications , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Interleukins/blood , Male , Micronutrients/blood , Micronutrients/deficiency , Middle Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Selenium/blood , Selenium/deficiency , Selenoprotein P/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Zinc/blood , Zinc/deficiency
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4326-4333, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263096

ABSTRACT

Several studies have demonstrated an association between individual zinc status and viral respiratory infections; however, evidence regarding COVID-19 is still missing or insufficient. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the prevalence of zinc deficiency and COVID-19 cases and deaths per million population in the Asian and European countries. The COVID-19 data from two different time points, that is, May 30 and June 30, 2020 for the Asian population and May 15 and June 15, 2020 for the European population, were analyzed to determine the correlation with the estimated zinc deficiency for these two continents. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was about two times higher in the Asian population (mean 17.5%) than in the European population (mean 8.9%). A significant positive correlation (p < .05) was observed between the prevalence of zinc deficiency and COVID-19 cases at both time periods for the Asian population. However, the correlation between zinc deficiency prevalence and COVID-19 deaths was not significant in the Asian population. In contrast, a significant but negative correlation (p < .05 for all cases) was observed for zinc deficiency with both COVID-19 cases and deaths per million population at both time periods in the European countries. Considering the direct antiviral properties of zinc, it can be suggested that zinc supplementation may be beneficial for most of the population, especially older people and those who are at risk of COVID-19 infections. In conclusion, there is not enough evidence on the association between individual zinc status and COVID-19 infections and mortality. Therefore, cohort studies and randomized controlled trials are required to test this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Zinc/deficiency , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Dietary Supplements , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Zinc/blood , Zinc/therapeutic use
13.
Biochimie ; 187: 94-109, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252495

ABSTRACT

Despite the development of a number of vaccines for COVID-19, there remains a need for prevention and treatment of the virus SARS-CoV-2 and the ensuing disease COVID-19. This report discusses the key elements of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 that can be readily treated: viral entry, the immune system and inflammation, and the cytokine storm. It is shown that the essential nutrients zinc, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D and magnesium provide the ideal combination for prevention and treatment of COVID-19: prevention of SARS-CoV-2 entry to host cells, prevention of proliferation of SARS-CoV-2, inhibition of excessive inflammation, improved control of the regulation of the immune system, inhibition of the cytokine storm, and reduction in the effects of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and associated non-communicable diseases. It is emphasized that the non-communicable diseases associated with COVID-19 are inherently more prevalent in the elderly than the young, and that the maintenance of sufficiency of zinc, ω-3 PUFAs, vitamin D and magnesium is essential for the elderly to prevent the occurrence of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases and cancer. Annual checking of levels of these essential nutrients is recommended for those over 65 years of age, together with appropriate adjustments in their intake, with these services and supplies being at government cost. The cost:benefit ratio would be huge as the cost of the nutrients and the testing of their levels would be very small compared with the cost savings of specialists and hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Magnesium/therapeutic use , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , Lung Diseases/prevention & control , Lung Diseases/therapy , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Neoplasms/therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use
15.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 96: 251-310, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240122

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery of manifest Zn deficiency in 1961, the increasing number of studies demonstrated the association between altered Zn status and multiple diseases. In this chapter, we provide a review of the most recent advances on the role of Zn in health and disease (2010-20), with a special focus on the role of Zn in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, diabetes and obesity, male and female reproduction, as well as COVID-19. In parallel with the revealed tight association between ASD risk and severity and Zn status, the particular mechanisms linking Zn2+ and ASD pathogenesis like modulation of synaptic plasticity through ProSAP/Shank scaffold, neurotransmitter metabolism, and gut microbiota, have been elucidated. The increasing body of data indicate the potential involvement of Zn2+ metabolism in neurodegeneration. Systemic Zn levels in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease were found to be reduced, whereas its sequestration in brain may result in modulation of amyloid ß and α-synuclein processing with subsequent toxic effects. Zn2+ was shown to possess adipotropic effects through the role of zinc transporters, zinc finger proteins, and Zn-α2-glycoprotein in adipose tissue physiology, underlying its particular role in pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. Recent findings also contribute to further understanding of the role of Zn2+ in spermatogenesis and sperm functioning, as well as oocyte development and fertilization. Finally, Zn2+ was shown to be the potential adjuvant therapy in management of novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19), underlining the perspectives of zinc in management of old and new threats.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Reproduction , Zinc/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/metabolism , Nutritional Status , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Zinc/deficiency , Zinc/therapeutic use
16.
Vopr Pitan ; 90(2): 26-39, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239345

ABSTRACT

The problem of increasing immunity has become especially relevant in the conditions of the rapid spread of the new coronavirus infection SARS-CoV-2. Nowadays it has been proven that a deficiency of certain micronutrients in the diet can disrupt chemical, structural and regulatory processes in the organism, which negatively affects, first of all, the state of immune system. Zinc is one of the most significant essential trace elements affecting immunological resistance. The aim of the study was to substantiate the need of including zinc-containing products and diet supplements in the diet of the population during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the basis of the study of pathogenetic mechanisms of various disorders of the immunological status under zinc deficit. Material and methods. This review analyzes the data from scientific electronic libraries CyberLeninka, eLIBRARY.RU, the Google Scholar databases and bibliographic medical databases MEDLINE and PubMed-NCBI. Results and discussion. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, adequate zinc supply is especially important, due to its antiviral, immunomodulatory and antiapoptotic effects. This element also regulates the severity of the cytokine response, exhibits antibacterial properties and helps to compensate for chronic comorbid diseases, which plays a particularly significant role in preventing severe SARS-CoV-2 and recurrent respiratory diseases. Prevention and correction of zinc deficiency is considered as one of the important measures during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, aimed at increasing antiviral and general immunity, reducing the systemic inflammatory response and correcting hormonal and metabolic status. Conclusion. The pathogenetically substantiated inclusion of zinc-containing foods and supplements in the diet will enhance the immunity of the population during the SARSCoV- 2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Zinc/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3261-3267, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206829

ABSTRACT

Zinc inhibits replication of the SARS-CoV virus. We aimed to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and biological effect of administering high-dose intravenous zinc (HDIVZn) to patients with COVID-19. We performed a Phase IIa double-blind, randomized controlled trial to compare HDIVZn to placebo in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We administered trial treatment per day for a maximum of 7 days until either death or hospital discharge. We measured zinc concentration at baseline and during treatment and observed patients for any significant side effects. For eligible patients, we randomized and administered treatment to 33 adult participants to either HDIVZn (n = 15) or placebo (n = 18). We observed no serious adverse events throughout the study for a total of 94 HDIVZn administrations. However, three participants in the HDIVZn group reported infusion site irritation. Mean serum zinc on Day 1 in the placebo, and the HDIVZn group was 6.9 ± 1.1 and 7.7 ± 1.6 µmol/l, respectively, consistent with zinc deficiency. HDIVZn, but not placebo, increased serum zinc levels above the deficiency cutoff of 10.7 µmol/l (p < .001) on Day 6. Our study did not reach its target enrollment because stringent public health measures markedly reduced patient hospitalizations. Hospitalized COVID-19 patients demonstrated zinc deficiency. This can be corrected with HDIVZn. Such treatment appears safe, feasible, and only associated with minimal peripheral infusion site irritation. This pilot study justifies further investigation of this treatment in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Pilot Projects , Respiration, Artificial , Zinc/administration & dosage
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111626, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198633

ABSTRACT

In this manuscript we provide the scientific basis to adopt a novel combination of two widely available nutraceuticals; resveratrol and zinc in management of COVID-19 recommending their administration using a nano-carrier based drug-delivery system. Resveratrol, a well-known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory triphenolic stilbene, is abundant in red grapes, red wine, dark chocolate, and peanut butter. Alternatively, pterostilbene-zinc combination might be also considered without using a nano-carrier. We recommend conducting prompt clinical trials to assess the potential of the suggested combinations as a monotherapy for mild COVID-19 with a potential to prevent its progression to moderate-severe disease for which we recommend their trial as an adjuvant therapy. Furthermore, the suggested combinations might also possess a pharmacotherapeutic potential that exceeds COVID-19 to various inflammatory, immunologic, and oncologic diseases.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems , Nanoparticles , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , Stilbenes/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Humans
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3176-3183, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196542

ABSTRACT

This trial compared the rate and time of viral clearance in subjects receiving a combination of nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and ivermectin plus Zinc versus those receiving supportive treatment. This non-randomized controlled trial included 62 patients on the triple combination treatment versus 51 age- and sex-matched patients on routine supportive treatment. all of them confirmed cases by positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of a nasopharyngeal swab. Trial results showed that the clearance rates were 0% and 58.1% on the 7th day and 13.7% and 73.1% on the 15th day in the supportive treatment and combined antiviral groups, respectively. The cumulative clearance rates on the 15th day are 13.7% and 88.7% in the supportive treatment and combined antiviral groups, respectively. This trial concluded by stating that the combined use of nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and ivermectin plus zinc supplement effectively cleared the SARS-COV2 from the nasopharynx in a shorter time than symptomatic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Nitro Compounds/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Adult , Antimetabolites/administration & dosage , Antimetabolites/therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/administration & dosage , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Male , Nitro Compounds/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Zinc/administration & dosage
20.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 39-48, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The enormous health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has refocused attention on measures to optimize immune function and vaccine response. Dietary deficiencies of micronutrients can weaken adaptive immunity. The aim of this review was to examine links between micronutrients, immune function and COVID-19 infection, with a focus on nutritional risks in subgroups of the Swiss population. METHODS: Scoping review on the associations between selected micronutrients (vitamins D and C, iron, selenium, zinc, and n-3 PUFAs) and immunity, with particular reference to the Swiss population. These nutrients were chosen because previous EFSA reviews have concluded they play a key role in immunity. RESULTS: The review discusses the available knowledge on links between sufficient nutrient status, optimal immune function, and prevention of respiratory tract infections. Because of the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, controlled intervention studies of micronutrients in the context of COVID-19 infection are now underway, but evidence is not yet available to draw conclusions. The anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 PUFAs are well established. In Switzerland, several subgroups of the population are at clear risk of nutrient deficiencies; e.g., older adults, multiple comorbidities, obesity, pregnancy, and institutionalized. Low intakes of n-3 PUFA are present in a large proportion of the population. CONCLUSION: There are clear and strong relationships between micronutrient and n-3 PUFA status and immune function, and subgroups of the Swiss population are at risk for deficient intakes. Therefore, during the COVID-19 pandemic, as a complement to a healthy and balanced diet, it may be prudent to consider supplementation with a combination of moderate doses of Vitamins C and D, as well as of Se, Zn and n-3 PUFA, in risk groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Male , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Selenium/pharmacology , Selenium/therapeutic use , Switzerland , Trace Elements/pharmacology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/pharmacology , Zinc/pharmacology , Zinc/therapeutic use
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL